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Graphic Novels in My Classroom?

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Larry Bedenbaugh UCF College of Education 8th Annual Literacy Symposium – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Graphic Novels in My Classroom?


1
Graphic Novels in My Classroom?
  • Larry Bedenbaugh
  • UCF College of Education
  • 8th Annual Literacy Symposium

2
Food for Thought
  • My father used to try and help me, and I got to
    loving to read, because he allowed me to read
    comics, which most people said you shouldn't let
    your child read because they will spoil him. But
    that gave me an extraordinary hunger for
    reading.
  • Bishop Desmond Tutu
  • Nobel Prize Winner

3
Food for Thought
  • On the basis of my personal experience and the
    research available, I would go so far as to say
    if you have a child who is struggling with
    reading, connect him or her with comics. If an
    interest appears, feed it with more comics.
  • Jim Trelease
  • Author and Educator

4
Food for Thought
  • As one of only five art forms native to America
    the banjo, jazz, musical comedy, the mystery
    novel, and the humble comic book, comic books
    deserve their place in our history, our culture,
    and our society."
  • David Jay Gabriel, President
  • New York City Comic Book Museum

5
Food for Thought
  • The great sorrow of my life is never having done
    comics.
  • Pablo Picasso

6
Food for Thought
  • "Graphic novels are terrific in that they have a
    good story but they have pictures and images that
    teens can relate to and enjoy. So you get the
    combination of the words and the images that help
    pick up on the power of images in teens' lives."
  • Maurice Freedman, President American Library
    Association

7
What are Graphic Novels?
  • Will Eisner who initiated the term graphic
    novels, said they are Sequential Artthe
    arrangement of pictures or images and words to
    narrate a story or dramatise an idea.

8
What are Graphic Novels?
  • Keith R. A. DeCandido, an international
    best-selling author, defined a graphic novel as
    a self contained story that uses a combination
    of text and art to articulate the plot.

Middle
9
What are Graphic Novels?
  • Diamond Comics defines graphic novels
  • A comic book that is longer in format than a
    pamphlet, and typically contains a complete story
    unto itself. Graphic novels usually have higher
    production values than the typical stapled comic
    book they may be squarebound, for example, with
    cardstock covers. Some may be hardcover volumes.
    Although a graphic novel usually stands on its
    own as a complete story, it is possible to have a
    ongoing series or limited series of graphic
    novels telling a single story or series of
    related stories.

High
10
What are Graphic Novels?
  • ALA RUSA Codes Materials Reviewing
  • Committee defines graphic novels as
  • Books created in the format recognized as
    graphic novels are presented in sequential art,
    with the requirement upon creator and reader to
    work between image and word for a full
    understanding of narrative content. Such books
    usually include a structure of panels. For review
    purposes, graphic novels include independently
    conceived full-length narratives, bound volumes
    of longer sequential art series, and collections
    of works as brief as comic strips.

Middle
11
Genres of Graphic Novels
  • Superhero
  • Fantasy
  • Science fiction
  • Historical
  • Action/Adventure
  • Realistic Fiction
  • Biography
  • Adaptations of classics
  • Manga (Japanese comics)
  • Humor
  • Horror
  • Romance
  • Political commentary

Middle
12
Types of Graphic Novels
  • Human Interest Story
  • Adaptations or Spin-offs
  • Satire (Cartoon Journalism)
  • Nonfiction
  • Superhero
  • Manga

Middle
13
Milestones
  • 1837
  • The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck earliest known
    comic book

14
Milestones
  • 1897
  • The Yellow Kid in McFaddens Flats coined the
    phrase, comic book
  • Beginning of the Platinum Age

15
Milestones
  • 1934
  • Famous Funnies 1

16
Milestones
  • 1939
  • Jerry Siegel and Joe Schuster create Superman,
    one of the first modern superheroes
  • Begins the Golden Age of Comics

17
Milestones
  • 1954
  • Dr. Frederic Wertham published Seduction of the
    Innocent, condemning comic books as a negative
    influence on young children

18
Milestones
  • 1954
  • US Senate investigates the relationship between
    comic books and juvenile delinquency

19
Milestones
  • 1954
  • Comics Code Authority (analogous to Hollywoods
    Code, but far stricter)

20
Milestones
  • 1956
  • The Silver Age of Comics begins

21
Milestones
  • 1961
  • Marvel publishes Fantastic Four 1

22
Milestones
  • 1978
  • Will Eisner writes 1st graphic novel, A Contract
    with God and Other Tenement Stories

High
23
Milestones
  • 1992
  • Art Spiegelman, won the Pulitzer Prize for his
    1986 Maus I, an examination of the Holocaust

Middle/High
24
Milestones
  • 1997
  • Doug Murray, won the Best Media of the Vietnam
    War Award from the Bravo Organization for The Nam

Middle/High
25
Milestones
  • 2000
  • In November The New York Times Book Review
    includes a review of four graphic novels

26
Milestones
  • 2001
  • Chris Wares graphic novel, Jimmy Corrigan, won
    Britains Guardian First Book Award

27
Milestones
  • 2002
  • The American Library Association's 2002 Teen Read
    Week theme was Getting Graphic _at_ Your Library

28
Milestones
  • 2002
  • C.O.M.I.C.S. (Challenging Objective Minds An
    Instructional Comicbook Series), by Dan Tandarich
    with the New York City Comic Book Museum, is
    developed to teach reading and writing skills

29
Milestones
  • 2002
  • First Annual Free Comic Book Day

30
Urban Legends of Graphic Novels
  • Nudity
  • Sex and innuendo
  • Excessive violence
  • Sexist
  • Inappropriate language
  • Crude humor
  • Frivolous entertainment
  • Short on redeeming social, educational, or moral
    value
  • Typically written at a fourth to sixth grade
    reading level
  • Hinders literacy development

Adult
31
What Does the Research Say?
  • In 1981, Lee Dorrell and Ed Carroll performed a
    study in which the mere presence of comic books
    in a collection increased library use 82, with a
    30 increase in the circulation of non-comic book
    material.

Middle
32
What Does the Research Say?
  • In a study of "rare words per 1000," D. P. Hayes
    M. G. Ahrens (1988) showed that the oral
    language of college graduates as the low17.3
    rare words per 1000, and the abstracts of
    scientific articles as the high128 rare words
    per 1000 and comic books introduced more new
    words than did adult books (53.5 vs. 52.7).

High
33
What Does the Research Say?
  • A 1992 study of more than 200,000 students from
    32 countries revealed that Finland, the nation
    with the highest proportion of comic book reading
    students (nearly 60), also had the highest
    literacy rate (99), as well as the highest
    library usage.

Elementary
34
What Does the Research Say?
  • Stephen Krashen reported (1993) that research
    showed graphic novels are linguistically
    appropriate and bear no negative impact on
    language acquisition, and, in fact, light reading
    (e.g., graphic novels) positively correlated with
    achievement.

Middle
35
What Does the Research Say?
  • In a 1993 study in the Journal of Child Language,
    researchers concluded that the average comic book
    introduced kids to twice as many words as the
    average childrens book, and five times as many
    words as they were likely to be exposed to in the
    average child-adult conversation.

Middle
36
What Does the Research Say?
  • M. R. Lavin (1998) suggested that reading graphic
    novels may require more complex cognitive skills
    than the reading of text alone.

High
37
What Does the Research Say?
  • Sherry Kerr and T. H. Culhane (2000) concluded
    that children who grow up with comic books often
    seem to have a better vocabulary and
    understanding of how to use verb tenses than
    those who, all other things being equal, do not
    read comics.

Middle
38
What Does the Research Say?
  • M. W. Smith and J. D Wilhelm (2002) reported that
    boys in particular gravitated toward reading
    materials that were highly visual.

Middle
39
What Does the Research Say?
  • Tabitha Simmons (2003) reported that in a graphic
    novel, readers must not only decode the words and
    the illustrations, but must also identify events
    between the visual sequences.

Elementary
40
What Does the Research Say?
  • Robyn Hill (2004) concluded that reading comic
    books may help to (among others)
  • develop an increased interest in reading
  • develop language skills and a rich and varied
    vocabulary
  • foster interest in a variety of literary genres

Teachers
41
What Do Librarians Say?
  • Steve Weiner, a Massachusetts librarian, saw his
    circulation jump 42 the first year he added
    superhero comics to his collection.

Middle/High
42
What Do Librarians Say?
  • Sharon Richert said her Florida high school
    library Fiction section doubled in circulation
    and in one fifteen day span circulated almost
    1,000 graphic novels.

43
What Do Librarians Say?
  • Francisca Goldsmith, the Collection Management
    and Promotion Librarian at Berkeley Public
    Library, said, Some reluctant readers will
    gladly pick up a graphic novel over a typical
    novel and since the illustrations support the
    text, graphic novels also help encourage
    literacy.

Middle
44
What Do Librarians Say?
  • Middle school librarians, Larry Dorrell and Ed
    Carroll, noted at the conclusion of a study in
    Missouri that, Library traffic experienced an
    immediate and lasting change after the
    introduction of comic books into the school
    library.

Middle
45
What Do Librarians Say?
  • Allyson A. W. Lyga, a Maryland elementary media
    specialist said, Since I started stocking our
    school library with graphic novels six years ago,
    Ive discovered that kids love them. Our
    collection, for students in kindergarten through
    fifth grade, now has around 125 graphic novels,
    and theyre by far our most heavily circulated
    items.

Elementary
46
The Appeal of Graphic Novels
  • Motivating
  • Visual
  • Permanent
  • Intermediary
  • Popular

High
47
How Can They Be Used?
  • Literary Devices
  • Setting
  • Plot
  • Character development
  • Allusion
  • Allegory
  • Foreshadowing
  • Irony
  • Satire
  • Stereotyping
  • Flashback
  • Metaphor
  • Symbolism
  • Imagery

Middle/High
48
How Can They Be Used?
  • Examine and Compare
  • Cultural Knowledge
  • social roles and conventions
  • power structures
  • formal and informal communication styles
  • dress
  • mannerisms
  • values
  • stereotypes

Middle
49
Curricula Focus
  • Cultural Issues
  • The Four Immigrants Manga
  • Henry (Yoshitaka) Kiyama, 1999

Middle/High
50
Curricula Focus
  • Cultural Issues
  • Still I Rise
  • Roland Owen Laird, Taneshia Nash Laird, Elihu
    Bey, 1997

Middle
51
Curricula Focus
  • Cultural Issues
  • 2024
  • Ted Rall, 2001

High
52
Curricula Focus
  • Cultural Issues
  • Stuck Rubber Baby
  • Howard Cruse, 1995

High
53
Curricula Focus
  • Math
  • The Cartoon Guide to Statistics
  • Larry Gonick Wollcutt Smith, 1993

High
54
Curricula Focus
  • Math
  • Prof. E McSquared's Calculus Primer Expanded
    Intergalactic Version
  • Howard Swann John Johnson, 2002

High
55
Curricula Focus
  • Math
  • Math Game 1
  • Math Game 2
  • Math Game 3
  • Tori Jung, 2005

Middle
56
Curricula Focus
  • Science
  • The Cartoon Guide to Genetics
  • Larry Gonick Mark Wheelies, 1991

Middle/High
57
Curricula Focus
  • Science
  • The Cartoon Guide to Physics
  • Larry Gonick Art Huffman, 1991

High
58
Curricula Focus
  • Science
  • The Cartoon Guide to the Environment
  • Larry Gonick and Alice Outwater, 1996

Middle/High
59
Curricula Focus
  • Science
  • The Cartoon Guide to Chemistry
  • Larry Gonick and Craig Criddle , 2005

High
60
Curricula Focus
  • Science
  • Dignifying Science Stories About Women
  • Jim Ottaviani, 2000

Middle/High
61
Curricula Focus
  • Science
  • Clan Apis
  • Jay Hosler, 2000

Middle
62
Curricula Focus
  • Science
  • Two-fisted Science Stories About Scientists
  • Jim Ottaviani, 2001

Middle/High
63
Curricula Focus
  • Science
  • Fallout
  • Jim Ottaviani, 2001

High
64
Curricula Focus
  • Science
  • The Sandwalk Adventures
  • Jay Hosler, 2003

Middle/High
65
Curricula Focus
  • Social Issues
  • I Think I Was An Alcoholic
  • John Callahan, 1993

High
66
Curricula Focus
  • Social Issues
  • Our Cancer Year
  • Harvey Pekar, Joyce Brabner, Frank Stack, 1994

High
67
Curricula Focus
  • Social Issues
  • The Tale of One Bad Rat
  • Brian Talbot, 1995

Middle/High
68
Curricula Focus
  • Social Issues
  • The Amazing True Story of a Teenage Single Mom
  • Katherine Arnoldi, 1998

High
69
Curricula Focus
  • Social Issues
  • Pedro and Me Friendship, Loss, and What I
    Learned
  • Judd Winick, 2000

High
70
Graphic Novels Help Students
  • Develop an increased interest in reading
  • Increase literacy in the broad sense of the word
  • Develop language skills and a rich and varied
    vocabulary
  • Foster interest in a variety of literary genres
  • Foster interest in a broad range of topics

Elementary
71
Graphic Novels Help Students
  • Stimulate a creative imagination
  • Develop an appreciation of art
  • Develop the ability to discuss and critique art
    and writing
  • Increase understanding of how meaning is found in
    visual phenomena
  • Enhance understanding of popular culture and
    other media

Middle/High
72
Questions To AskBefore Purchasing a Graphic
Novel
  • Is the book physically well produced and
    attractive?
  • Is the storyline coherent, imaginative,
    interesting and well written?
  • Is the language accessible and appropriate?

Middle/High
73
Questions To AskBefore Purchasing a Graphic
Novel
  • Does the cover illustration do justice to the
    material inside?
  • Are the words and pictures interdependent?
  • Does the book treat race, gender, and social
    class positively?

Middle
74
Questions To AskBefore Purchasing a Graphic
Novel
  • Is violence part of the nature of the story or is
    it gratuitous?
  • Is the text legible or is it obscures by
    illustrative matter, making it difficult to read?

Middle/High
75
Questions To AskBefore Purchasing a Graphic
Novel
  • Do the illustrations provide a subtle commentary
    on the printed word and move the story forward?
  • Are the illustrations of high standard, both
    artistically and technically?

Middle
76
Caveat
  • Jacquie McTaggart reminds us that it is
    important to understand that comics should
    supplement a balanced literacy program, not
    replace.

Middle
77
Additional Resources
  • Recommendations for Your Collection
  • No Flying, No Tights
  • http//www.noflyingnotights.com/
  • Graphic Novels Guru
  • http//www.graphicnovelguru.com/titles.html
  • Comic Books for Young Adults
  • http//ublib.buffalo.edu/lml/comics/pages/recommen
    ded.html
  • Recommended Graphic Novels for Public Libraries
  • http//my.voyager.net/sraiteri/graphicnovels.htm

78
Additional Resources
  • Professional Journals that
  • Review Graphic Novels
  • Voice of Youth Advocates
  • http//www.voya.com/
  • School Library Journal
  • http//www.schoollibraryjournal.com/index.asp
  • Publishers Weekly
  • http//www.publishersweekly.com/
  • Library Journal
  • http//www.libraryjournal.com/

79
Additional Resources
  • Reference Books
  • The 101 Best Graphic Novels
  • Stephen Weiner, 2001
  • Getting Graphic! Using Graphic Novels to Promote
    Literacy with Preteens and Teens
  • Michelle Gorman, 2003
  • Graphic Novels in Your Media Center
  • Allyson A. W. Lyga, 2004
  • Developing and Promoting Graphic Novels
  • Steve Miller, 2005

80
Additional Resources
  • Other Sites Not to Miss
  • What Parents/Teens/Teachers Librarians Want to
    Know About Comics Graphic Novels
  • http//www.informationgoddess.ca/ComicsGraphicNov
    els/index.htm
  • Graphic Novels in Libraries
  • http//www.education.wisc.edu/ccbc/books/graphicno
    vels.asp
  • Diamond Bookshelf
  • http//bookshelf.diamondcomics.com/
  • The Secret Origin of Good Readers A Resource
    Book
  • http//www.night-flight.com/secretorigin/SOGR2004.
    pdf

81
Graphic Novels in Your Classroom?
  • I Hope So!
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