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The Future of School Librarianship Review of Research

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Title: The Future of School Librarianship Review of Research


1
The Future of School Librarianship Review of
Research Implications for Practice
2
Outline
  • Recently Released Studies
  • Revitalizing High School Libraries (NY Life,
    1/06)
  • Student Learning Through WI SLMCs (1/06)
  • Education Reform in MN (SLMR, 3/06)
  • School Libraries Student Achievement in ON
    (4/06)
  • Flexible Scheduling (SLMR, 4/06)
  • Studies under Review
  • Problem with 65 Solution (instructional
    classification)
  • Is the Sky Falling? (job market)
  • Studies in Progress
  • IN How Principals Teachers Benefit
  • CO (3rd) How School Librarians Teach CT Skills
  • Post Script

3
Revitalizing High School Libraries
  • NY Life Foundations Adolescents Read!, issue 2,
    In Their Own Words, 1/06
  • 2003-05 pilot project to update/refurbish 4 HS
    libraries in Minneapolis, San Francisco, Tampa
  • Late 2005 survey of 600 students
  • Results
  • Read more for fun
  • Read more on own time
  • Conduct deeper inquiry into subject areas
  • Improve reading language skills

4
In Their Own Words
  • Read more for fun My LMC rocks new laptop
    computers, interesting books its now
    possible to relax and learn simultaneously.
  • Read more on own time If you come to the library
    for an assignment, you are bound to check out a
    book to read on your own.
  • Conduct deeper inquiry into subject areas I can
    learn what teachers didnt mention during
    classes Just being in there makes you want to
    study more ...
  • Improve reading language skills I went through
    3 books averaging about 700 pages each. Since
    then, I have learned to use and master several
    words that were not in my regular vocabulary.

5
Student Learning Through Wisconsin School Library
Media Centers
  • January 2006 report for WI Dept of Public
    Instruction by Ester G. Smith, author of TX study
  • 1,043 LM programs
  • Percent of variation in test scores explained
  • Elementary 3.4 reading, 3.2 language arts
  • Middle 9.2 reading, 7.9 language arts
  • High 7.9 reading, 19.0 language arts
  • Notably, at high school level, library variables
    outperformed socio-economic variables

6
Student Learning Through Wisconsin School Library
Media Centers
  • Library variables
  • All grade levels staffing (LMS total), hours
    before/after school, volumes subscriptions,
    computers in labs, expenditures
  • Elementary meetings w/ principal, teachers,
    other librarians
  • Middle High collaborative planning/teaching,
    instructing/assisting students
  • High library visits, e-subscriptions
  • Control variables
  • Teachers degrees, experience
  • Student enrollment, race/ethnicity, English
    proficiency
  • Socio-economic status

7
Student Learning Through Wisconsin School Library
Media Centers
Library helpfulness at Teachers Students
Getting info 1.99 (1-2) 2.61 (2)
Using info 2.23 (4) 2.63 (3)
General school work 2.44 (5) 2.81 (5)
Using computers 1.99 (1-2) 2.41 (1)
Reading 2.13 (3) 2.84 (6)
Learning independently 2.78 (7) 2.99 (7)
Academic Achievement 2.64 (6) 2.76 (4)
1 very helpful, 2 helpful, 3 a little help, 4 not at all helpful, 5 does not apply 1 very helpful, 2 helpful, 3 a little help, 4 not at all helpful, 5 does not apply 1 very helpful, 2 helpful, 3 a little help, 4 not at all helpful, 5 does not apply
8
Education Reform in MN Profile of Learning
Instructional Role of SLMS
  • Marie E. Kelsey, College of St Scholastica,
    Duluth
  • 1998-2003 Profile of Education reform movement
    generated greater use of HS LMCs greater
    instructional role for LMS
  • Major Findings
  • Inquiry, research motivate teachers to send,
    accompany students to LMC
  • LMS spent more time on collaboration
    instruction
  • Instruction, its development top list of tasks by
    time spent

9
School Libraries Student Achievement in Ontario
  • 1/06 report from Queens U Faculty of Education
    on 2004-05 study involving 800 public elementary
    schools with 50k students
  • Major Findings
  • Grade 3 6 students in schools w/ trained
    library staff more likely to report enjoy reading
  • Schools with trained library staff more likely to
    have higher of grade 6 students meet reading
    standards
  • Schools w/out trained library staff tend to have
    lower scores on grade 3 6 reading tests
  • More than 5 of score variation associated
    w/presence of trained library staff

10
Flexible Scheduling Implementing an Innovation
  • Joy McGregor, Charles Sturt U, Australia
  • Interviews of principals, teachers, and
    librarians at 6 U.S. schools that had adopted
    flexible scheduling
  • Diffusion of change issues relative advantage,
    compatibility, complexity, trialability,
    observability

11
Flexible Scheduling Implementing an Innovation
  • Perceived benefits
  • Principal voices Children know LMC is
    working environment throughout the day, not
    just a place to check out books.
  • Teacher voices I said, Go on! and they did.
    Librarian said, They were so excited! Don't
    think I could have capitalized on their
    excitement if said, hold onto that idea a few
    days, and we'll talk about it.
  • Librarian voices Facilitates planning
    sessions, integrated units and research projects,
    spontaneous info searching, increased reading,
    and small group individual activity.
    Principal support critical.

12
Flexible Scheduling Implementing an Innovation
  • Suggestions to Implement Flex Scheduling
  • Start with someone willing to try an
    experiment. Don't try the whole school.
  • Tell yourselfand not just for flexible
    scheduling you can't please all the people all
    of the time.
  • Go slowly to make sure the principal fully
    understands concept Everybody has to be
    cajoled into buying into it and having
    ownership of it.
  • Go and watch it somewhere
  • If you're convinced about it, it's going to come
    out in everything you do. If you are
    confident, then it's alright.

13
The Problem with the 65 Solution
  • First Class Education movement
  • Reliance on NCES financial definitions
  • Ambivalence about including librarians in
    instruction
  • NCES Financial Survey
  • Instruction v. Support-- Instructional Support
  • Student Body ActivitiesClass of, chess
    clubs, proms
  • NCES Schools and Staffing Surveys
  • Defines librarians as teachers
  • Requires state certification as librarian
  • No Child Left Behind Act
  • Instructional staff includes librarians

14
The Problem with the 65 Solution
Expenditures per Student Expenditures per Student
Test Score Library Instructional
NAEP Reading, 4th Grade .373 .375
NAEP Reading, 8th Grade .446 .356
SAT (high school) .332 -.446
Significant at .01 level, at .05 level Significant at .01 level, at .05 level Significant at .01 level, at .05 level
15
The Problem with the 65 Solution
Library Expenditures per Student Library Expenditures per Student Library Expenditures per Student Instructional Expenditures per Student Instructional Expenditures per Student Instructional Expenditures per Student
5-State Avg Proficient 5-State Avg Proficient Lowest-Highest 5-State Avg Proficient 5-State Avg Proficient Lowest-Highest
Score Lowest Highest Diff Lowest Highest Diff
NAEP 4th 25 34 36 29 37 28
NAEP 8th 23 35 52 28 35 25
SAT 1069 1130 6 1131 1023 -10
of students proficient above actual scores, calculated as follows 34 / 25 1.36, or a 36 increase of students proficient above actual scores, calculated as follows 34 / 25 1.36, or a 36 increase of students proficient above actual scores, calculated as follows 34 / 25 1.36, or a 36 increase of students proficient above actual scores, calculated as follows 34 / 25 1.36, or a 36 increase of students proficient above actual scores, calculated as follows 34 / 25 1.36, or a 36 increase of students proficient above actual scores, calculated as follows 34 / 25 1.36, or a 36 increase of students proficient above actual scores, calculated as follows 34 / 25 1.36, or a 36 increase
16
Is the Sky Falling?
School Librarians School Librarians School Librarians Public Elementary/Secondary Enrollment Public Elementary/Secondary Enrollment Public Elementary/Secondary Enrollment
Year N (FTE) Change Change N (Millions) Change Change
2000 53,661 47.0
2002 54,349 688 1.3 47.6 7.6 1.3
2004 54,351 2 0.0 48.3 0.7 1.5
17
Is the Sky Falling?
Increases Increases Decreases Decreases
Interval N of States N of Librarians in FTEs N of States N of Librarians in FTEs Net Change
2000-01 31 873 17 -253 620
2001-02 27 537 21 -469 68
2002-03 26 686 23 -828 -142
2003-04 20 1,034 30 -890 144
18
Is the Sky Falling?
  • States w/ Consistent Annual Decreases
  • 2000-04 (4 states) IA (120), MN (102), SD (29),
    ID (24)
  • 2002-04 (11 states) CA (178), OR (121), WI
    (136), AR (78), IN (61), KS (52), OK (47), UT
    (32), NE (8), CO (7), WV (7)
  • States w/Consistent Annual Increases
  • 2000-04 (7 states) NY (227), GA (135), AL (94),
    NC (89), TN (83), CT (60), DE (10)
  • 2002-04 (5 states) IL (266), NM (15), SC (12),
    NH (10), ME (10)

19
How Principals Teachers Benefit from School
Librarians (IN Study)
  • Spring 2006 mini-survey of school libraries
  • Report due in Fall 06, sneak peak next
  • Fall 2006 surveys of principals, teachers, and
    librarians
  • Assessing principals teachers knowledge
    about, support of, perceived benefits from
    library programs
  • Also, consensus between the 3 educator types
  • Expect results to lead to professional
    development for principals teachers as well as
    librarians

20
How Principals Teachers Benefit from School
Librarians (IN Study)
Preliminary Results for IN Elementary Schools Preliminary Results for IN Elementary Schools Preliminary Results for IN Elementary Schools Preliminary Results for IN Elementary Schools Preliminary Results for IN Elementary Schools
Library Avg 3rd Graders Scoring Proficient Avg 3rd Graders Scoring Proficient Percent
variable Median Median lt Median Difference
LMS hrs 29 68.98 63.23 9.1
Staff hrs 49 68.51 63.54 7.8
Volumes 12k 68.39 63.94 7.0
Visits/wk 620 69.32 63.12 9.8
Spending 5k 69.36 62.85 10.4
Bivariate correlations of staffing, collection,
and spending measures with 3rd grade scores not
only persist, but are strengthened by controlling
for poor students (eligible for free reduced
lunch)
21
How School Librarians Teach Critical Thinking
3rd Colorado Study
  • 2005 Colorado survey questions about teaching of
    9 info literacy objectives (from CSAP reading
    writing standards)
  • Usually, sometimes, rarely scale for
    collaboration
  • Controlled randomized trial model
  • 2007 training efforts
  • 2008 analysis report

22
CO Information Literacy Objectives
  • Read/understand variety of formats
  • Summarize, synthesize, evaluate info
  • Draw inferences
  • Locate, recall info
  • Locate, select, use relevant info
  • Use org features of print
  • Recognize org features of e-info
  • Take notes, outline, i.d. main ideas
  • Sort info
  • Give credit to others
  • Use dictionaries, etc

23
CO, 2005 Usually/Sometimes Teach
Collaboratively
U U/S Information Literacy Objective
1/2 4/5 Give credit to others
2/5 4/5 Use of org features of print sources
Use of org features of e-sources
1/3 3/4 Sort information
Summarize, evaluate information
Take notes, outline, id main ideas
1/4 2/3 Draw inferences
Locate, recall information
1/5 2/3 Use dictionaries, glossaries, etc.
24
For More Information
  • Visit the Library Research Service websites page
    on School Library Impact Studies
    http//www.LRS.org/impact.php

25
Post Script
  • Courtesy of Ross Todd, Rutgers
  • DE School Library Survey, replication of OH
    Study
  • NJ School Library Impact Measure (SLIM)
    Tracking and Assessing Student Learning Outcomes
    (Guided Inquiry)
  • OH Enhancing Collaboration Between SLMSs
    Teachers (Kent State)

26
DE School Library Survey, Replication of OH Study
  • Phase 1 survey of 154 public school libraries
    staff, budget, resources, Info Lit initiatives
  • Phase 2 revised version of OH study
  • 13 exemplary schools, 5700 students, 469 teachers
  • Building on what works well
  • Understanding what isnt working setting up
    approaches to continuous improvement

27
NJ School Library Impact Measure (SLIM)
  • SLIM Toolkit
  • Measures changes in knowledge of topic
  • Identifies info competencies acquired in process
  • 15 librarian-teacher teams from all over USA
    testing SLIM toolkits utility in practice
  • Major anticipated outcomes
  • Enable librarians teachers to provide evidence
    to parents, school boards, administrators, other
    librarians teachers
  • Provide input for design of instructional
    interventions for effective info seeking use

28
OH Enhancing Collaboration Between SLMSs
Teachers (Kent State)
  • KSU profs Carolyn Brodie Greg Byerly
    Institute for Library Info Lit Education
    (ILILE)
  • Currently collecting data
  • To understand/model dynamics, processes, outputs
    of collaborative librarian/teacher partnerships
  • Sample drawn from 170 partnerships established
    thru ILILE program, 02-05
  • Survey in progress, series of focus group
    interviews to follow
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