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Why states choose integration


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Title: Why states choose integration

Why states choose integration
  • October 6, 2011

What is the European Union?
  • International Organization
  • No autonomous powers
  • No authority to impose its rulings on its members
  • Federation
  • European Union
  • Voluntary integration among sovereign states
  • EU inst. make laws and policies binding on the MS

What is integration?
  • Integration sharing and pooling sovereignty vs.
    transfer or delegation of sovereignty and
  •  Integration process by which political leaders
    and citizens in separate countries create new
    common governing institutions, giving these
    institutions jurisdictional powers and shift some
    of their loyalties and expectations to that new
    level of government (McCormick, 2002, p. 13)
  • Separate individual decisions vs. joint
    decisions OR delegate decisions to new

What is supranationalism?
  • Supranationalism a process by which national
    governments share sovereignty with transnational
    institutions whose laws and policies are binding
    on those governments
  • majority voting by national representatives in
    order to make decisions
  • executive authority and parliamentary body
    independent of national control
  • independent court whose jurisprudence is binding
    at the national level, level of member states

Levels of Integration
  • 1- General liberalization of tariff and quotas
  • 2- Free Trade Areas removal of tariffs, quotas
    and NTBs (NAFTA, Israel-Turkey etc..)
  • 3- Customs Union FTA Common External Tariffs
    (Free movement of goods).
  • 4- Common Market Fully integrated market with
    four freedoms, free movement of goods, capital,
    people and services, extensive harmonization of
  • 5- Economic/Monetary Union (common fiscal and
    monetary policies with common currency)
  • 6- Political Union ?

How to explain European integration theories of
  • Theorizing about explaining integration vs.
    analyzing governance and constructing the EU
    in T. Diez and A. Wiener, Introducing the mosaic
    of integration theory in Wiener and Diez, eds.,
    European integration theory (Oxford University
    Press, 2004).

Early theorizing on European Integration
  • Functionalism
  • Mitrany (1943), Excerpts in Nelsen and Stubb.
    Boulder Lynne Rienner. 99-119.
  • Break away from the link between authority and
  • international cooperation on functionally
    specific fields
  • More efficient provision
  • Help transfer loyalties to intl level
  • Evolution of cooperation

Functionalism in practice
  • Jean Monnet
  • Preoccupation with the technical and
    non-controversial issues
  • Institutions

Functionalism in Practice R. Schuman
  • The Schuman Declaration (1950)
  • Europe will not be made all at once or according
    to a single plan. It will be built through
    concrete achievements which first create a de
    facto solidarity

Theorizing on European Integration
  • Functionalism
  • Critique
  • Linear and automatic integration?
  • No theory of politics
  • Neofunctionalism
  • E. H aas, The Uniting of Europe (1968) also
    excerpts reprinted in elsen and Stubb. 2003. The
    European Union Readings on the Theory and
    Practice of European Integration, Boulder Lynne
    Rienner. pp. 145-9. P. Schmitter, Three
    Neo-Functional Hypothesis about international
    integration International Organization, Vol. 23,

  • 1) Clarified the dependent variable (the outcome
    to be explained)
  • 2) Clarified the concept of spillover
  • 3) Attempted to develop a theory of politics and
    to insert political agency
  • - Spillover
  • - Institutions
  • 4) Scientific study of the phenomena of regional

Political integration
  • the process whereby political actors in several
    distinct national settings are persuaded to shift
    their loyalties, expectations and political
    activities toward a new center, whose
    institutions possess or demand jurisdiction over
    the preexisting national states. The end result
    of a process of political integration is a new
    political community, superimposed over the
    preexisting ones

  • The background conditions
  • Pluralistic social structure
  • High level of economic and industrial development
  • Ideological homogeneity
  • Given the background conditions, how does
    integration happen?

1. The Concept of Spillover
  • Main mechanism of change
  • Spillover refers to a situation in which a given
    action creates a situation in which the original
    goal can be assured only by taking further
  • Functional (from sector to sector), political
    (support for further integration/barrier to
    retreat) and cultivated spillover (Commission
    fosters pressure groups/interests i.e. Erasmus)
  • Some sectors have more integrative potential

2. Interest Groups
  • Political parties, interest groups (UNICE, ETUC)
  • Supranational orientation
  • Transnational cooperation to achieve common goals

3. Supranational Institutions
  • Significance of supranational institutions and
    their leaders
  • Elite socialization
  • Working with supranationally-oriented interests

Neofunctionalism, evolution
  • Initial success of neofunctionalism
  • (From ECSC to EEC beyond)
  • Slow pace of integration, de Gaulle nationalism
  • Revived again in the 1990s
  • De-emphasized spillover, emphasized institutions

Critiques of Neofunctionalism
  • Slow pace of integration (mid 60s- mid 80s)
  • States still important
  • No elite socialization
  • International context of regional integration
  • Theory of regional integration OR empirical

  • Basic literature S. Hoffman, Obstinate or
    Obsolete? The Fate of the Nation-State and the
    case of Western Europe Deadalus, Vol. 95, 1966,
    pp. 862-915 and The European Sisyphus Essays on
    Europe, 1964-1995 (Boulder, 1995).
  • Reaction to the empty chair crisis June 1965
    January 1966 provoked by Charles de Gaulle and
    resolved with the Luxembourg Compromise calling
    for unanimity decision making at the Council.

Main Features I
  • Organized interest vs. political calculations
    integration only possible when governments want
    it and suit their interest
  • Governments uniquely powerful actors and
    determine integration by national interest
  • Where national interests coincide closer
    cooperation but not in the area of high politics

Main Features II
  • Governments can not be overwhelmed by pressure
    groups to integrate but political calculations
    matter most
  • - impact of integration on economy 
  • - electoral performance of party in government
  • interest groups may influence low politics but
    only influence ultimate arbiter government
  • - posses legal sovereignty
  • - political legitimacy

Liberal Intergovernmentalism
  • Basic literature A. Moravcsik, The Choice for
    Europe (Cornell University Press, 1998) and
    Preferences and Power in the EC JCMS, Vol. 31,
    No. 4, 1993.
  • Reaction to the Treaty on the European Union.

Main Features
  • the notion of two level games
  • domestic political processes determine national
    interest (balance of interests within a state)
  • reconciliation of national interests at the table
    of Council of Ministers
  • - 1st reach agreement on common policy
    response to problem to be solved
  • - 2nd reach agreement on appropriate
    arrangement e.g. treaties etc

  • major choice of integration reflection of
    preferences of national governments not
    preferences of supranational considerations 
  • national preferences balance of economic
    interests rather than political biases of
    politicians or national strategic concerns
  • outcomes a function of
  • - relative bargaining,
  • - prevent defection rather than federalist
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