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American History Chapters 13 and 14

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American History Chapters 13 and 14 John Rockefeller John Rockefeller Made millions of dollars in the oil industry Created Standard Oil Company Complete Control of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: American History Chapters 13 and 14


1
American History Chapters 13 and 14
2
Great Plains
  • Great PlainsGrassland that extend through the
    western part of America
  • Native Tribes
  • Many different tribes (Iowa, Sioux, Cheyenne)
  • Hunted and followed buffalo (tepees)
  • Issues with White Man
  • Wanted to move west for land, gold, RR
  • Different views on land ownership
  • RR forced the government to get involved

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White Man vs Indians
  • Massacre at Sand Creek
  • 150 innocent Cheyenne women and children dead
  • Treaty of Ft. Laramie
  • Bozeman Trailhunting trail used by the Sioux
  • Treaty of Ft. Laramiesome Sioux signed this,
    said they would live along the Missouri River
  • Sitting Bull (Sioux Leader) did not sign this
    treaty
  • Black Hills (GOLD!!!)
  • George CusterUS general in charge of the 7th
    Calvary, supposed to make sure the Indians didnt
    interfere
  • Battle of Little Big Horn---Custers Calvary was
    surrounded and killed by Sitting Bull and others

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Government Solves the Problem??
  • Assimilation
  • Force the minority group to give up beliefs to
    fit into the main culture of the dominant group
  • Tried to force the Native Americans to live more
    like white people.
  • Dawes Act
  • Act that tried to Americanize the Native
    Americans
  • Gave them 160 acres to work withproblem was that
    most of the good land was stolen back by the
    white people
  • Main Problem Death of the buffalo due to over
    hunting by whites

7
End of the Indian Problems
  • Battle at Wounded Knee
  • Sitting Bull and others used the Ghost Dance to
    try to get their land back/get rid of the white
    people.
  • US Military saw this as a threat and surrounded
  • Gun went off, US Army attacked and killed over
    300 Native Americans
  • Last major battle between the Native Americans of
    the Plains and the US Army

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Cowboy Time
  • Longhorns
  • Cattle that the Spanish brought over
  • VaquerosMexican Cowboys
  • Why so popular?
  • Demand for beef was high, especially in cities
  • Long DrivesCowboys would herd cattle, transport
    them to RR and then ship them all over the
    country
  • Cowboy Life
  • All different races and color (Mexicans, Whites,
    Blacks, Native
  • Very difficultmost were done by the age of 40,
    weather, stampedes, Indian attacks all made it
    very dangerous
  • Cattle Industry fell apart because of bad
    weather, overgrazing of land, and barbed wire.

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Moving to the Plains
  • Transcontinental RR
  • Government bought a bunch of land to build a RR
    that went across the country
  • Central Pacific (Sacramento) and Union Pacific
    (Omaha) were the 2 companies that built it.
  • Caused people to move out west
  • Homestead Act
  • Gave 160 acres of free land to anyone that would
    settle and farm the area of the Great Plains
  • Successful in Iowa/Minnesota (good land)
  • Not so successful in other places b/c of bad
    land, cattle drives and angry Native Americans

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Moving West Again
  • By 1890, most of the land in American was owned
    by white people (govt. or citizens)
  • Life was very difficult
  • Soddy---sod homes that people lived in (no trees)
  • Natural disasters, Indians, loneliness
  • New Inventions helped make it easier to farm
  • Morrill Act
  • Gave money to establish Agricultural Colleges
    (ISU)
  • Helped improve farmers productivity

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Farming is not easy
  • Difficulties
  • Have to buy expensive machines to be successful
  • Low crop prices made it hard to pay back debts
  • Shipping Prices on RR were outrageous
  • Drought made it impossible to grow thingsfarmers
    began to go into more and more debt.
  • It cost more to take wheat from the Dakotas to
    Minneapolis than it did to take wheat from
    Chicago to England
  • Started to work together to get rights..

19
FarmersAssemble
  • Grange
  • Organization created by Oliver Kelly
  • Farmers would work together to improve lives
  • Main target was the RR
  • Farmers Alliance
  • Came after the Grange
  • Tried to improve financial conditions (loans,
    interests)
  • Populism
  • Movement of the People (political movement)
  • Farmers need political powerformed the Populist
    Party

20
Farmers and Politics
  • Populist Party
  • Demands more money in circulation, income tax
    reform, federal loan program, 8-hour work day
    (non-farmers) and better conditions.
  • Successful in the west, able to elect a handful
    of senators and governors.
  • Ideas from the Populist Party would become the
    platform of the modern Democrat Party
  • Government is responsible for fixing social and
    economical problems.

21
Economy is badlike today??
  • Panic of 1893
  • RR went bankrupt and farmers were in debt
  • People began to panic and the stock market
    crashed
  • Thousands of banks closed, 20 Unemployment
  • What should money be made of?
  • Gold vs Silver
  • Goldless coins, cause deflation (wealthy like)
  • Silvermore coins, cause inflation (poor like)
  • Election of 1896
  • William McKinley (Rep) defeated William Bryan
    (Dem)
  • Very sectionalizedwas the end of the Populist
    Movement

22
Chapter 14 Expansion of Industry
23
We are growing
  • Growth
  • After the Civil War, the US began to grow like
    crazy
  • By 1920, we were the leading industrial producer
    in the world
  • Natural Resources, government support, cheap
    labor, lots of people

24
Inventors are smart people
  • Many Inventions helped make the US strong
  • Edwin L DrakeSteam engine that drilled for oil
  • Oil boom (Kentucky, Ohio, Penn)
  • Initially oil made into Kerosene (gasoline was
    thrown away)
  • Eventually, they kept gasoline around
  • Bessemer Processtakes the carbon out of raw
    iron, makes the steel much easier to use
  • RR, Barbed wire, farm equipment, bridges,
    skyscrapers (Willam Jenny)

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Inventors are smart people
  • More Inventions
  • Thomas Edisonlight bulb
  • Found ways to make electricity safe to use
  • Changed how people lived, traveled (electric
    street cars), business (located anywhere, open
    all night, safer)
  • Christopher Sholesinvented the typewritter
  • Alexander Graham Bellinvented telephone
  • All of these inventions changed the world
  • More jobs for women
  • Made life easier, more modern

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RR Time Again
  • Transcontinental RR
  • Completion was critical to the west being settled
  • Conditions working on the project were horrible
  • Central Pacific (Chinese) and Union Pacific
    (Irish and Blacks) worked in horrible conditions
  • Over 2000 people died making this RR
  • Completed in 1869Utah Golden Spike
  • RR Time
  • Before, each city would have separate times
    (1200 in Chicago, 1210 in NYC)Problems
  • CF DowdDivide the earth into 24 time zones, map

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RR Causes Growth
  • Business and Towns Expanded
  • Why Mediapolis is where it is
  • Chicago, Minneapolis, etc
  • George Pullman
  • Built RR cars that people could sleep on
  • Tried to create a whole town around his factory,
    control the lives of workers (didnt work)
  • Credit Mobilier
  • RR Scandal involving Grants administration
  • Grange
  • Kept fighting the RR companies for fair prices
  • Interstate Commerce Actgave the government the
    right to set fair prices for RR activity

31
Andrew Carnegie
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • Became rich buy controlling the steel industry
  • Wanted to make products the cheapest and hired
    the best employees (incentive based)
  • Controlling the industry
  • Vertical Integrationbuying out all the suppliers
    (coal/iron fields, RR, etc)
  • Horizontal Integration---buy out all the rival
    steel companies

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John Rockefeller
  • John Rockefeller
  • Made millions of dollars in the oil industry
  • Created Standard Oil Company
  • Complete Control of Oil Industry
  • Mergertype of horizontal integration where
    companies come together or merge
  • Standard Oil Companya bunch of oil companies
    merged together to create this company)
  • Formed a trust, led by Rockefeller, could now
    underbid any other oil company.
  • Trusts are not a legal type of merger

36
Social Darwinism
  • Social Darwinism
  • Belief that the smartest, hardest working people
    would be the most successful in business.
  • Came from Charles Darwins book on natural
    selection, only the strong will survive
  • Made the business world more competitive, people
    tried to make more money
  • Embraced by Rockefeller and Carnegie

37
Opposition
  • Robber Barons
  • People were mad at both Carnegie/Rockefeller
  • Made a ton of but didnt do much to improve
    conditions for workers.
  • Also were able to run other companies out of
    business by under-bidding.
  • Both men did donate much back to community
  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act
  • Made it illegal to have a trust that interfered
    with free trade between states/countries.
  • Very difficult to enforce, hard to define what
    was a trust
  • More business have consolidated (join together)

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Changes in the workplace
  • Difference between North and South
  • North was growing, South remained the same
  • South was dependent on the North (RR, etc)
  • Eventually able to improve industry (forestry,
    mining, tobacco)
  • Changes in the Workplace
  • Came together (unionized) to protest bad working
    conditions
  • 12 hr. days, 7 days a week, no vacation, sick
    leave, employment, or disability, young children
    worked..
  • Injuries were very common, hundreds died each
    year in preventable work injuries.

40
Unions
  • National Labor Union/Knights of Labor
  • Early unions, open to everyone
  • 8 hr. work day and equal pay
  • Craft Unions (American Federation of Labor)
  • Skilled workers from all different trades
  • Samuel Gompers
  • Industrial Unions (American Railroad Union)
  • All Laborers (Skilled/Unskilled) Eugene
    Debs-leader
  • Similarities
  • All of these used boycotts and strikes to get
    demands that they wanted, all were able to
    improve the workplace

41
Socialism
  • Socialism
  • Government has total control of business, wealth,
    and property
  • Related on some levels to Communism
  • Eugene Debs
  • Mary Harris Jones (Mother Jones)
  • Fought to give women/children more rights in
    workplace

42
Government Intervention
  • Different Occasions when Govt. took control
  • Great Strike of 1877---RR Strike, ended by govt.
    troops
  • Haymarket Affair---riot that occurred in Chicago,
    many left dead
  • Homestead Strikesteel workers went on strike,
    attacked the people that worked in their place
    scabs
  • Pullman Company Strike
  • Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire---Fire that
    killed 146 women, only had one exit in place.
  • Even today, the Union remains powerful!
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