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THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN

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Title: Slide 1 Author: Brooks Baggett Last modified by: Tanner, Ron Created Date: 9/5/2010 1:31:22 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN


1
THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
2
  • Essential Question
  • What factors led to the collapse of the Roman
    Empire and what effect did the fall of Rome have
    on the Mediterranean world?
  • Warm-Up Question
  • In the cartoon on the next slide, identify as
    many Roman achievements as possible

3
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4
The Roman Republic Empire A Brief Overview
Rome began as a city-state that was heavily
influenced by Greek culture
5
The Roman Republic
By 509 BCE, Rome was ruled by elected Senators
who served in the Roman Republic
6
The Roman Republic
During the Republic, Rome expanded by defeating
Carthage in the Punic Wars and later under
generals like Julius Caesar
7
The Roman Republic
The Republic weakened due to corruption, civil
wars, and the assassination of Julius Caesar in
44 B.C.E.
8
The Roman Empire
After Julius Caesars death, Rome became an
empire ruled by the Emperor Augustus
9
The Roman Empire
Under Augustus, Rome entered an era of peace and
prosperity known as the Pax Romana
Pax Romana
10
The Roman Empire
After 207 years of prosperity during the Pax
Romana, the Empire began to decline and was
conquered in 476 A.D.
Pax Romana
Era of decline
11
The Decline of the Roman Empire
The decline and fall of the Roman Empire happened
gradually, in three stages
FIRST STAGE internal problems with politics, the
economy, and the military began an era of decline

SECOND STAGE there was a brief period of revival
as Emperors Diocletian and Constantine enacted
reforms however, some of these reforms would
help bring about the Empires end
THIRD STAGE repeated invasions by Germanic
barbarian tribes would lead to the conquest of
Rome, bringing the Roman Empire to an end
12
Romes Internal Problems POLITICAL and SOCIAL
The empire was too large for one emperor to
control
13
Romes Internal Problems POLITICAL and SOCIAL
Emperors after the Pax Romana were weak
14
Romes Internal Problems POLITICAL and SOCIAL
Citizens experienced a loss of confidence,
patriotism, and loyalty to the Roman government
15
Romes Internal Problems ECONOMIC
Outside groups disrupted trade
Poor harvests led to food shortages
16
Romes Internal Problems ECONOMIC
Rome had a trade imbalance (they bought more than
they produced)
The government raised taxes and minted new coins
which led to inflation
The economic decline left many Romans very poor
17
Romes Internal Problems MILITARY
Germanic tribes from Northern Europe, outside of
the Roman Empire, were gaining strength
18
Romes Internal Problems MILITARY
The Roman military was growing ineffective due to
poor leadership generals had their own interests
and were challenging the authority of the emperors
19
Romes Internal Problems MILITARY
To save money, Romans found it cheaper to hire
foreign soldiers instead of employing more
Romans these mercenaries were not truly loyal
to Rome
20
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21
The Decline of the Roman Empire
The decline and fall of the Roman Empire happened
gradually, in three stages
FIRST STAGE internal problems with politics, the
economy, and the military began an era of decline

SECOND STAGE there was a brief period of revival
as Emperors Diocletian and Constantine enacted
reforms however, some of these reforms would
help bring about the Empires end
THIRD STAGE repeated invasions by Germanic
barbarian tribes would lead to the conquest of
Rome, bringing the Roman Empire to an end
22
Attempts To Reform The Roman Empire EMPEROR
DIOCLETIAN
In 284 CE, Emperor Diocletian came to power he
began a series of reforms that temporarily halted
Romes decline
To fix the problems of the military, he doubled
the size of the Roman Army
To help the economy and stop inflation, he fixed
the prices of certain goods
23
Attempts To Reform The Roman Empire EMPEROR
DIOCLETIAN
In an attempt to do something about the lack of
loyalty and patriotism of many Roman citizens,
Diocletian presented himself as a godlike leader
He wanted to boost the prestige of the position
of emperor, so he claimed descent from the gods
and had numerous ceremonies to glorify himself
24
Attempts To Reform The Roman Empire EMPEROR
DIOCLETIAN
Diocletians most important reform was dividing
the Roman Empire into two parts the Eastern
Empire and the Western Empire
25
Attempts To Reform The Roman Empire EMPEROR
DIOCLETIAN
Western
Eastern
Diocletians most important was reform was
dividing the Roman Empire into two parts the
Eastern Empire and the Western Empire
26
Attempts To Reform The Roman Empire EMPEROR
DIOCLETIAN
Western
Eastern
The Roman Empire was divided by language the
mostly Latin-speaking Western half and the mostly
Greek-speaking Eastern half
27
Attempts To Reform The Roman Empire EMPEROR
DIOCLETIAN
Western
Eastern
However, the Empire was also divided by wealth
the East was far richer than the West because it
contained more major cities and trade centers
28
Attempts To Reform The Roman Empire EMPEROR
DIOCLETIAN
Diocletians reasons for the division he
believed that the Empire had grown too large and
too complex for one ruler
He took the Eastern half for himself and
appointed a co-emperor to run the West however,
Diocletian had overall control of the Empire
29
Attempts To Reform The Roman Empire EMPEROR
CONSTANTINE
After Diocletians death, there was a power
struggle among several men who wanted to rule the
Empire
Emerging victorious and becoming the new emperor
of the West was Constantine
Constantine continued many of Diocletians
reforms, but he reversed the biggest reform he
reclaimed the East and the Roman Empire once
again had a single ruler
30
Attempts To Reform The Roman Empire EMPEROR
CONSTANTINE
Constantine made other changes wanting to unify
Rome and recognizing that Christianity was on the
rise and could not be destroyed, he ended
persecutions of Christians and made it a legal
religion
Constantine later converted to Christianity
himself
The emperor after him would go on to make
Christianity the official religion of Rome this
would have unexpected consequences
31
Attempts To Reform The Roman Empire EMPEROR
CONSTANTINE
In 330 CE, Constantine made a change that would
have far-reaching consequences for the world he
moved the capital of the Roman Empire and his
seat of power from Rome to a Greek city called
Byzantium
32
Given its location on the Bosporus Strait, the
city was also in a more easily defensible
position from Northern invaders than Rome was
Byzantium, the new capital
Byzantium was perfectly located to be the center
of trade between East and West
Rome, the old capital
33
When it was constructed, Byzantium had a strong
Greek and Christian influence the new capital
was soon protected by massive walls and later was
the home to many great new structures built in
the Roman style
Byzantium eventually took on a new name
Constantinople (or City of Constantine)
34
After Diocletian and Constantine died, the
Eastern half of the Empire continued to grow
wealthier and more powerful
35
The Western half, on the other hand, once again
began to decline
36
The Decline of the Roman Empire
Reasons why the Western side of the Roman Empire
once again slid into decline political
corruption, weakening economy, and terrible
plagues
Also, Roman citizens were less concerned with the
fate of the Roman Empire and more preoccupied
with thoughts of the afterlife (because of the
dominance of Christianity)
37
The Decline of the Roman Empire
All of these issues made the Western Roman Empire
weak and vulnerable (open to attack)
38
The Decline of the Roman Empire
The decline and fall of the Roman Empire happened
gradually, in three stages
FIRST STAGE internal problems with politics, the
economy, and the military began an era of decline

SECOND STAGE there was a brief period of revival
as Emperors Diocletian and Constantine enacted
reforms however, some of these reforms would
help bring about the Empires end
THIRD STAGE repeated invasions by Germanic
barbarian tribes would lead to the conquest of
Rome, bringing the Roman Empire to an end
39
The Fall of the Roman Empire
By 370 CE, barbarian tribes from Asia and
Northern Europe were attacking both halves of the
Empire
40
The Fall of the Roman Empire
The Eastern half was well-protected, organized,
strong, and prosperous it fought off the invaders
The Western half was vulnerable, disorganized,
and weak it could not defend itself from the
invaders
41
The Fall of the Roman Empire
A marauding barbarian tribe from Central Asia
called the Huns began the invasions
The Huns swept into Northern Europe, conquering
all in their path
42
The Fall of the Roman Empire
When the Huns invaded Northern Europe, they were
so fierce that they even made the Germanic tribes
want to avoid them
43
The Fall of the Roman Empire
To avoid the Huns, the Germanic tribes moved
south into the Western Roman Empires territory
44
The Fall of the Roman Empire
These Germanic groups (such as the Vandals,
Goths, Visigoths, Franks, and Ostrogoths) did not
move into Roman territory peacefully
They repeatedly attacked the Western Romans
45
The Fall of the Roman Empire
When a vicious new leader named Attila united the
Hun tribes, the Huns also attacked both sides of
the Roman Empire
The Eastern side, centered around Constantinople,
successfully fought off the attacking Huns
The Western side, attacked at several places by
the Huns and Germanic tribes, crumbled and was
conquered
ATTILA THE HUN
46
The Fall of the Roman Empire
The city of Rome itself was captured and looted
by the Visigoths in 410 CE
47
The Fall of the Roman Empire
The German warrior Odoacer removed the last Roman
emperor from power
48
The Fall of the Roman Empire
The weak Western Roman Army could do little to
stop the invasions by 476 CE, Germanic
barbarians took over the city of Rome and
conquered the West
49
The once-united Western Roman Empire broke up
into numerous smaller kingdoms and territories,
each ruled over by different Germanic groups
50
The fall of the Western Roman Empire and the
emergence of numerous small kingdoms led Europe
to the Middle Ages
51
The fall of the Western Roman Empire and the
emergence of numerous small kingdoms led Europe
to the Middle Ages
52
The Eastern Roman Empire, now known as the
Byzantine Empire, not only remained together but
survived for nearly a thousand more years
53
The Importance of the Byzantine Empire
The combination of Greek, Roman, and Hellenistic
(the blend of Greek and Asian cultures)
achievements are known as Greco-Roman culture
The Byzantine Empire kept alive the cultural
achievements of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome
at the same time as Han China and Gupta India
were creating their own great civilizations
If the Byzantine Empire also fell, it is possible
that the great innovations and achievements of
these great civilizations could have been lost
forever
Greco-Roman achievements are the foundation of
Western civilization, the culture Americans live
in today
54
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