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Leading Formative Assessment

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... Home-School Relations Opportunities to Learn and Student Time on Task Correlates of Effective Schools Lawrence W. Lezotte, Ph.D. Quality & Equity The ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leading Formative Assessment


1
  • Leading Formative Assessment
  • Thursday, August 5, 2010

2
Correlates of Effective SchoolsLawrence W.
Lezotte, Ph.D.
  1. Instructional Leadership
  2. Clear and Focused Mission
  3. Safe and Orderly Environment
  4. Climate of High Expectations for Success
  5. Frequent Monitoring of Student Progress
  6. Positive Home-School Relations
  7. Opportunities to Learn and Student Time on Task

3
Quality Equity
  • The effective school is a school that can, in
    outcome (performance or results) terms,
    reflective of its learning for all mission,
    demonstrate the presence of equity in quality.

4
  • There may be schools out there that have strong
    instructional leaders, but are not yet effective
    however, we have never yet found an effective
    school that did not have a strong instructional
    leader as the principal.
  • Edmonds

5
Teacher factors
  • The impact of decisions made by individual
    teachers is far greater than the impact of
    decisions made at the school level.
  • More can be done to improve education by
    improving the effectiveness of teachers than by
    any other single factor.
  • Robert Marzano

6
Vital Teacher Behaviors for Student Learning
  • Clear Learning Targets
  • High Rates of Positive, Descriptive Feedback
  • Reconceptualization of Learning
  • John Hattie

7
Formative Assessments within a RtI Framework
Tier III FA are directly targeted to critical
learning gaps that exist for individual
students with intense needs.
  • Tier I
  • FA are the GPS
  • for critical learning
  • in all subject areas.
  • What do the students need to know?
  • Where are they in the learning process?
  • What are the impact of adjustments?

Tier II FA are directly targeted to critical
learning gaps that exist for groups of students.
Continuum of Supports
8
3-2-1 Think-Pair-Share
  • Individually, THINK about the following
  • What are three ways your teachers are currently
    using formative assessments?
  • What two questions do you have about formative
    assessments?
  • What one strength can you build upon for the
    increased use of formative assessments in your
    school?
  • then PAIR with a colleague and SHARE.

9
A focus on mathematical skill
  • Plot the point (5, 2) on the grid shown below. 

10
21st Century Skills The 4Rs
  • In our increasingly global community, students
    must develop critical skills that will enable
    them to make important, valued contributions to
    society.
  • In the 21st century, K-12 education must focus on
    the 4Rs
  • Rigor
  • Relevance
  • Relationships
  • Reflection

11
A focus on mathematical skill
  • Plot the point (5, 2) on the grid shown below. 

12
A more recent focus on the 4Rs in mathematics
  • The table shows the number of customers at
    Malcolm's Bike Shop for 5 days, as well as the
    mean (average) and the median number of customers
    for these 5 days.
  • Which statistic, the mean or the median, best
    represents the typical number of customers at
    Malcolm's Bike Shop for these 5 days?
  • Explain your reasoning.

13
National results, Grade 8 2007
  • These results are for public and nonpublic school
    students. Percentages may not add to 100 due to
    rounding.
  • U.S. Department of Education, Institute of
    Education Sciences, National Center for Education
    Statistics, National Assessment
  • of Educational Progress (NAEP)

14
Rigor What was expected in Grade 12
  • The first 3 figures in a pattern of tiles are
    shown below. The pattern of tiles contains 50
    figures.
  • Describe the 20th figure in this pattern,
    including the total number of tiles it contains
    and how they are arranged. Then explain the
    reasoning that you used to determine this
    information. Write a description that could be
    used to define any figure in the pattern.

15
National results, Grade 12 1996
  • These results are for public and nonpublic school
    students. Percentages may not add to 100 due to
    rounding.
  • U.S. Department of Education, Institute of
    Education Sciences, National Center for Education
    Statistics, National Assessment of Educational
    Progress (NAEP)

16
Rigor is now expected in Grade 8
  • Each figure in the pattern below is made of
    hexagons that measure 1 centimeter on each side.
  • If the pattern of adding one hexagon to each
    figure is continued, what will be the perimeter
    of the 25th figure in the pattern?
  • Show how you found your answer.

17
National results, Grade 8 2007
  • These results are for public and nonpublic school
    students. Percentages may not add to 100 due to
    rounding.
  • U.S. Department of Education, Institute of
    Education Sciences, National Center for Education
    Statistics, National Assessment of Educational
    Progress (NAEP)

18
  • http//nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/itmrlsx/defau
    lt.aspx

19
The Common Core
  • Rigor, relevance, relationships, and reflection
    are mandated in the Common Core State Standards
    for Mathematics through the Practice Standards.
    Students will
  • 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in
    solving them.
  • 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
  • 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the
    reasoning of others.

20
The Common Core
  • 4. Model with mathematics.
  • 5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
  • 6. Attend to precision.
  • 7. Look for and make use of structure.
  • 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated
    reasoning.

21
Essential question for the day
  • Can the use of formative assessments help to
    provide all of our students opportunities to
    master the 4Rs and the math practice standards?
    HOW?
  • As we progress through the day, examining
    formative assessment, look for evidence of and
    opportunity for the use of the 4Rs

22
Formative AssessmentsFormal vs. Informal
Assessment methods Assessment methods
Discussions Writing samples
Exit cards Journaling
Surveys (e.g. hand raising) Homework
Teacher observation Presentations
Warm-ups Quizzes
White board responses
23
Formative Assessments
  • Definition
  • Formative Assessments happen while learning is
    still underway. They are conducted throughout
    teaching and learning to diagnose student needs,
    plan our next steps in instruction, provide
    students with feedback they can use to improve
    the quality of their work, and help students see
    and feel in control of their journey to success.

24
Formative Assessment Research
Study S.D. gains
Bloom (1984) 1.0 2.0
Black and Wiliam (1998) 0.4 0.7
Miesels, et.al. (2003) 0.7 1.5
Rodriguez (2004) 0.5 1.8
  • 0.7 Standard Deviation Score Gain
  • 25 Percentile Points on ITBS (middle of score
    range)
  • 70 SAT Score Points 4 ACT Score Points
  • Largest Gain for Low Achievers

25
Connecting the Dots
  • If formative assessment done well provides
    students with timely constructive and effective
    feedback on well defined learning goals,
  • And if student learning is enhanced the most
    through the use of clearly articulated learning
    goals and large amounts of positive, descriptive
    feedback, then
  • the need to lead your teachers to fully utilize
    formative assessments becomes obvious.

26
Goals for Today
  • Teachers need to be able to create and use
    formative assessments with fidelity and
    effectiveness, therefore our goal is to help
    principals with the following
  • Understand and be able to recognize the five keys
    of effective formative assessments
  • Understand the needs of teachers to make
    formative assessments a way of life in their
    classroom (e.g. professional development,
    collaboration time, coaching, and feedback)
  • Create a beginning plan that ties to your school
    improvement goals.

27
  • The 5 Keys of Classroom Assessment for Student
    Learning (CASL)
  • and
  • Understanding by Design (UbD)

28
ACCURACY
EFFECTIVE USE
PURPOSE
STUDENT INVOLVEMENT
TARGET
The 5 Keys
29
TARGET
30
PURPOSE
DESIGN
31
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
STUDENT INVOLVEMENT
32
  • Key 1 Purpose

33
What is the purpose for assessment?
34
Two Purposes for Assessment
  • SUMMATIVE
  • Assessments OF Learning
  • How much have students learned as of a particular
    point in time?
  • FORMATIVE
  • Assessments FOR Learning
  • How can we use assessment information to help
    students learn more?

35
Assessments FOR and OF Learning
  • As you watch the video clip of Rick Stiggins
    discussing the differences between assessments
    FOR and OF learning
  • Track the differences between the two in the
    chart
  • What differences did you find to be most
    significant?

36
Balanced Assessment
37
Needed Improvements
  • Increased commitment to high-quality formative
    assessments (Rigor Relevance)
  • Increased descriptive feedback, reduced
    evaluative feedback (Relationships)
  • Increased student involvement in the assessment
    process (Reflection)

38
Assessments for LearningPURPOSE
  • Students are crucial decision-makers therefore,
    information must be provided in forms that help
    them understand
  • Where I am going?
  • Where I am now?
  • How I can close the gap?

39
The Elevator Conversation
  • Develop a 30 60 second description highlighting
    the difference between formative and summative
    assessments. Include the reason why it is
    important to increase the use of formative
    assessments.

40
  • Key 2 Clear and Appropriate Learning Targets

41
We Need Clear Targets to. . .
  • Ensure that there is a common understanding of
    what needs to be learned.
  • Know if the assessment adequately covers what we
    taught.
  • Correctly identify what students know and dont
    know.
  • Have students self-assess or set goals likely to
    help them learn more.

42
Clear Targets Benefits to Students
  • Students who could identify their learning scored
    27 percentile points higher than those who could
    not
  • Marzano, 2005

43
Which of these are actually learning targets?
  • Senior project
  • Model of a fort
  • Present a persuasive argument
  • Research paper
  • Diorama

44
A Math Example
Geometry Subject
Pythagorean Theorem Topic
Chapter 10 Resource
Use Geometric Tiles for proof Activity
The lengths of the three sides of a right triangle are related Learning Target
45
Kinds of Targets
  • Master content knowledge
  • Use knowledge to reason and solve problems
  • Demonstrate performance skills
  • Create quality products

46
Kinds of Learning Targets with Associated Verbs
Knowledge Reason Skill Product
List Predict Measure Construct
Define Infer Demonstrate Develop
Understand Classify Use Create
Recognize Evaluate Operate Produce
Explain Summarize Calculate
47
Converting Learning Targets to Student-Friendly
Language
  • Identify important or difficult learning goal.
  • Identify word(s) needing clarification.
  • Define the word(s).
  • Rewrite the definition as an I can statement,
    in terms that students will understand.
  • Try it out and refine as needed.
  • Have students try this process.

48
Student-Friendly Language
  • Word to be defined PREDICTION
  • A statement saying something will happen in the
    future
  • Student-friendly language
  • I can make predictions.
  • This means I can use information from what I read
    to guess at what will happen next.

49
Your Turn
  • Choose either analyze or describe and convert
    it into student-friendly terms
  • Definition
  • Student-friendly language

50
Critical Learning Target of Unit
  • Students will learn that functions can be
    represented in many ways using words, tables,
    pictures/models, graphs, and algebraic rules.
    Given one representation, students will create
    the other representations.

51
Corresponding I can statements
  • I can represent a function using a table,
    algebraic rule, picture, words, and graph.
  • Given one representation of a function, I can
    create the other representations.
  • I know the families of functions (linear,
    quadratic, polynomial, power, exponential, etc)
    and I can identify which function-family a
    function belongs to given its graph or algebraic
    rule.
  • Given an algebraic rule, I understand the meaning
    of each coefficient, constant, and variable so
    that I can describe a real-life situation that
    could be modeled by the rule.

52
Work time Training Teachers to write I cans
  • Teachers can create appropriate I cans for their
    students
  • What do your teachers need to know and be able to
    do to accomplish this?

53
  • Key 3 Effective Design
  • TargetAssessment Match

54
Effective Design
  • Select a proper assessment method
  • Sufficient sampling to demonstrate mastery
  • Select or create quality items, tasks, and
    rubrics
  • Samplegather enough evidence
  • Control for bias
  • Design assessments so students can self-assess
    and set goals

55
Possible Assessment Methods
  • Selected Response
  • Multiple Choice, True/False, Matching, Fill in
  • Extended Written Response
  • Performance
  • Personal Communication
  • Questions
  • Conferences
  • Interviews

56
Target x Method Match Activity
PC
PA
EWR
SR



KNOW
REASON


Performance SKILLS

PRODUCT
57
Learning target-method match in a math classroom
  • I can choose a good scale for the graph of a math
    situation.
  • I can explain why a graph might be misleading.

58
Learning target-method match in a math classroom
  • The data in the table has been correctly
    represented by both graphs.
  •  

59
Learning target-method match in a math classroom
  • Which graph would be best to help convince others
    that the Metro Rail Company made a lot more money
    from ticket sales in March than in October?
  • Explain your reason for making this selection.

60
Work time
  • Can you identify the type of assessment method
    appropriate for each of the I cans created in
    Key 2?
  • Design a sample assessment for one of the I
    cans.

61
Research Quotes on Effects of Feedback
  • Read the quotes provided on the handout.
  • Choose 1 quote that is most meaningful to you at
    this time.

62
  • Key 4 Communication

63
Effective Communication
  • The most powerful single modification that
    enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest
    prescription for improving education must be
    dollops of feedback.
  • John Hattie (1992)

64
Frequency
Number of Assessments  Effect Size  Percentile-Point Gain 
0  0  0 
1  .34  13.5 
5  .53  20.0 
10  .60  22.5 
15  .66  24.5 
20  .71  26.0 
25  .78  28.5 
30  .80  29.0 
Note Effect sizes from data reported by Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, and Kulik (1991).  Note Effect sizes from data reported by Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, and Kulik (1991).  Note Effect sizes from data reported by Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, and Kulik (1991). 
65
Effective Communication
  • The most powerful single modification that
    enhances achievement is feedback.
  • all forms of feedback are not equally
    effective.

66
Source  Characteristics of Feedback from Classroom Assessment  Number of Studies  Effect Size 
Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik, Morgan (1991)  Right/wrong  6  -.08 
  Provide correct answer  39  .22 
  Criteria understood by students vs. not understood  30  .41 
  Explain  9  .53 
  Repeat until correct  4  .53 
Fuchs Fuchs (1986)  Displaying results graphically  89  .70 
  Evaluation (interpretation) by rule  49  .91 
Indicates the number of studies that were examined by the researchers to compute an effect size. See Technical Note 1.2 for discussion of an effect size.  Indicates the number of studies that were examined by the researchers to compute an effect size. See Technical Note 1.2 for discussion of an effect size.  Indicates the number of studies that were examined by the researchers to compute an effect size. See Technical Note 1.2 for discussion of an effect size.  Indicates the number of studies that were examined by the researchers to compute an effect size. See Technical Note 1.2 for discussion of an effect size. 
67
Summary of the Research
  • Feedback from classroom assessments should give
    students a clear picture of their progress on
    learning goals and how they might improve.
  • Feedback on classroom assessments should
    encourage students to improve
  • Classroom assessment should be formative in
    nature
  • Formative classroom assessments should be frequent

Marzano, 2006
68
What Makes Feedback Effective?
  • Describes features of work or performance
  • Relates directly to the learning targets and/or
    standards of quality
  • Points out strengths and gives specific
    information about how to improve

69
Feedback Think-Pair-Share
  • Individually, identify the 5 most common examples
    of feedback you hear or see your teachers
    providing their students.
  • Then, identify the 5 most common examples of
    feedback you provide your teachers.
  • Record all 10 on a piece of paper.
  • Share your paper with your Commutative Partner
  • 3 minute discussion

70
Evaluative vs. Descriptive
  • Evaluative feedback sums up achievement and
    assigns a label. It expresses a judgment.
  • Descriptive feedback offers information that can
    be used by students to take action to improve.

71
Examples of descriptive feedback in the math
classroom
  • You accurately found the number of students in
    4th grade who said ice cream was their favorite.
    You now need to divide this number by the total
    number of students to get the percent who said
    ice cream was their favorite.
  • I agree with the pattern that you have
    identified in the table. I am not convinced that
    the rule you wrote works for all the values in
    the table. How could you prove this?

72
Examples of descriptive feedback in the math
classroom
  • I see that you have correctly used column
    addition to solve both the first and last problem
    in this set. You are showing me that you
    understand how to solve addition word problems.
  • The second problem is also correct, but I am not
    sure how you got the answer. I am wondering if
    you solved it in your head because we have worked
    hard on our number facts!
  • Your next step will be to go back to the second
    problem and show me how you solved it, using
    numbers, tally marks or words.

73
Work time
  • How do you provide feedback to your teachers in
    their efforts to employ formative assessments?
  • Remember
  • frequent
  • descriptive
  • encourages improvement
  • increases motivation

74
  • Key 5 Student Involvement

75
  • Student SELF-assessment is crucial for feedback
    to be used effectively. Students are the ones
    who must ultimately take action to bridge the gap
    between where they are and where they are
    heading.
  • The transition from feedback to self-monitoring
    can occur only when the student comes to know
    what constitutes quality. Sadler,
    1989

76
Student as User of Assessment Information (Sadler)
  • Where am I going?
  • Where am I now?
  • How can I close the gap?
  • What opportunities do the students in your school
    have to answer these questions? Provide concrete
    examples of each.

77
Student Motivation and Involvement
  • Where am I going?
  • Provide a clear statement of the learning target
  • Use examples and models
  • Where am I now?
  • 3. Offer regular descriptive feedback
  • 4. Teach students to self-assess and set goals
  • How can I close the gap?
  • 5. Design focused lessons
  • 6. Teach students focused revision
  • 7. Engage students in self-reflection let them
    keep track of and share their learning

78
Student Involvement
  • The most important instructional decisions are
    made, not by the adults working in the system,
    but by students themselves.
  • CASL 2006

79
Emilys StoryAssessment for Learning
  • Read Emilys story.
  • Note what Emilys teacher did to enhance student
    involvement, motivation, and achievement.
  • Now read her writing samples.
  • What does Emily have to say about this? (video)

80
Involving the Student
  • Clear learning targets in student friendly
    language- made known at the outset to the student
  • Instruction that models what success looks like
  • Assessments that are fair no surprises, no
    excuses

81
Keeping track of my learningMarzano, 2007
I can figure out the prob. of drawing a certain
marble from a bag of marbles.
82
Keeping track of my learning KNOWLEDGE GAIN
Marzano, 2007
83
Student-identified knowledge skill
  • Essential Outcome Solving Proportions Using
    Scale Models
  • What skills do you need to know to be successful
    on the following learning target?
  • I can write and compare ratios.

84
Student journal
  • You received descriptive feedback on your
    assignments prior to this test. Please answer the
    following questions.
  • 1. Describe the feedback you received on your
    assignments that prepared you for this test.
  • 2. Did the feedback help you learn/master the
    learning targets? Explain why or why not.
  • 3. What could make receiving descriptive feedback
    better for you?

85
Student self reflection
  • Learning target ________________________________
  • Explain how you used your own feedback to fix the
    problems you did not get correct the first time.
  • How much has the feedback youve received helped
    you? (Circle one)
  • A LOT SOMEWHAT NOT REALLY
    NOT AT ALL

86
Work time
  • Regarding the writing of I can statements
  • What opportunities do teachers need to reflect on
    their practice and self-assess the creation and
    use of I cans?

87
  • Informal vs. Formal Formative Assessments
    Revisited
  • Pull out your definitions from this morning.
    Would you make any changes?

88
Essential questions for the day
  • Can the use of formative assessments help to
    provide all of our students opportunities to
    master the 4Rs and the math practice standards?
    HOW?
  • What evidence of and opportunity for the use of
    the 4Rs did you identify in using formative
    assessments?
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