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What do you already know about the effects of poverty on your students?

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Title: Enriching the Brains of Poverty Author: ERIC JENSEN Last modified by: Mary Jane Wolfe Created Date: 9/14/2013 1:57:08 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What do you already know about the effects of poverty on your students?


1
  • What do you already know about the effects of
    poverty on your students?

2
Nationwide Percentage of Students in School at
125 below Poverty Level
22
SOURCE US Census, NCES (2012)
16
2006 2008 2010 2012
3
Poverty Quiz (true or false)
  1. Poor people value education about the same as
    middle class.
  2. Most poor are lazy and lack ambition.
  3. If you gave the poor money, everything would
    change.
  4. The parents must do more for our kids to learn
    better.
  5. Our schools already do their part its now up to
    the kids to do more.

4
Comparing Odds of Graduation for Poor vs.
Non-Poor (Nationally)
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10
90
50
Non-Poor
Ripple Luthar, 2000 Palardy Rumberger, 2008
Poor
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
12
5
Bottom Line
  • Poverty is everybodys problem
  • Kids from poverty are usually different
  • Brains adapt to suboptimal conditions
  • But brains can and do change everyday
  • Students can change, if you change first
  • Youll have to let go of every single excuse
    youve ever heard of
  • You can ensure every kid graduates
  • Its time to find out how to do it

6
Premise1
  • Brains Can Change for the Better or for the Worse

7
How are kids from low SES different than those
from middle or upper class SES?
  • Acute/Chronic St_______
  • Fewer Ex ____ Function S___
  • Less Emotional Su_____

8
  • Stress (on/off)is healthy for us!
  • Distress (chronic) is toxic to our brain and
    body!
  • Poor children are exposed to 1) more
    stressors, 2) more intense and longer lasting
    stressors, and 3) have fewer coping skills than
    their higher SES counterparts.

Evans, G.W., Kim P. (2007) Childhood poverty and
health cumulative risk exposure and stress
dysregulation.
9
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10
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11
Emotional Reactivity or Disconnect as Maladaptive
Response to Chronic or Acute Stress in Your
Students
12
Under High Stress, Brains Engage in Bottom-Up
Decision-Making for a More Reflexive Strategy
What were you thinking?
  • Arnsten AF. (2010) Stress signaling pathways that
    impair prefrontal cortex structure and function

13
Significant Underactivity in the Brain! To
Succeed, Class Culture Must Be Fabulous Everyday
SPECT Scans courtesy Dr. Amen
14
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16
Where do you see an opportunity to help more
students graduate?1) relationship-building ?2)
giving students more control ?3) teach stronger
coping skills ?4) learn stress managing skills?
? Clear Solutions
17
How are kids from low SES different than those
from middle or upper class SES?
  • Acute/Chronic St_______
  • Fewer Ex ____ Function S___
  • Less Emotional Su_____

18
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19
How Much Can Environments Affect the Developing
Brain? Plenty!
20
Can Environment Influence IQ?
21
The difference in the amount of parental
conversations with kidsin families on welfare
versus professional families isa) doubleb)
triplec) four foldd) ten-fold
Hart and Risley (1995)
22
The difference in the amount of parental
conversations with kidsin families on welfare
versus professional families isa) doubleb)
triplec) four foldd) ten-fold
http//centerforeducation.rice.edu/slc/LS/30Millio
nWordGap.html
Hart and Risley (1995)
23
Brains of Lower SES are Different than those from
Higher SES
Areas include those responsible for working
memory, impulse regulation, visuospatial,
language and cognitive conflict
Noble KG, Norman MF, Farah MJ (2005)
Neurocognitive correlates of socioeconomic
status in kindergarten children. Dev Sci
Jan8(1)74-87
24
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25
Target the Gaps
  • Vocabulary/Language
  • Cognitive control (e.g. memory, attention,
    reasoning)
  • Relationships/Climate
  • Attitude/Mindset
  • Social/emotional/life skills
  • Engagement (consistent)

26
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27
Where do you see an opportunity to help more
students graduate?1) teach executive function
skills?2) teach vocabulary daily ?3) build
thinking and study skills ?
? Clear Solutions
28
How are kids from low SES different than those
from middle or upper class SES?
  • Acute/Chronic St_______
  • Fewer Ex ____ Function S___
  • Less Emotional Su_____

29
Kids download the negatives ofchaos,
disharmony,poor relationships,foul
language,poor manners, and weak vocabulary just
as quicklyand just asautomaticallyas they
would any positive orenrichment input.
30
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32
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33
Teachers who criticize, hold negative attitudes
and use sarcasm as classroom discipline will
activate the fear and stress areas of the
students brain.
This activation alters the students ability to
think and learn.
34
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35
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37
Emotional Impact of Low SES
  • Children of poverty were 50 more likely to
    experience physical neglect and 80 more likely
    to report sexual abuse than those of middle to
    upper SES-- verystressful to them!
  • (Hussey, Chang, Kotch, 2006)

38
Where do you see an opportunity to help more
students graduate?1) relationship-building ?2)
teach emotional responses?3) boost quality and
frequency of emotional punctuations ?4) increase
engagement ?
? Clear Solutions
39
Poverty isnot a cul_____, but a chronic
condition affecting the mind, body and soul
resulting from multiple adverse r___ f___.
40
How are kids from low SES different than those
from middle or upper class SES?
  • Acute/Chronic St_______
  • Fewer Ex ____ Function S___
  • Less Emotional Su_____

41
POINT1
  • Brains Can Change for the Better or for the Worse

42
Old Paradigm Brains Stay the Same Kids Stay
the Same
  • New Understanding Brains can and do change
    everyday. But if the experiences stay the same,
    so will the brain! We must change things. Ill
    show you how!

43
NEW!
44
Reading Changes the Brain in Just (9 Days _at_ 30
min. per day)
Red dots show new areas of white matter
connections which last!
  • Berns GS, Blaine K, Prietula MJ, Pye BE. (2013)
    Short- and long-term effects of a novel on
    connectivity in the brain. Brain Connections.6,
    590-600.

45
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46
The Effects of a Bottom 20 and Top 20 AYP
Teacher in Student Reading Scores at Grades 4-6
Over Just 3 Years Duration Among Low-Achievers
47
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48
Difference Between the Effects of a Bottom 20
(Q1) and Top 20 Teacher (Q5) in Student Math
Gains Over Three Years Duration Among
Low-Achievers
83
29
49
Myth IQ is Fixed and Does Not ChangeReality
Many Factors Can Change IQ
50
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51
Heritability of IQ Varies
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10
0
60-80
Tucker-Drob EM, Rhemtulla M, Harden KP,
Turkheimer E, Fask D. (2011)
lt 10
Middle Upper Income Parents
Lower Income Parents
52
Still Believe Student Achievement is a Result of
Money, Luck or Genes?
53
Scale for Effect Sizes
Effect size is a standardized measure of the
relative size of the gain (or loss) of an
intervention.
0.00 or less Negative effect 0.00 0.20
Negligible, unclear effects 0.20 0.40
Small-moderate effects 0.40 0.60 Very strong
effects 0.60 2.00 Extreme effects
These are just one way of understanding the value
of educational/classroom factors. There are
others.
54
What Research Tells Us About the Effects of
Poverty (vs. Teaching) on Achievement
  • Ave. Effect Size of Low SES is 0.57 (with a
    ranking of 32nd of 138 factors (Hattie, 2009,
    Sirin, 2005)
  • Ave. Effect Size of Teachers is 0.98.
  • Wenglinsky, H. (2002) Education Policy Analysis
    Archives, 10(12).

55
Importance of Teacher Quality Change over 36
Months
85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45
40
Results with moreeffective teachers
Starting point 2 matched groups ofstudents at
60th percentile
16
Jordan, Mendro and Weerasinghe (1997)
Percentile ranking in district
- 18
Results with lesseffective teachers
56
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57
3 Levels of Teaching Expertise
  • 20 Expert These "irreplacables" get 1.25 to
    3.5 yrs. of student learning per calendar year
  • 70 Average On-off learning implementation.
    Usually generate adequate yearly progress (AYP).
  • 10 Struggling If these are new teachers,
    there's hope. If past the 1st 3 yrs., most will
    never get AYP.

A
C/B
D/F
58
Students with Strong Teachers Rose Two Full
Standard Deviations, Erasing the Academic Effects
of Poverty!
10-Yr. Effects of Low vs Highly Effective
Teachers on State Test Scores
59
Analysis Summary 259 Title 1 Teachers in 5
States
Likelihood of a Title 1 Teacher Being at a
High-Performing School Was
315greater when teachers fostered school and
classroom climate
  • It was the staff that made the difference.
  • School and Classroom Climate were both strong
    predictors.
  • Cognitive skill-building was also a robust
    variable

165 greater when teachers fostered cognitive
capacity
60
How Much do Teachers Matter?
Recent research suggests that in total,
approximately 50-60 of the variation in the
performance of students comes from their school
experience with the remaining being due to genes,
student background, homelife or random
influences.
Cuttance. P. (1998) International handbook of
educational change, Quality assurance reviews as
a catalyst for school improvement in Australia,
eds Hargreaves A, Lieberman A, Fullan M, Hopkins
D (Kluwer, Dordrecht, Netherlands), Part 2, pp
11351162. Text passage from pp. 11581159.
61
Target the Gaps
  • Vocabulary/Language
  • Cognitive control (e.g. memory, attention,
    reasoning)
  • Relationships/Climate
  • Attitude/Mindset
  • Social/emotional/life skills
  • Engagement (consistent)

62
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63
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64
What Skills Matter Most for the Students
Academic Success?
  • Processing
  • Attentional focus
  • Locus of control
  • Memory (working)
  • Prioritization
  • Ordering/sequencing
  • Deferred gratification

65
Executive Function Skills arethe "Apps" that Run
Your Brain
Apps enable you to do the things you want to
do.Teach kids quality apps well. You will have
kids with greater success CAPACITY.
66
What is in Our Working Memory?
  • The content is1) sounds, called a
    phonological loopOR2) pictures, or
    visual-spatial sketchpad ANDheld for seconds
    or momentsAND it can be strengthened by
    practice and strategy.

67
Working Memory and Math Correlation? Over 100
Studies
Studies have demonstrated that working memory is
a launchpad and top predictor in mathematics
achievement in primary school age children.
Passolunghi, MC, et al. (2008)
68
Working Memory
  • Working memory is the driver of cognition.
  • Research shows that kids in poverty have weaker
    working memory.
  • Working memory is a teachable skill. Give
    students practice in this daily.

Luethi M, Meier B, Sandi C. (2008) Stress effects
on working memory,
69
Meta-Analysis on Working Memory Effect Sizes
  • Greatest effects in younger (lt10) children 1.41
  • Immediate effects 0.72 0.84
  • CogMed computer work 1.18
  • Extensive training regimen 0.94
  • Verbal training effects sizes from 15-50 greater
    than visual-spatial

Melby-Lervåg M, Hulme C.(2103). Is working memory
training Effective? A meta-analytic review. Dev.
Psychol.49, 270-91.
70
How Do You Build This Skill?
1. Make ita Priority(8-12 wks.)
2. Buy-in Relevance
4. IncreaseChallenge Complexity
3. Perfect Practice Over Time
71
Strategies for Building Auditory Working Memory
(over time)
  • Partner/group practice w/ add-on/calculations
  • Games (e.g. Simon Says, increase challenge)
  • File Folder/Word Basket you connect it to content
  • Add-on stories (Use, "I went to the mall and
    bought", then keep adding items). Repeat prior
    effort then, each person adds one more item.
  • Repeat after me (or, repeat the directions)
  • Partner, buddy or teacher speaks, student writes
    the content down.

Elliott J ,Gathercole SE, Alloway TP Holmes, J,
Kirkwood H (2010), An Evaluation of a
Classroom-Based Intervention to Help Overcome
Working Memory Difficulties and Improve Long-Term
Academic Achievement. Journal of Cognitive
Education and Psychology. 9, 227-250.
72
Follow the Protocol HOW toGET ACTIVITIES to WORK
  • Buy-in
  • Meaningful Link to Student Goal
  • Interdependency
  • Quick Initial Learning Curve
  • Increasing Challenge Complexity
  • Quality Feedback
  • Go 10-90 Min. 3-5x/Wk for 8-16 Wks.

73
Build Short and Long Term Memory Skills
Short-termStrengthen visual and phonological
memory in both language and math
areas. Long-term Teach students the use of
association, loci, peg and sensory memory systems.
74
Long-Term, Teach Better Memory Skills Use Them
Every Week of the Year
  • Working memory (sound pic)
  • Word association (a sound, a word, a song,
    picture etc.)
  • Pegs (number word)
  • Stories (link methods)
  • Loci (location-based)
  • Acronyms ("B-A-C-E")
  • http//www.memory-improvement-tips.com/remembering
    -lists.html

75
How Do High-Performing Title 1 Schools Get
Fabulous Results? These are Teachable!
Effort
Attitude
Behavior
Cognitive Capacity
76
Research Based Themes areClassroom Climate
Builders
  1. Hope fuels the pursuit of dreams
  2. Affirmation reinforces the good
  3. Relationships to connect empathize
  4. Engagement active, relevant learning
  5. Mindset of Growth is the learners belief that
    he/she can change and grow

Hoy WK, Tarter CJ, Hoy AW (2006). Academic
optimism of schools A force for student
achievement . American Education Research
Journal. Sept 43(3) 425-446. PLUS Mangels JA,
Butterfield B, Lamb J, Good C, Dweck CS. (2006)
Why do beliefs about intelligence influence
learning success? A social cognitive neuroscience
model. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2, 75-86. PLUS
Rand KL. (2009). Hope and optimism latent
structures and influences on grade expectancy and
academic performance. J Pers. 77, 231-60.
77
Successful Teaching that Builds Relationships
will Lower Stress
  • Researchers have discovered that quality student
    relationships can lower student stress and boost
    learning.

Good relationships diffuse stress. Of the
students you struggle with the most, how can you
build greater trust and confidence?
78
Teach thePower of Optimism,Growth Mindset and
Passion(if you dont, who will?)
79
Attribution Training Linking Success to
Particular Factor
  • Most teachers miss this key strategy.
  • The effect size,
  • within a specific area, is a huge 1.42 (over 2
    years worth of progress).

Dweck, C. S. (1999) Self Theories Their Role in
Motivation, Personality, and Development
80
What You Can Do is Focus on the Big 3 of S-E-A
  • I loved how you kept trying so many strategies
    on that problem until you got it.
  • I like that you refused to give up. That extra
    effort will help you succeed again and reach that
    goal of yours.
  • Before you began, you thought you could
    succeed. Bet that positive attitude helped you
    come through.

81
These "Big Four Require Staff with a Relentless
Attention to the Research
Effort
Attitude
Behavior
Cognitive Capacity
82
When YOUR Students Dont Succeed, Maybe Its Time
to
  • Change WHAT to do (next slide)
  • Change HOW you do it (coming soon)
  • Change with WHOM it is done (collaboration?)
  • Change how LONG it is done for (6-24 mos.)
  • Change WHEN it is begun (start, mid-year?)
  • Change the SUPPORT the staff gets
  • Change the FEEDBACK coaching

83
Target the Gaps
  • Vocabulary/Language
  • Cognitive control (e.g. memory, attention,
    reasoning)
  • Relationships/Climate
  • Attitude/Mindset
  • Social/emotional/life skills
  • Engagement (consistent)

84
Remember The Big Four?
Ef____
Att____
Be_____
Ca_____
85
Thank You!
  • It's been a privilege to serve you.Safe travels!

eric_at_jlcbrain.com
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