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Are you smarter than a 5th grader on Virginia History?


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Title: Are you smarter than a 5th grader on Virginia History?

Are you smarter than a 5th grader on Virginia
  • 1) In 1619, people from Virginias counties voted
    for representatives to Americas first elected
    government. This government was called the ?
  • House of Commons
  • Senate
  • Congress
  • House of Burgesses
  • 2) Richmond, the capital of Virginia, is
  • located on the ?
  • Potomac River
  • James River
  • Atlantic Ocean
  • Chesapeake Bay

History of the Virginia SOLs
  • L. Jean Overstreet
  • Roanoke County Public Schools
  • EDUC 615
  • Curriculum Development
  • Radford University

  • To know what each governors contribution to VA
    education was.
  • To be able to describe the commonwealth's beliefs
    for student learning and achievement in grades
    K-12 in English, mathematics, science, history
    and social science, technology, the fine arts,
    foreign language, health and physical education,
    and driver education.
  • To believe that all students are be held
    accountable to the SOLs in order to graduate.
  • The SOLs are in our curriculum because as
    teachers we are looked upon for our students to
    pass (even more now with NCLB!)

Timeline of Virginia Governors
  • 1966-present
  • 10 Governors

Mills Godwin, Jr. 1966-1970 1974-1978
  • First term, he served as a Democrat Second term,
    he served as a Republican
  • Established the Commission on Constitutional
    Reform in 1969
  • As Governor again, he created the Governors
    cabinet and the VDOE became accountable to this
    new cabinet.
  • Article 8 of the amended 1971 VA Constitution
    instituted the VA Standards of Quality (our basis
    for public education)!
  • Federally-speaking, free appropriate public
    education for all handicapped children is passed
    (PL 94-142)

Linwood Holton, Jr (R) 1970-1974
  • First Republican Governor in Virginia since
  • Increased the employment of women/blacks in state
  • Founded the Virginias Governor Schools Program
    in 1973
  • The Governor's Schools are a collection of
    regional magnet high schools and summer programs
    in the Commonwealth intended for gifted students.
  • Virginia Governors Schools provide some of the
    states most able students academically and
    artistically challenging programs beyond those
    offered in their home schools now around 40
    sites in the state

John Dalton (R) 1978-1982
  • Appointed Dr. John Davis as Superintendent of
    Public Instruction he lasted for 10 yrs in this
  • Davis commanded VAs original Standards of
    Learning for the 4 core subject areas to be
    written, and he later added art, music, health,
  • He persistently solicited the involvement from
    teachers, and school personnel to help construct
    these standards.
  • Davis team traveled throughout the state to gain
    backing for these standards while trying to
    improve school programs

Charles Chuck Robb (D) 1982-1986
  • Concentrated his efforts on raising teacher
    salaries more competitive with other states
  • In response to a national trend to increase
    graduation standards, Virginia high school
    students who completed courses in math, science,
    and foreign language earned Advanced Diplomas
    imprinted with the Governors Seal
  • With the release of A Nation At Risk report
    (1983), Virginia already had its Standards of
    Learning in place while the report called for
    sweeping reform in public education and teacher

Gerald Baliles (D) 1986-1990
  • In response to national concern about the economy
    and to A Nation At Risk, he appointed a
    commission, which was chaired by Willard Lemon
  • Commission was created to give an evaluative
    report on the condition of education in the
    Commonwealth (10/28/86)

Excellence in Education A Plan for Virginias
Future (10/28/86)
  • Main highlights
  • Higher teacher standards
  • 5 yr plan to incorporate technology into public
  • Middle school reform
  • Creation of Literacy Passport Test to replace
    early 1980s bare minimum competency tests

The Literacy Passport Test
  • Requirement for graduating from high school in
    Virginia was to take and pass a sixth grade test.
  • The Literacy Passport Test (LPT) has three parts
    math, reading, and writing.
  • A student was not supposed to be able to graduate
    from high school without passing this test. In
    other words, there was a consequence for students
    but none for the schools.

L. Douglas Wilder (D) 1990-1994
  • Departed from the Standards of Learning
  • Willard Lemon and Dorothy McDiarmid in 1991
    chaired Governors Commission on Educational
    Opportunity for All Virginians
  • Dr. Joseph Spagnolo, the VA Superintendent of
    Public Instruction during this time, believed VA
    needed a new curriculum document with a new
    name aka The Common Core of Learning (10 yr
  • Spagnolo attempted to provide a World Class
    education to prepare VAs students for life in a
    global economy
  • Summary Report, 1991

Summary Report
  • There was discrepancy of educational options
    across the Commonwealth
  • 27 recommendations were given to provide more
    opportunities for all Virginias children
  • Recommended that the Standards of Quality and the
    Standards of Learning be redefined
  • Recommended to provide technical assistance to
  • Expand early childhood programs

Common Core of Learning
  • Educational experts supported it
  • No legislative support because it was too costly
    to implement (6.7 M for 1 yr)
  • Teachers and other school personnel did not have
    general input
  • On September 16, 1993 Wilder ordered the end to
    the Common Core of Learning Initiative
    perceived to be Outcome Based Education for its
    individual performance assessment.
  • Even though it had the best intentions, the
    Common Core may actually function to weaken VAs
    education standards.

George Allen (R) 1994-1998
  • This is where it all began! Higher standards
    and greater accountability!
  • 1994 created the Commission on Champion Schools
    to study elementary and secondary education in
    the Commonwealth and launched the Standards of
    Learning program
  • The guiding vision was to ensure that all
    Virginia students were taught the minimum skills
    and knowledge they would need to be successful in
    an increasingly competitive global economy, and
    to produce responsible citizens of Virginia and
    the United States who understood their history
    and system of government.
  • Dr. William Bosher, VA Superintendent of Public
    Instruction at the time, was the leader of the
    effort to develop statewide grade-by-grade
    academic content standards (minimum) in English,
    mathematics, science, computer technology,
    history and social studies for K-12th grades.

  • Department of Education had been downsized
  • Outcome Based Education was graveyard dead
  • Objected to federal involvement in education
  • Platform of parental choice of schools, school
    prayer, and school reform based on solid
  • Critics questioned the loss of millions of
    dollars that might be used for needed technology
  • School personnel enlisted to help revise the
    Standards of Learning
  • New standards adopted by the Virginia Board of
    Education in the June of 1995
  • Minimum learning content for English,
    mathematics, science, social studies, and
    computer technology for kindergarten through
    twelfth grade

  • The Board then undertook a revision of the
    Standards of Accreditation (SOA)
  • Schools would be accredited based on whether or
    not students were actually learning core
    knowledge and skills, measured objectively.
  • Spring 1997 statewide field test of these NEW
  • Spring 1998 Tests would be given in grades 3,
    5, 8 and high school in the core academic areas
    of the Standards of Learning.
  • Scores would be made public so everyone would
    know how their local school was fairing.
  • Classroom teachers, curriculum specialists, and
    local educators helped develop revised standards
  • Harcourt Brace was contracted to create tests to
    measure students progress on revised standards
  • The real heart of this reform is
    ACCOUNTABILITY in the form of measurable student
    achievement (adopted Sept 1997)

James Jim Gilmore (R) 1998-2002
  • Board of Education led by Kirk T. Schroder
  • Under his supervision, the Board made many
    revisions to the SOL program during the period of
    1998-2000 worked/listened to educators.
  • These revisions brought some common sense to help
    make the SOL program more workable.
  • Many educators who opposed the SOLs at the
    beginning came to see that the Board was
    concerned about raising student achievement and
    improving public education and they were not
    trying to undermine the public schools.

Mark Warner (D) 2002-2006
  • Students in the Class of 2004 are required to
    pass a minimum of 6 HS SOLs to receive their
    diploma Project Graduation!
  • Education was a cornerstone throughout his term.
  • Supported teachers being accountable for teaching
    and students for learning, but believes teachers
    should not be accountable for things they cannot
  • Standards should be tools to improve education
    not clubs to punish schools.
  • Developed PASS Partnership for Achieving
    Successful Schools in July 2002. 90 of the
    schools in poorer urban areas have shown marked
    improvement on their SOLs.
  • Supported high school reform that has offered new
    opportunities for learning for juniors and
    seniors by acquiring college credits.

Tim Kaine (D) 2006-2010
  • Education is key.
  • While running for governor, he took the time to
    go into schools to see what was happening.
  • Wants to raise teacher salaries to the national
  • Supports the basic goal of the SOLs, but doesnt
    want our childrens education to be merely a
    series of tests.

The SOLs
  • Students have made gains on all tests given since
    testing began in Spring 1998.
  • Some of the most remarkable gains have been in
    mathematics. Some critics claim that these gains
    are merely a reflection to teaching to the
  • These tests give the gauge of our students
    learning the minimum skills and knowledge that is
    required in all VA classrooms.
  • Local school divisions had three years to
    implement the new standards into their local
    curricula before testing began.
  • They had until the graduating class of 2004 --
    1st class that had to pass their SOL tests to
  • Schools were given until 2007 before they could
    actually lose accreditation due to poor SOL
    scores must get 70 passing.

  • Students seeking Advanced Studies Diplomas must
    pass 2 English, 2 math, 2 history, 2 science, and
    1 of your choice 9 total
  • Standard Diploma students only need 6 SOLs total
    2 English, 1 in math, history, science,
  • High School SOLs
  • English 9, English 10, English 11, World
    Geography, World History, U.S. History, Algebra
    I, Algebra II, Geometry, Earth Science, Biology
    I, Chemistry

Children with Disabilities
  • The Modified Standard Diploma as a challenging
    alternative for students with disabilities.
    Students must earn 20 credits by successfully
    completing required courses and electives and
    pass tests in reading and mathematics.
  • The Modified Standard Diploma requires three
    credits in mathematics while the pre-SOL Standard
    Diploma required only two. The pre-SOL Standard
    Diploma also required students to pass the grade
    6-level Literacy Passport Test while students
    must pass grade-8 SOL tests in reading and
    mathematics to earn a Modified Standard Diploma.
  • Individualized Education Program (IEP) teams
    decide whether a Modified Standard Diploma is an
    appropriate goal for a student with disabilities.
    The decision must include the written consent of
    the parent or guardian. A disabled student may
    decide at anytime before graduation to seek a
    standard or advanced diploma instead, and
    students seeking a Modified Standard Diploma may
    not be excluded from courses and tests needed to
    earn a standard or advanced diploma. A Special
    Diploma is awarded to students with disabilities
    who meet the objectives of their IEP.

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
  • Signed by George W. Bush in 2002
  • Many argue that local government had failed
    students, necessitating federal intervention to
    remedy issues like teachers teaching outside
    their areas of expertise, and complacency in the
    face of continually failing schools
  • Set 5 Performance Goals for states
  • All students will reach high standards, at a
    minimum attaining proficiency or better in
    reading/language arts and mathematics by
  • All limited English proficient students will
    become proficient in English and reach high
    academic standards, at a minimum attaining
    proficiency or better in reading/language arts
    and mathematics.
  • All students will be taught by highly qualified
    teachers by 2005-2006.
  • All students will learn in schools that are safe
    and drug free.
  • All students will graduate from high school.

  • The literacy passport tests from the 1980s have
    now been replaced with SOLs(1997-on).
  • Students are accountable in that they must pass a
    minimum of 6 SOLs.
  • Teachers are accountable to make sure their
    students minimally make at least 70 passing.
  • Schools are now doing more to get their scores up
    tutoring, remediation, Algebra I all year long
    instead of 1 semester if on block for struggling
    students, etc.
  • Seems like the last 4 governors have put a
    priority on EDUCATION!!

Works Cited
  • Christie, Mark. (2004). Virginias Education
    Reform Works-II. The Virginia Newsletter. 80
  • Milne, Phyllis. (2002). Virginias Standards of
    Learning 1969- 2001. Virginia Educational
    Leadership. 1, 30-37.
  • Virginia Department of Education. (2008).
  • Virginia Governors. (2008). http//en.wikipedia.o
    rg/wiki/List_of_Governors_of Virginia
  • Warner, Mark D. (10/18/04). Governor Warner
    Announces Final Graduation Rate for Class of
    2004 and Results of Project Graduation.
  • Warner, Mark D. (10/17/05). Governor Warner
    Announces Graduation Rate for Class of 2005.

Test your assessment of this topic!
  • 1) With which graduating class
  • did students have to pass
  • the SOL?
  • A) 2003
  • B) 2004
  • C) 2005
  • 2) There is no SOL difference for the of tests
    to be passed for a high school Standard or an
    Advanced Diploma in Virginia
  • A) True
  • B) False
  • C) Cant be determined
  • 3) Which VA governor is given credit for
    increasing standards and accountability with the
  • A) Mills Godwin
  • B) Mark Warner
  • C) Gerald Baliles
  • D) George Allen
  • 4) In what year did VA students take the 1st
    field SOL test?
  • A) 1995
  • B) 1999
  • C) 1997
  • D) 2001