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American History Chapters 13 and 14


American History Chapters 13 and 14 John Rockefeller John Rockefeller Made millions of dollars in the oil industry Created Standard Oil Company Complete Control of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: American History Chapters 13 and 14

American History Chapters 13 and 14
Great Plains
  • Great PlainsGrassland that extend through the
    western part of America
  • Native Tribes
  • Many different tribes (Iowa, Sioux, Cheyenne)
  • Hunted and followed buffalo (tepees)
  • Issues with White Man
  • Wanted to move west for land, gold, RR
  • Different views on land ownership
  • RR forced the government to get involved

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White Man vs Indians
  • Massacre at Sand Creek
  • 150 innocent Cheyenne women and children dead
  • Treaty of Ft. Laramie
  • Bozeman Trailhunting trail used by the Sioux
  • Treaty of Ft. Laramiesome Sioux signed this,
    said they would live along the Missouri River
  • Sitting Bull (Sioux Leader) did not sign this
  • Black Hills (GOLD!!!)
  • George CusterUS general in charge of the 7th
    Calvary, supposed to make sure the Indians didnt
  • Battle of Little Big Horn---Custers Calvary was
    surrounded and killed by Sitting Bull and others

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Government Solves the Problem??
  • Assimilation
  • Force the minority group to give up beliefs to
    fit into the main culture of the dominant group
  • Tried to force the Native Americans to live more
    like white people.
  • Dawes Act
  • Act that tried to Americanize the Native
  • Gave them 160 acres to work withproblem was that
    most of the good land was stolen back by the
    white people
  • Main Problem Death of the buffalo due to over
    hunting by whites

End of the Indian Problems
  • Battle at Wounded Knee
  • Sitting Bull and others used the Ghost Dance to
    try to get their land back/get rid of the white
  • US Military saw this as a threat and surrounded
  • Gun went off, US Army attacked and killed over
    300 Native Americans
  • Last major battle between the Native Americans of
    the Plains and the US Army

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Cowboy Time
  • Longhorns
  • Cattle that the Spanish brought over
  • VaquerosMexican Cowboys
  • Why so popular?
  • Demand for beef was high, especially in cities
  • Long DrivesCowboys would herd cattle, transport
    them to RR and then ship them all over the
  • Cowboy Life
  • All different races and color (Mexicans, Whites,
    Blacks, Native
  • Very difficultmost were done by the age of 40,
    weather, stampedes, Indian attacks all made it
    very dangerous
  • Cattle Industry fell apart because of bad
    weather, overgrazing of land, and barbed wire.

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Moving to the Plains
  • Transcontinental RR
  • Government bought a bunch of land to build a RR
    that went across the country
  • Central Pacific (Sacramento) and Union Pacific
    (Omaha) were the 2 companies that built it.
  • Caused people to move out west
  • Homestead Act
  • Gave 160 acres of free land to anyone that would
    settle and farm the area of the Great Plains
  • Successful in Iowa/Minnesota (good land)
  • Not so successful in other places b/c of bad
    land, cattle drives and angry Native Americans

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Moving West Again
  • By 1890, most of the land in American was owned
    by white people (govt. or citizens)
  • Life was very difficult
  • Soddy---sod homes that people lived in (no trees)
  • Natural disasters, Indians, loneliness
  • New Inventions helped make it easier to farm
  • Morrill Act
  • Gave money to establish Agricultural Colleges
  • Helped improve farmers productivity

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Farming is not easy
  • Difficulties
  • Have to buy expensive machines to be successful
  • Low crop prices made it hard to pay back debts
  • Shipping Prices on RR were outrageous
  • Drought made it impossible to grow thingsfarmers
    began to go into more and more debt.
  • It cost more to take wheat from the Dakotas to
    Minneapolis than it did to take wheat from
    Chicago to England
  • Started to work together to get rights..

  • Grange
  • Organization created by Oliver Kelly
  • Farmers would work together to improve lives
  • Main target was the RR
  • Farmers Alliance
  • Came after the Grange
  • Tried to improve financial conditions (loans,
  • Populism
  • Movement of the People (political movement)
  • Farmers need political powerformed the Populist

Farmers and Politics
  • Populist Party
  • Demands more money in circulation, income tax
    reform, federal loan program, 8-hour work day
    (non-farmers) and better conditions.
  • Successful in the west, able to elect a handful
    of senators and governors.
  • Ideas from the Populist Party would become the
    platform of the modern Democrat Party
  • Government is responsible for fixing social and
    economical problems.

Economy is badlike today??
  • Panic of 1893
  • RR went bankrupt and farmers were in debt
  • People began to panic and the stock market
  • Thousands of banks closed, 20 Unemployment
  • What should money be made of?
  • Gold vs Silver
  • Goldless coins, cause deflation (wealthy like)
  • Silvermore coins, cause inflation (poor like)
  • Election of 1896
  • William McKinley (Rep) defeated William Bryan
  • Very sectionalizedwas the end of the Populist

Chapter 14 Expansion of Industry
We are growing
  • Growth
  • After the Civil War, the US began to grow like
  • By 1920, we were the leading industrial producer
    in the world
  • Natural Resources, government support, cheap
    labor, lots of people

Inventors are smart people
  • Many Inventions helped make the US strong
  • Edwin L DrakeSteam engine that drilled for oil
  • Oil boom (Kentucky, Ohio, Penn)
  • Initially oil made into Kerosene (gasoline was
    thrown away)
  • Eventually, they kept gasoline around
  • Bessemer Processtakes the carbon out of raw
    iron, makes the steel much easier to use
  • RR, Barbed wire, farm equipment, bridges,
    skyscrapers (Willam Jenny)

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Inventors are smart people
  • More Inventions
  • Thomas Edisonlight bulb
  • Found ways to make electricity safe to use
  • Changed how people lived, traveled (electric
    street cars), business (located anywhere, open
    all night, safer)
  • Christopher Sholesinvented the typewritter
  • Alexander Graham Bellinvented telephone
  • All of these inventions changed the world
  • More jobs for women
  • Made life easier, more modern

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RR Time Again
  • Transcontinental RR
  • Completion was critical to the west being settled
  • Conditions working on the project were horrible
  • Central Pacific (Chinese) and Union Pacific
    (Irish and Blacks) worked in horrible conditions
  • Over 2000 people died making this RR
  • Completed in 1869Utah Golden Spike
  • RR Time
  • Before, each city would have separate times
    (1200 in Chicago, 1210 in NYC)Problems
  • CF DowdDivide the earth into 24 time zones, map

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RR Causes Growth
  • Business and Towns Expanded
  • Why Mediapolis is where it is
  • Chicago, Minneapolis, etc
  • George Pullman
  • Built RR cars that people could sleep on
  • Tried to create a whole town around his factory,
    control the lives of workers (didnt work)
  • Credit Mobilier
  • RR Scandal involving Grants administration
  • Grange
  • Kept fighting the RR companies for fair prices
  • Interstate Commerce Actgave the government the
    right to set fair prices for RR activity

Andrew Carnegie
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • Became rich buy controlling the steel industry
  • Wanted to make products the cheapest and hired
    the best employees (incentive based)
  • Controlling the industry
  • Vertical Integrationbuying out all the suppliers
    (coal/iron fields, RR, etc)
  • Horizontal Integration---buy out all the rival
    steel companies

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John Rockefeller
  • John Rockefeller
  • Made millions of dollars in the oil industry
  • Created Standard Oil Company
  • Complete Control of Oil Industry
  • Mergertype of horizontal integration where
    companies come together or merge
  • Standard Oil Companya bunch of oil companies
    merged together to create this company)
  • Formed a trust, led by Rockefeller, could now
    underbid any other oil company.
  • Trusts are not a legal type of merger

Social Darwinism
  • Social Darwinism
  • Belief that the smartest, hardest working people
    would be the most successful in business.
  • Came from Charles Darwins book on natural
    selection, only the strong will survive
  • Made the business world more competitive, people
    tried to make more money
  • Embraced by Rockefeller and Carnegie

  • Robber Barons
  • People were mad at both Carnegie/Rockefeller
  • Made a ton of but didnt do much to improve
    conditions for workers.
  • Also were able to run other companies out of
    business by under-bidding.
  • Both men did donate much back to community
  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act
  • Made it illegal to have a trust that interfered
    with free trade between states/countries.
  • Very difficult to enforce, hard to define what
    was a trust
  • More business have consolidated (join together)

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Changes in the workplace
  • Difference between North and South
  • North was growing, South remained the same
  • South was dependent on the North (RR, etc)
  • Eventually able to improve industry (forestry,
    mining, tobacco)
  • Changes in the Workplace
  • Came together (unionized) to protest bad working
  • 12 hr. days, 7 days a week, no vacation, sick
    leave, employment, or disability, young children
  • Injuries were very common, hundreds died each
    year in preventable work injuries.

  • National Labor Union/Knights of Labor
  • Early unions, open to everyone
  • 8 hr. work day and equal pay
  • Craft Unions (American Federation of Labor)
  • Skilled workers from all different trades
  • Samuel Gompers
  • Industrial Unions (American Railroad Union)
  • All Laborers (Skilled/Unskilled) Eugene
  • Similarities
  • All of these used boycotts and strikes to get
    demands that they wanted, all were able to
    improve the workplace

  • Socialism
  • Government has total control of business, wealth,
    and property
  • Related on some levels to Communism
  • Eugene Debs
  • Mary Harris Jones (Mother Jones)
  • Fought to give women/children more rights in

Government Intervention
  • Different Occasions when Govt. took control
  • Great Strike of 1877---RR Strike, ended by govt.
  • Haymarket Affair---riot that occurred in Chicago,
    many left dead
  • Homestead Strikesteel workers went on strike,
    attacked the people that worked in their place
  • Pullman Company Strike
  • Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire---Fire that
    killed 146 women, only had one exit in place.
  • Even today, the Union remains powerful!