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Title: AP Test Review Part Five


1
AP Test Review Part Five
  • Labelle Époque- WWII

2
MASS POLITICS 1850-1914
  • Historians speak of the rise of mass politics in
    the second half of the nineteenth century. Mass
    politics arose from the Dual Revolution-
  • The ideal of representative
  • The development of transportation and
    communication technologies as a product
    industrialization.
  • Two basic features characterize mass politics in
    the period 1850-1914
  • 1. Mass communication- with telegraphs,
    telephones, radio, and cheap newspapers,
    governments both responded to and manipulated
    public opinion.

3
MASS POLITICS 1850-1914
  • 2. Increase in conflict- public opinion also
    sharpened ethnic and class conflict. Outsiders,
    such as women, workers, and ethnic/religious
    minorities, demanded inclusion in the political
    process.

4
LIBERAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN THE 19TH CENTURY
  • The nineteenth century marked the high tide of
    classical Liberalism. Symbols of the Liberal
    achievement include
  • Constitutional government
  • Representative assemblies
  • Free trade
  • Expansion of suffrage (the vote)
  • Guarantees of rights
  • Middle-class influence in government
  • Spread of education and literacy
  • Weakening of established churches

5
THIRD REPUBLIC OF FRANCE- TENSIONS
  • By 1878 moderates had succeeded in establishing
    the basis for a parliamentary democracy.
    Nonetheless, important groups, such as the
    Catholic Church and monarchists, never reconciled
    themselves to the existence of republican
    government, which they associated with the worst
    excesses of the French Revolution.
  • The Dreyfus Affair highlighted the divisions
    within the Third Republic.

6
THE DREYFUS AFFAIR
  • In 1894, a French military court found Captain
    Dreyfus, a Jewish officer, guilty of treason on
    very thin evidence. The victim of anti-Semitism,
    he was sent to Devils Island, and the army
    refused to reopen the case.
  • French author Emily Zola (1840-1902) condemned
    his case in his pamphlet J Accuse (I Accuse).
    Eventually the government pardoned Dreyfus, but
    the fallout continued.
  • Republicans conducted an anticlerical campaign
    culminating in the complete separation of church
    and state in 1905 and the secularization of
    education by state.

7
PRE-WWI GERMANY KULTURKAMPF
  • After its unification, German industrial,
    political, and military power soared.
  • Bismarck successfully manipulated democratic
    politics and the party system in the Reichstag to
    enact his policies.
  • First, Bismarck allied himself with the Liberal
    Party, which supported his attack on the Catholic
    Church in Germany. The Kulturkampf (struggle for
    culture) arose from the complex situation
    surrounding Italian unification.
  • Bismarck pushed through the Reichstag laws
    restricting the powers of the clergy, expelled
    the Jesuits, and jailed a number of bishops. When
    the campaign proved unsuccessful, Bismarck
    abandoned it and formed an alliance with the
    Catholic Center Party.

8
PRE-WWI GERMANY WELFARE STATE
  • Bismarck now moved to restrict the power of the
    Social Democratic Party. The SPD operated as a
    moderate socialist party interested in obtaining
    benefits for the working class through the
    exercise of political power.
  • Bismarck initiated a welfare program (what he
    called state socialism), the first in Europe,
    of old age, accident, unemployment, and health
    benefits.
  • When Kaiser William II ascended to the throne he
    soon dismissed Bismarck and embarked on a more
    conciliatory policy toward the SPD at home and a
    more aggressive foreign policy abroad

9
FEMINISM WOMENS SUFFRAGE
  • Economic developments during the 2nd Industrial
    Revolution allowed women more freedom.
    White-collar jobs in new economic sectors- like
    telephone operators- provided women with income
    and better working conditions.
  • These jobs led women to push for economic and
    legal reforms.
  • In some western European nations between
    1850-1914 women gained the right to own property,
    divorce, and gain custody of their children.

10
WOMENS SUFFRAGE
  • The suffrage movement was occurring in Europe and
    the United States.
  • In England it was led by the Pankhurst family-
    Emmeline and her daughters.
  • The Womens Social and Political Union
    participated in militant activities- arson,
    hunger strikes, etc.
  • Many nations granted women the right to vote
    after WWI, a recognition to their contributions
    in the conflict.

11
JEWS, ANTI-SEMITISM, AND ZIONISM
  • With the Enlightenment many governments liberated
    Jews from legal restrictions and ghettos
  • This led to an assimilation of Jews into
    business, medicine, and law. Prominent Jews,
    such as Marx, Freud, and Einstein contributed
    with backlash.
  • In the late 19th-century, anti-Semitism took on a
    racial tone due to Social Darwinism.
  • Mass politics fed the creation of anti-Semitic
    politics.
  • In Russia, organized persecutions called pogroms
    persisted.
  • In response, Theodor Herzl founded Zionism, a
    movement of Jews to Palestine.

12
LABELLE ÉPOQUE ART IMPRESSIONISM
  • Photography altered the purpose of the artist.
    Now artists no longer relied on patrons, they
    could sell their works to middle-class customers,
    and paint based on what they felt/wanted to
    paint.
  • The first major artistic trend following the
    invention of photography was impressionism. They
    were infatuated with light and shadow, and
    painted quickly their impression of the moment.
    Ex. Claude Monet or Edgar Degas.

13
POSTIMPRESSIONISTS
  • More interested in form and structure, major
    postimpressionist painters included Vincent Van
    Gogh and Paul Gauguin. They would paint in off
    colors based on their feelings.
  • Georges Seurat created a related movement named
    pointillism, after the small dots of color,
    which when combined formed a clear picture of
    shadow and light. Seurats Sunday Afternoon on
    the Island of La Grande Jatte provides a view of
    the individualistic leisure of the modern city.

14
CUBISTS
  • Prior to WWI, the movement of Cubism began.
    Cubism broke apart scenes to analyzable parts and
    resembled in unique ways to provide the viewer
    with simultaneous multiple perspectives. Pablo
    Picasso is the most famous Cubist painter.

15
World War I (1914-1918)
  • The war was sparked by the shooting of Austrian
    Archduke Franz Ferdinand, but the shooting was
    only a catalyst.
  • All of the elements leading to war had been in
    place for most of the 20th century. The shooting
    just provided an immediate cause.
  • The causes can be remembered by using the acronym
    MAIN

16
M MILITARISM
  • Militarism Europe had been experiencing an arms
    race ever since the unification of Germany,
    driven by mass production and the 2nd Industrial
    Revolution.
  • Major naval rivalries existed between Germany
    England.
  • Never before or since have greater percentages
    served in their nations armies.
  • Government leaders associated national greatness
    with a strong military.
  • Germany began to work on the Schlieffen Plan,
    designed to fight a two front war against France
    and Russia.

17
More Underlying Causes
  • Alliance systems These led nations to take rash
    actions, knowing that their allies would come to
    their aid.
  • Triple Alliance Germany, Italy, and
    Austria-Hungary
  • Originally called the Three Emperors League
    (Germany, Russia, Austria), it ended when Russia
    withdrew, due to rivalries with Austria over the
    Balkan region.
  • Triple Entente Russia, France, and England.

18
I IMPERIALISM
  • Imperialism Colonial rivalries between the major
    European powers created hatred and hostility that
    led to war.
  • 1905 First Moroccan Crisis Germany tried to
    take over Tangiers (Morocco) and called an
    international conference (Algiciris) to settle
    its ownership. Germany was humiliated France
    kept Morocco.
  • 1911 Second Moroccan Crisis The Germans sent
    the gunboat, Panther, to Agadir (Morocco) to
    protest French occupation of the region. This
    caused England and France to join together to
    draw up war plans against the Germans. Germany
    withdrew after gaining a piece of the French
    Congo.

19
N NATIONALISM
  • Nationalism This force brought about WWI in a
    variety of ways
  • Nationalism spawned the unification of Italy
    Germany and caused a major shift in the balance
    of power.
  • Nationalism caused the great powers to pursue
    expansionist policies.
  • Nationalism on the part of ethnic minorities in
    Austria drew Austria and Russia into the conflict.

20
NATIONALISM IN THE BALKANS
  • 1908 Balkan Crisis (Bosnian Crisis)Both Austria
    Serbia wanted to expand in the Balkans. When
    Serbia protested the Austrian annexation of
    Bosnia, Russia sided with Serbia. Russia
    threatened to declare war, but Germany sided with
    Austria and Russia backed down.
  • Balkan War of 1912 Balkan War of 1913
  • The important thing to note about these wars is
    that they were localized conflicts to note the
    nationalist issues revolving around the Balkans.

21
The Assassination War
  • June 28, 1914 Sarajevo The Austrian Archduke
    was assassinated by Gavrillo Princip, a Bosnian
    member of the Black Hand.
  • The Black Hand was a terrorist group, who wanted
    Bosnia freed from Austria.
  • Austrian Ultimatum Austria blamed Serbian
    nationalists for the shooting and demanded a free
    hand in their own investigation of the crime.
  • Serbias Reply Serbia accepted most of the
    ultimatum, but rejected parts that would destroy
    her sovereignty.

22
The Crisis Leads to War
  • German Actions On one hand, Germany offered
    Austria a blank check of support.
  • Russian troops moved to mobilize along the German
    border
  • July 28, 1914 Germany invaded Belgium and
    Austria declared war on Serbia.
  • Germany swept through Belgium, causing England
    and France to declare war.
  • Germany then declared war on Russia, who declared
    war on the central powers.

23
THE WAR IN THE WEST
  • The Triple Entente became the Allies and the
    Triple Alliance became the Central Powers.
  • Europe did not get the war it expected. What was
    supposed to be over by Christmas turned into a
    stalemate by the end of 1914.
  • Military tactics lagged behind the technology, so
    trench warfare developed on the Western Front.

24
The War in the East
  • Russia initially held off the limited number of
    German troops on the eastern front, but when
    German strength increased and Austria and Turkey
    became involved, the war was a complete disaster
    for Russia.
  • Russian losses were enormous and led to the
    collapse of the Russian govt by 1917.
  • Treaty of Brest Litovsk 1917 Russia out of the
    war.

25
The War at Sea
  • The war at sea was almost more important than the
    land aspect of the war.
  • British naval strength was superior to that of
    the Germans, but German U-boats inflicted great
    damage and were one factor in the entrance of the
    US in the war.

26
The War Ends
  • Despite temporary German victories, largely
    caused by the use of poison gas, the allied
    victory over Germany at the Battle of Verdun
    turned the tide of war.
  • The revolutions that took place within Germany
    and Austria also added to the military victory of
    the Allies.
  • Eventually, British, French, Italian, and
    American armies, led by French Marshall Foch (
    leader of the Vichy Regime during WWII) broke
    German lines and led to the armistice on Nov. 11,
    1918.

27
ORGANIZING FOR TOTAL WAR
  • The Great War involved the full mobilization to
    the nations resources and population. It
    brought about the following changes
  • compulsory military training
  • forced employment of men women in war-industry
    jobs
  • restrictions on labor management for the war
    cause. The brought an end to laissez-faire
    economics.
  • war planning, regulations, price controls,
    rationing, massive propaganda campaigns
  • To pay for the war governments raised taxes,
    depreciated currencies, and borrowed money (from
    the US).
  • Many women entered the workforce for the first
    time. In Russia, women even fought on the front
    lines. This participation led to womens
    suffrage after the war

28
Versailles Conference
  • The Versailles settlement is often compared to
    the Congress of Vienna regarding their respective
    uses of collective security and the success of
    their decisions.
  • 1919 Versailles conference Big 4 made all
    important decisions England, France, Italy, and
    the US (Wilson).
  • It was impossible to return Europe to the state
    it was in before- since 4 empires were toppled-
    Austria- Hungary, Russia, Germany, and the
    Ottoman Empire. New states needed to be formed.

29
WOODROW WILSONS 14 POINTS
  • His vision for restructuring Europe and making
    the world safe for democracy.
  • Wilson declared WWI was the war to end all wars
  • He wanted diplomacy, freedom of the seas, arms
    reduction, self-determination, and collective
    security through the League of Nations.
  • The other members of the Big Four believed all of
    this was impossible.

30
THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES FINAL PRODUCT
  • League of Nations created (US and USSR didnt
    join)
  • Alsace Lorraine restored to France
  • French exploitation of the Saar valley for 15
    years
  • Huge reparations to be paid by Germany
  • Confiscation of German military supplies, and
    Germany allowed to have only a 100,000 man
    militia.

31
THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES FINAL PRODUCT
  • Demilitarization of the Rhineland
  • War guilt clause blamed Germany for the war and
    justified reparations
  • German and Turkish colonies taken over by the
    League of Nations who gave overseas colonies to
    the allies and created mandates in the Middle
    East.
  • Restoration of Poland
  • Creation of Yugoslavia (denying Italy the land it
    was promised before the war)

32
TREATY OF VERSAILLES CONSEQUENCES AND CONFLICTS
  • The Weimar Republic, Germanys postwar
    government, was saddled with what most Germans
    considered being stabbed in the back.
    Discontent over the treaty was used by the Nazis.
  • Economist John Maynard Keyes predicted the
    ruination of the world economy by the Treaty in
    his Economic Consequences of the Treaty. He was
    correct.
  • The treaty caused the isolation of the US and
    USSR.
  • Without full commitment to the League of Nations
    and collective security, Europe would quickly
    have another world war.

33
WEAK COLLECTIVE SECURITY
  • Many in Europe relied on the new League of
    Nations to ensure collective security. The
    League lacked enforcement mechanisms. For
    example, The League lacked its own armed force
    and so depended on the Great Powers to enforce
    its resolutions, keep to economic sanctions (such
    as a trade embargo) which the League ordered, or
    provide an army, when needed, for the League to
    use. However, they were often reluctant to do so.
    Sanctions could also hurt the League members
    imposing the sanctions and given the anti-war
    attitude following World War I, countries were
    reluctant to take military action. 

34
LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION,
1861-1905
  • Following Alexander IIs reforms (including the
    abolition of serfdom in 1861) Russia appeared to
    be moving in the right direction.
  • Former serfs were forced to continue to live on
    mirs (rural communities) until they paid off
    their lands.
  • Russian nobility kept the best land, sticking
    former serfs with the rest. Rural overcrowding
    and food shortages led to unrest.
  • Russia began to industrialize in the later half
    of the century, with industry in concentrated in
    Moscow and St. Petersburg. These cities emerged
    as centers of unrest.

35
LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION,
1861-1905
  • Alexander II was assassinated on the same day he
    was to make Russia a constitutional monarchy.
  • Alexander III brutally repressed dissent.
  • Two parties were established in response in
    secret. The Mensheviks (who wanted a mass-based
    political party that was Socialist). The
    Bolsheviks (who claimed to be professional
    leaders of a revolution).

36
REVOLUTION OF 1905
  • Russias loss in the Russo-Japanese War produced
    an economic and political crisis.
  • Protesters asking for the opportunity to form
    labor unions, led by Father Gapon, were fired on
    at the Winter Palace in an event known as Bloody
    Sunday.
  • Tsar Nicholas II, issued the October Manifesto
    allowing for the creation of a legislative
    assembly. He believed in divine right and was
    given the veto power. This made the Duma
    essentially useless.

37
WWI AND THE FALL OF THE TSAR
  • Although the czar had not followed through on his
    promises made after the revolution of 1905,
    dissatisfied parties in Russia tried to cooperate
    with the govt in the defense of Russia in 1914.
  • After the armies began to lose, the czar fired
    competent generals and replaced them himself, at
    the front.
  • opposition grew more discontented, as a result.
  • Further discontent was centered on the royal
    familys assistant Rasputin, who had great sway
    over the tsarina and her political decisions
    while her husband was off at war. She did not
    inform her husband of the problems.

38
The Revolution of March, 1917
  • As war losses mounted, food shortages at home led
    to rioting in Russian cities.
  • On International Womens Day, in March of 1917, a
    food riot broke out over the high cost of bread.
  • The strike was followed by a mutiny among the
    troops and the dissolving of the Duma.
  • The new govt that took over was known as the
    Provisional Govt it was run by Alexander
    Kerensky.

39
PROBLEMS FOR THE NEW GOVT
  • Russians wanted to get out of WWI, because they
    were losing so badly, and because supplies were
    so short on the homefront.
  • Kerensky accepted a bribe and kept Russia in the
    war.
  • Hunger was a problem all over Russia.
  • Most Russians wanted land reform.
  • The Prov. Govt did nothing to help the
    distressed population.

40
The Soviets
  • Soviets were small workers councils which had
    been established following the revolution of
    1905.
  • The Petrograd Soviet was under the control of
    Trotsky and was the most radical group calling
    for further action. It acted much like the Paris
    Commune in the French Revolution.
  • The Soviets called for an immediate end to the
    war, for peace with Germany, and for the seizure
    of land by the peasants workers.

41
LENIN
  • April 16, 1917 Germany ships Lenin back to
    Russia from his exile in Switzerland in a sealed
    rail car.
  • Lenins April Thesis outlines his changes to
    traditional Marxism.
  • Against Imperialism
  • Small group of professionals (the Bolsheviks)
    need to lead the revolution, as opposed to a
    large Proletariat base.
  • Russia didnt have to wait for it to
    industrialize to have a revolution, that could
    occur after the dictatorship of the Proletariat
  • Lenins motto Peace, Land, Bread.
  • This was exactly what the people wanted to hear.

42
The October Revolution
  • Nov. 6, 1917 Led by Lenin Trotsky, Bolshevik
    leaders, soldiers, and workers quickly took over
    Petrograd, stormed the winter palace, arrested
    the members of the provisional government.
  • Alexander Kerensky escaped and lived in exile.
  • In January 1918, they recently elected
    Constituent Assembly (the legislative body) was
    disbanded. This plunged Russia into a Civil War.

43
Military Internal Problems
  • March 3, 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk took
    Russia out of the war and ceded large amounts of
    territory to Germany.
  • Russia lost about 1/3 of its population.
  • Civil War was raging between the Reds
    (Bolsheviks) and the Whites (everyone who opposed
    the reds).
  • By 1921, the reds won the civil war.
  • The Red Army- led by Trotsky- won because it had
    a unifying vision ruthless tactics
  • During the war, used war communism to allow
    workers to run factories. This proved disastrous.

44
RED TERROR
  • Once the Bolsheviks secured their power, they
    engaged in a red terror designed to eliminate
    class enemies
  • Under the influence of the Cheka (the secret
    police who later became the KGB) 1000s of former
    bourgeoisies, gentry, White Army, etc. were shot
    without a trial. In all over 2 million were
    killed.

45
Economic Problems
  • Though the whites were put down, the Soviet
    internal situation remained critical in 1921,
    with the economy being below pre-war levels.
  • The anarchists and peasants began to revolt in
    the countryside in an attempt to do something
    about the starvation suffering of the masses.

46
The New Economic Policy (NEP)
  • This was Lenins plan to retain control and
    provide temporary relief.
  • Under the NEP, peasants were allowed to keep part
    of their produce, which they were allowed to sell
    for cash profit on newly-recreated local markets.
  • The govt kept control of heavy industry
    internatl trade, but light manufacturing and
    internal trade was returned to private hands.

47
THE POWER STRUGGLE STALIN VS. TROTSKY
  • Lenin had a series of strokes between 1922
    1924. He finally died in 1924.
  • Trotsky Stalin both wanted to be Lenins
    successor.
  • Trotsky was a theorist who had organized the red
    army and the Petrograd Soviet.
  • Stalin was an activist who had been instrumental
    in forcing the minority republics to unite into
    the USSR. He also had control of the machinery
    of govt.
  • When Trotsky publicly criticized Stalins foreign
    policy in 1927, Stalin had him exiled to Siberia.
  • Trotsky eventually escaped to the west was
    assassinated by Stalins men in 1941.

48
STALINS FIVE YEAR PLANS
  • When Stalin came to power the NEP ended.
  • Stalin stated We are 50 or a 100 years behind
    the advanced countries. We must make good
    distance in ten years. Either we do it or we are
    crushed.
  • Five year plans were goals to build a strong base
    of heavy industry and modern infrastructure of
    electricity, roads, and factories.
  • The command economy developed, by a central govt.
    agency
  • First 5 year plan was successful, in part because
    they were so far behind
  • Soviet manufacturing was poor quality, with few
    consumer goods.

49
FORCED COLLECTIVIZATION OF AGRICULTURE
  • During the NEP a wealthy class of peasants
    accumulated land, known as the kulaks.
  • Stalin forced the and all peasants onto
    collective farms, taking their land.
  • The kulaks resisted by destroying crops and
    slaughtering livestock. Millions were killed in
    the collectivization and millions more died for
    the forced famine. Estimates are up to 10
    million.

50
Purges (1934-1938)
  • From 1934-1938, Stalin directed a series of
    wholesale purges consisting of trumped-up or
    false accusations, mock trials, and then suicide
    or execution. More than 4 million were accused.
  • Any were sent to gulags, or labor camps.
  • He did away with most of the old Bolshevik
    leaders and others who could challenge his power.

51
1936 Constitution
  • Although the constitution called for universal
    suffrage and appeared to be very liberal, it
    actually was circumvented by the fact that the
    party and the govt were controlled by the same
    few persons.
  • For example, even though the nation had a
    premier, in practice, the premier was always the
    comm. party secretary.
  • Although women were supposed to gain equal
    rights, in the 1920s many of their new rights
    were reversed and they were forced to balance
    work and family obligations.

52
TOTALITARIANISM
  • During WWI states grew in their power to mobilize
    and employ propaganda to control public opinion.
  • Communication advances in the interwar period,
    such as radio and motion pictures provided
    additional means for controlling the populace.
  • What distinguishes totalitarianism from an
    absolute monarchy? Absolute monarchies were
    still hindered by tradition and geography.
    Totalitarians, controlled all aspects of society
    using TECHNOLOGY. Modern communications made it
    possible to control the entire population.

53
Fascism
  • What is fascism?
  • Fascism is a political philosophy which is
    anti-democratic, anti-communist, and
    anti-liberal. The following is a list that
    explains their ideas.
  • Militarism
  • Glorification of the State
  • Fuhrer Principle- German for leaders, this ideas
    is that the voice of the people is best
    represented in their leader, rather than a
    democratically elected body
  • Antidemocracy One-party rule- democracies were
    seen as weak. Therefore, elections ended.
  • Anticommunist- they upheld the importance of
    racial and national identify, which was condemned
    by communists who believed that all people were
    equal.

54
ITALY AFTER WWI
  • After switching sides to end the war fighting
    with the allies in WWI, Italy was disappointed in
    the lack of territorial gain she achieved at
    Versailles.
  • The Italian economy was in shambles after WWI,
    and unemployment was high. Workers engaged in
    numerous strikes.
  • Already low in respect, Italys democracy sank
    further.
  • Following the war, the king, Victor Emmanuel III
    was a figurehead with virtually no power.

55
The Rise of Mussolini
  • Mussolini organized the 1st fasces group in 1919.
  • In 1920, he founded a paramilitary group called
    the Black Shirts (squadristi).
  • He used the Black Shirts in a campaign of terror
    to promote fascist ideas.
  • 1921 Fascists were for the 1st time elected to
    the parliament.
  • Oct. 1922 March on Rome Mussolinis Blackshirts
    and thousands of discontented Italians marched on
    Rome demanding a new government.
  • The king yielded and gave Mussolini
    constitutional authority to form a new
    government, thus giving the fascists political
    power.

56
Italian Fascism
  • To get a majority in Parliament, Mussolini passed
    the Acerbo Law, which granted 2/3 of the party
    seats to the party that gained the most votes.
    With the tactics of the blackshirts, they gained
    control of parliament.
  • Soon after taking power, constitutionally,
    Mussolini created a fascist dictatorship.
  • He created a fascist militia (out of the
    Blackshirts)
  • He passed emergency power decrees
  • He revised the electoral system to assure him
    absolute control.
  • He eliminated all oppositional political parties
  • He censored the press
  • He called himself Il Duce

57
CORPORATE STATE
  • Mussolini controlled the economy by creating what
    he called the corporate state.
  • The state represented labor in negotiations, in
    industrial planning, expansion, etc.
  • The economy was run as 22 separate corporations.
  • State dictated policy and production priorities,
    but private property was allowed.
  • The chief economic and social problems remained
    unsolved by the Fascists.

58
THE LATERAN ACCORDS WOMEN
  • Mussolini granted independent status to the
    Vatican in exchange for promises of
    non-interference from the church in all
    political, social, economic, and military
    spheres.
  • To address declining birth rates, Mussolini
    provided incentives to larger families. In a
    fascist state, women were to play the domestic
    role of rearing strong children.

59
Foreign Policy
  • Mussolini sent his fascist troops to intervene in
    the Spanish Civil War to help Franco take over
    Spain.
  • Mussolini, hoping to take over more territory and
    avenge the 1896 defeat at Adowa, invaded Ethiopia
    and quickly took it over.
  • Despite the efforts, Italy was never able to
    realize the totalitarian state to the degree of
    the USSR or Nazi Germany.

60
Germany After WWI
  • Nov. 1918 Kaiser Wilhelm was ousted and the
    Weimar Republic was created.
  • Nov. 11, 1918 Germany surrendered, ending WWI.
  • Since the Weimar Republic signed the Treaty of
    Versailles, it was blamed and was considered weak
    in comparison to imperial Germany.
  • The Germans viewed the treaty as the Diktat or
    dictated peace. Hitler and others perpetuated
    the myth that the German army had been stabbed
    in the back by the Jews, socialists,
    communists, and democrats who wanted a
    democratic government.

61
SPARTICIST REVOLT
  • Extremist groups attempted to overthrow the
    government immediately.
  • Opposition came from the far left
    (Communists/Sparticists) and the far right
    (Fascists).
  • Sparticist Uprising Jan. 1919 led by Rosa
    Luxemberg and Karl Liebknecht. Put down by the
    Freikorps (a right-wing army group)

62
REPARATIONS, THE RUHR, AND HYPERINFLATION
  • In 1923 Germany fell behind on its reparations
    payments. In response the French and Belgians
    invaded the industrial Rhur Valley.
  • Weimar leaders told workers to passively resist,
    and to not work. To pay the workers benefits
    and wages, they printed more paper money- causing
    hyperinflation. Overnight middle-class savings
    were wiped out.
  • Since Americas Allies couldnt pay back their
    loans without reparations, the US lent Germany
    the money to pay its reparations through the
    Dawes Plan (this would later cause Germanys
    economy to crash with the US in the Great
    Depression).

63
BEER HALL PUTSCH
  • During the hyperinflation, the Nazis chose to
    act hoping to overthrow the government.
  • 1923 Munich Beer Hall Putsch Hitler led a
    coup in a Munich Beer Hall and were arrested
    imprisoned.
  • While in jail, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf and began
    to plan how he would later take over Germany.
  • The Nazis realized they needed to work within the
    government in order to take over Germany.

64
The Stresemann Years
  • Under Stresemann, the Weimar government achieved
    some degree of solvency and stability.
  • The Locarno Pacts These agreements were signed
    by most of the European nations.
  • Allowed Germany to join the League of Nations
  • Guaranteed Western, but not E. borders.
  • Germany recognized its permanent loss of the
    Alsace-Lorraine
  • In the Spirit of Lacarno culminated with the
    Kellogg-Briand Pact, which made war illegal
    amongst 65 nations. Like the League of Nations,
    it had no way to enforce its decisions.

65
The Rise of Hitler
  • Although it seemed that Hitlers chances of
    gaining power were slim in the 1920s, the great
    depression changed the political climate of
    Germany and caused people to have a reason to
    listen to his promises.
  • The Nazi party promised to regain German
    greatness, provide prosperity, and rise above the
    disgrace of Versailles.

66
CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION
  • Strong inflationary pressures- During World War
    I, governments borrowed money at record rates.
    Most states depreciated (meaning lowered) their
    currency rates in an effort to reduce the amount
    they would pay in debt.
  • Disrupted Markets- While Europe fought World War
    I, competitors moved into its world-wide markets.
    When the war ended, European nations found it
    difficult to reestablish former trade patterns.

67
CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION
  • High Tariffs- To protect their home markets most
    countries enacted high tariff barriers
  • WWI Reparations Payments- The cycle of world
    capital flowed from the US to Germany, then from
    Germany to France and Great Britain, and finally
    back to the US. This unnatural arrangement
    disrupted investment, while making world economic
    activity reliant on American financial
    conditions.
  • When the US stock market crashed in October 1929,
    the economic depression spread throughout the
    world.

68
EFFECTS OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION
  • Unemployment reached shocking proportions,
    strengthening those parities who promised extreme
    solutions to problems. Germany and the US were
    hit hardest as many as 35 percent of workers
    were unemployed.
  • British economist John Maynard Keynes introduced
    an alternative approach to the economic
    situation. He argued that governments needed to
    prime and pump the economy by cutting taxes,
    spending on government programs to help the
    needy, and creating more government jobs.
    Keynesian economics was used in the US and
    France. It has become the new type of economics
    used by nations after 1945.

69
NAZI LEGALITY STRATEGY
  • The Nazis designed to take advantage of politics
    to create a mass movement. The Nazi message was
    simple Weimar represented rule by the worst-
    democrats, socialists, Jews-and Germany needed a
    strong national state based on race.
  • Germany required Lebensraum (living space) in the
    East, as part of a new European order around a
    hierarchy of race.
  • Members of the S.A. (Brownshirts) provoked street
    fights with rival political groups.
  • The party aligned itself with middle-class voters
    and portrayed themselves and young and dynamic,

70
Hitler Becomes Chancellor
  • Election of 1932
  • Hindenberg won the Presidency, but Hitler had a
    lot of support.
  • The Nazi party gained more seats in the
    Reichstag, but still did not have a majority.
  • Jan. 30, 1933 Hindenberg appointed Hitler
    Chancellor in a coalition cabinet.
  • Hitler immediately began to consolidate his power.

71
HITLERS CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
  • 1933 Hitler arranged for a fire to burn the
    Reichstag building.
  • The fire was blamed on the communists and was
    used as justification for kicking all of the
    communists out of the government.
  • Eventually, Germany became a one-party state.
  • After the Reichstag fire, Hitler invoked the
    emergency clause of the constitution and ruled by
    decree.
  • Hitler purged the SA leaders by having them
    killed in the Night of the Long Knives, thus
    ensuring his control of the Nazi party.

72
USE OF TERROR
  • 1934 Hindenberg died Hitler became President.
    Later he took on the title Fuehrer.
  • Internally, a secret police, the Gestapo,
    arrested real and imagined opponents, committing
    thousands to a constellation of concentration
    camps. Following the S.A. purge, the S.S.
    (Schutzstaffel) emerged as the primary
    perpetrators of terror, eventually absorbing
    control of the Gestapo, running the death camps,
    and forming the leading edge of a new Aryan
    racial elite.

73
HITLERS POLICIES
  • Hitler began to build up all branches of the
    military and instituted 4 year plans to step up
    production and building of war materials, food,
    and the Autobahn in order to help the economy.
  • Nazi racial policy touched all areas of life.
    Boys were enrolled in the Hitler Youth and girls
    in the League of German Maidens to reinforce
    traditional gender roles and build a strong
    racial stock.
  • Women were expected to fulfill the domestic
    duties of church, kitchen, and children, while
    their public and economic roles were limited by
    the state.

74
HITLERS POLICIES
  • Anti-Semitic policies fulfilled the Nazi racial
    vision. At first, Jews were excluded from the
    civil service and army. Then the Nuremberg Laws
    were passed, which stripped Jews of citizenship.
  • Nazi policies turned violent with the
    Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) of November
    1938, in which synagogues were burned, businesses
    destroyed and hundreds of Jews killed or
    arrested.
  • To further the goal of a pure Aryan race, the
    Nazis also engaged in campaigns of sterilization
    for the mentally unfit and euthanasia for the
    terminally ill, insane, and physically deformed.

75
Mid-war England
  • England faced a wide variety of problems between
    the wars. These problems included economic
    crises, political instability, disputes over the
    future of Ireland, and colonial difficulties.
  • Of all the industrial nations, Great Britain
    depended the most on trade. World War I and the
    Great Depression both struck a blow against
    Britains dominant position. Its overseas trade
    destroyed, the nation was deeply in debt, its
    factories were outdated. In 1920, over 2 million
    people were unemployed.

76
MID-WAR ENGLAND
  • Welfare legislation enacted before the war eased
    some of the burden to the unemployed. Despite
    the negative economic conditions, workers were
    reluctant to surrender gains made in wartime.
    Conflicts in industry led in 1926 to a General
    Strike, which was eventually squashed by
    government intervention.
  • Politically, the Labour Party replaced the
    Liberal Party and, after gaining power in 1924
    and again in 1929, extended the rights of
    workers.
  • The problems of a poor economy, diminished world
    status, and political tension place Britain in a
    weakened position to confront Nazi aggression.

77
Midwar France
  • France suffered enormous casualties in the war,
    and in the destruction of nearly one quarter of
    its economy.
  • France had borrowed money during the war and
    relied on German reparations to help spur its
    economy. The inability of Germany to make these
    payments led to a steady decline in the franc.
  • Frances actions in the Ruhr were attacked by the
    US and Britain- further isolating France.

78
Midwar France
  • In foreign policy, their chief concern was
    securing its borders against Germany. They built
    a line of fortifications along its western
    boundaries called the Maginot Line.
  • Failure because it did not cover the Belgian
    border, and because all the guns were fixed
    facing Germany.
  • The Great Depression came late to France. It
    brought an unstable political scene. In 1933,
    five coalition governments were formed and fell
    in rapid succession. In 1934, pro-Fascists
    rioted and threatened to overthrow the republic.

79
MIDWAR FRANCE
  • In 1936, the Communists, Socialists, and Radicals
    formed an alliance- the Popular Front- and united
    behind Leon Blume. Inspired by Franklin D.
    Roosevelts New Deal, he encouraged social
    reform, complete with paid vacations, and 40-hour
    work-weeks. Blum was forced out by conservatives.
  • Overall, the instability of the French government
    made it difficult for it to confront Nazi
    aggression.

80
HITLERS GOALS IN WORLD WAR II
  • Hitler sought to
  • regain those lands lost at Versailles
  • to subdue France and bring Britain
  • to turn east and conquer Slavic Europe as a vast
    farmland and slave labor force
  • to eliminate culture destroyers such as Jews
    and Gypsies.

81
POLICY OF APPEASEMENT
  • Dictators and militarists in Italy, Germany, and
    Japan took aggressive actions, which other
    European countries met with the policy of
    appeasement giving into the aggressors demands
    in order to keep out of war.
  • France was demoralized from World War One and
    Great Britain believed that Hitler was justified
    in violating the Versailles treaty because it was
    too harsh.
  • Appeasement was also based on the following
    concerns 1) lack of preparation for war due to
    budget constraints caused by the Great Depression
    2) a greater fear of Soviet communism and 3) the
    horrors brought about by World War I.

82
THE ROAD TO WAR
  • 1931 Japan invades Manchuria
  • 1933 Hitler withdraws Germany from the League of
    Nations.
  • 1935 Mussolini invades Ethiopia. Emperor Haile
    Selassie of Ethiopia protests to the League, but
    nothing is done.
  • 1936 Rejecting the Treaty of Versailles, Hitler
    remilitarizes the Rhineland. France and Britain
    do nothing, convincing Hitler of their weakness.

83
THE ROAD TO WAR SPANISH CIVIL WAR
  • 1936 General Francisco Franco and his fascist
    supporters begin a revolt against the government
    of Spain starting the civil war.
  • Hitler and Mussolini aid Franco.
  • Nazis use Spain as a dress rehearsal to test
    their new weapons and blitzkrieg warfare.
  • In 1939, Franco gains control of Spain and keeps
    control in a fascist dictatorship until his death
    in 1975.

84
ROAD TO WAR
  • 1938 Hitler invades Austria on the grounds that
    all German-speaking people belong together
    (Anschluss). Anschluss violates the World War
    One peace treaties. Western powers continue to
    do nothing.
  • September, 1938 Hitler demands the Sudetenland,
    a German-speaking region of Czechoslovakia. At
    Mussolinis suggestion, a conference is held at
    Munich. Neville Chamberlain, who became prime
    minister of England, believed that it was silly
    to get involved in quarrels with people Whom we
    know nothing about. The Munich Conference ceded
    the Sudetenland to German. Stalin is convinced
    the western democracies are too weak to confront
    Hitler.

85
ROAD TO WAR
  • March 10-16, 1939 Violating the Munich
    Agreement, Hitler takes all of Czechoslovakia.
  • 1939 Hitler signs the Non-Aggression Pact with
    Stalin. They agree not to fight each other.
    This protects Germany against a two-front war, as
    in World War One. A secret protocol provides for
    the division of Poland, the Baltic States, and
    Finland. A week later, both Hitler and the
    Soviet Union invade Poland to begin World War II.

86
Mobilization During the War
  • World War Two required an even higher level of
    mobilization and sacrifice among civilians than
    WWI. Many governments centralized production
    rationed programs.
  • Germany Germany did not mobilize effectively for
    wartime production. Hitler was reluctant to
    promote women in the workforce or call on German
    citizens to sacrifice consumer goods, recognizing
    the collapse of the war effort in 1917-1918.

87
Mobilization of Germany
  • Nazi Germany relied extensively on slave labor
    from conquered and occupied territories for
    armaments production. Only in 1944, when the war
    was nearing its end, did Germany move toward full
    mobilization, closing down popular amusements and
    rationing goods. German women never did enter
    the workforce in large numbers.

88
Mobilization in the Soviet Union
  • For the Soviet Union the conflict was known as
    the Great Patriotic War. Over 20 million Soviet
    citizens perished in the war. Once the Nazis had
    captured some of the best agricultural lands and
    threatened key industrial cities, the Soviets
    moved entire factories inland
  • There was supercentralization of the economy
    around the war effort and reduced the production
    of consumer goods.
  • Women also served in the armed forces, unique
    among the combatants, as with the famous Night
    Witches fighter pilots protecting Stalingrad.

89
Mobilization in Great Britain
  • Almost every adult assisted the war effort-women
    went into armament production and older citizens
    joined the Home Guard.
  • The government created ministries to oversee and
    distribute fuel, food, and war supplies.
  • Citizens develop self-sufficiency in food
    production, as with Dig for Victory gardens.
    Citizens received ration books with coupons and
    received only those war goods assigned to them.

90
WWII
  • Very little happened in the fall of 1939.
  • Winter War 1940 USSR vs. Finland
  • US still remained neutral, but began to follow
    cash carry policies for allies.
  • June 1940 France fell to the Nazis Vichy France
    created under Marshall Petain.
  • US started Lend-Lease
  • Dec. 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor bombed
  • US enters WWII

91
The Russian Front
  • June 1941 Germany invaded the USSR and headed
    for Moscow.
  • This action was eventually halted due to the
    terrible winter conditions and the scorched earth
    policy of the Russians.
  • June 1942 German offensive aimed at capturing S.
    Russia.
  • Very successful, at first.
  • Finally stopped at the Battle of Stalingrad

92
The Battle of Stalingrad
  • The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in
    the Eastern front of the war.
  • After this battle, the Russians were on the
    offensive and never lost another major battle to
    the Germans.
  • Russia captured over 300,000 German soldiers who
    became Russian prisoners of war.
  • The Allies had been attacking Germany from the
    West, after D-Day and their attack at Normandy.
  • The Russians entered Berlin in April, 1945.

93
The Atlantic Charter
  • Atlantic Charter August 1940
  • FDR Churchill met in the Atlantic and issued a
    statement by which peace would eventually be
    established.
  • It called for self-determination of liberated
    areas after the war
  • They agree to start the United Nations following
    the war
  • It stated that neither the US nor Britain were
    interested in territorial gain, as a result of
    the war.

94
The Teheran Conference
  • The Teheran Conference Dec. 1943
  • The Big Three FDR, Churchill, Stalin met to
    coordinate war plans in Europe.
  • The W. allies agreed to open a 2nd front in
    Europe, but did not do so until June, 1944.
  • This caused great animosity on the part of Stalin
    who was valiantly fighting off the Germans in the
    Southern USSR.

95
The Yalta Conference
  • Yalta Conference Feb. 1945
  • Big three Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin
  • Final decisions were made by the Allies
    concerning the impending defeat of Germany.
  • Agreed to allow the USSR to liberate Berlin.
  • Agreed on the division of Germany after the war.
  • Agreed that liberated areas would be allowed to
    hold free elections to choose a new govt after
    the war.
  • Agreed to hold the post-war Nuremberg trials.

96
The Potsdam Conference
  • Potsdam Conference July-August 1945
  • Big Three Stalin, Truman, Churchill/Atlee
  • Agreed to the actual terms of the division of
    Germany
  • Agreed to adjust the borders of Germany Poland
    to the USSRs favor.
  • Agreed to reparations for USSR using industry in
    East Germany
  • The USSR agreed to enter the Pacific war.
  • This is the start of the Cold War.

97
Decolonization
  • Postwar era saw total collapse of colonial
    empires. Between 1947 and 1962, almost every
    colonial territory gained independence.
  • Causes Modern nationalism and belief in
    self-determination and racial equality, spread
    from intellectuals to the masses in virtually
    every colonial territory after WWI. Decline of
    European prestige destruction of Europe during
    WWII. After 1945, European powers more concerned
    about rebuilding let colonies go
  • Great Britain- favored the partition and run
    for its colonies and mandates, encouraging
    contending political groups to sort out a
    settlement.
  • France- To reestablish prestige after its poor
    showing in WWII France was determined to hold
    onto its colonial empire. It soon faced
    communist opponents in French Indochina. This
    caused them to withdraw in 1954. In Algeria
    France was fighting French settlers, colons. The
    war produced a crisis for the government,
    bringing down the 4th republic, despite
    opposition from the army President deGaulle ended
    the imperialism of Algeria in 1962.
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