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The Six Research Based Guiding Principles Serving the Needs of English Learners in Preschool

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Title: The Six Research Based Guiding Principles Serving the Needs of English Learners in Preschool


1

Quality Rating Improvement Systems
that are culturally and linguistic
appropriate for Latinos and English Language
Learners Antonia Lopez Director, Early Care
and Education National Council of La Raza June 5,
2008
2
Latino Children in the US
  • Four and a half million Latino children, ages 0-5
    in US 22 of all children
  • 56 below 200 of federal poverty level
  • 50 have one LEP parent in household
  • 33 linguistic isolation no one over 13
    speaks English fluently
  • 93 are US citizens
  • 48 with legal non-citizen parents
  • 19 with naturalized parents
  • 26 with undocumented parents

3
Regions of Origin for Immigrant Parents of
Children Under Age Six (2002)
  • Asia 23 1,400,000
  • African Middle East 6 363,000
  • Europe Canada 7 423,000
  • Latin America Caribbean 64 3,700,000

4
Top Three Countries of Birth for the Foreign-Born
Population by State (all ages), 2000
  • Alaska Philippines 24 Korea 11
    Canada 8
  • Arizona Mexico 66 Canada 4
    Germany 2
  • Arkansas Mexico 46 El Salvador 6 Germany
    5
  • California Mexico 44 Philippines 8 Vietnam
    5
  • Colorado Mexico 49 Germany 5 Canada 4
  • DC El Salvador 22 Jamaica 4 China 3
  • Florida Cuba 24 Mexico 7 Haiti 7
  • Georgia Mexico 33 India 5 Vietnam 4
  • Illinois Mexico 33 Poland 9 India 6
  • Indiana Mexico 33 Germany 5 India 5
  • Louisiana Vietnam 15 Honduras 10 Mexico
    8
  • Michigan Mexico 11 Canada 10 India 7
  • Minnesota Mexico 16 Laos 10 Vietnam 6
  • CLASP, Reaching All Children?, January 2006

5
Top Three Countries of Birth for the Foreign-Born
Population by State (all ages), 2000
  • New Jersey India 8 D.R. 6
    Philippines 5
  • New Mexico Mexico 72 Germany 4 Canada 2
  • New York D.R. 11 China 6 Jamaica - 6
  • North Carolina Mexico 40 India 4 Germany
    4
  • Ohio I India 8 Germany 8 Mexico 6
  • Oklahoma Mexico 43 Vietnam 8 Germany 5
  • Pennsylvania India 7 Italy 6 Korea 5
  • South Carolina Mexico 27 Germany 7 UK 6
  • Vermont Canada 34 UK 8 Germany 7
  • Virginia El Salvador -10 Korea 7 Philippines
    6
  • Washington Mexico- 24 Canada 8 Philippines
    8
  • Wyoming Mexico 35 Canada 10 Germany 7

6
The achievement gap for young Latino children
begins at an early age and persists 49 of
do not recognize letters at start of kindergarten
(23 white-Latino gap) 22 do not
understand relative size at start of
kindergarten (22 white-Latino gap)

7
The achievement gap for Latino children
  • One study of test scores in California showed
    that at least 80 of the achievement gap at grade
    4 is present before school even starts
    56 score below basic on the reading NAEP
  • in 4th Grade 44 Score below basic
    on reading NAEP
  • in the 8th Grade, 2003
  • By 2015, 75 of Latinos ages 16-25 will not have
    a high school diploma

8
Common Myths About Young English Language
Learners
  • Myth 1 Learning two languages during the early
    childhood years will overwhelm, confuse, and/or
    delay a childs acquisition of English.
  • Myth 2 Total English immersion from
    PreKindergarten through Third Grade is the bet
    way for a young English Language Learner to
    acquire English.
  • Challenging Common Myths About Young English
    Learners, FCD Policy Brief Advancing PK-3, No.
    Eight by Linda Espinosa, January 2008

9
Common Myths About Young English Language
Learners
  • Myth 3 Because schools dont have the capacity
    to provide instruction in all the languages
    represented by the children, they should provide
    English-only instruction.
  • Myth 4 Native English speakers will experience
    academic and language delays if they are enrolled
    in dual language programs.

10
Common Myths About Young English Language
Learners
  • Myth 5 Spanish speaking Latinos show social as
    well as academic delays when entering
    kindergarten.
  • Myth 6 Latino English language learners are
    less likely to be enrolled in Pre-Kindergarten
    programs, because of their families cultural
    values.

11
Refuting the Myths About Young English Language
Learners
  • 1 All young children are capable of learning
    two languages. Becoming bilingual has long-term
    cognitive, academic, and social cultural, and
    economic benefits. Bilingualism is an asset.
  • 2 Young ELL students require systematic
    support for the continued development of their
    home language.
  • 3 Loss of the home language has potential
    negative long-term consequences for the ELL
    childs academic social, and emotional
    development, as well as for the family dynamics.

12
Refuting the Myths About Young English Language
Learners
  • 4 Teachers and programs can adopt effective
    strategies to support home language development
    even when the teachers are monolingual English
    speakers.
  • 5 Dual language programs are an effective
    approach to improving academic achievement for
    ELL children while also providing benefits to
    native English speakers.

13
  • The development of language and literacy skills
    in a childs first language is important for the
    development of skills in a second language and,
    therefore should be considered the first step in
    the range of expectations for children learning
    English as a second language (International
    reading Association and NAEYC, 1998).
  • Children who have the skills to understand and
    communicate in their home language will transfer
    their knowledge to their learning of a second
    language, resulting in a more effective and
    efficient second-language learning process.
    (Cummins 1979 Wong Fillmore 1991)
  • The transfer of knowledge applies to the
    structure of language and early literacy skills
    such as concepts about print, phonological
    awareness, alphabet knowledge, and writing in
    alphabetic script (Cardenas-Hagan, Carlson, and
    Pollard-Durodola 2007 Cisero and Royer 1995
    Durgunoglu 2002 Durgunoglu, Nagy, and
    Hancin-Bhatt 1993 Gottardo and others 2001
    Muntaz and Humphreys 2001).
  • Recent brain research suggests that the
    development of two languages benefits the brain
    through the increase of density of brain tissue
    in areas related to language, memory, and
    attention (Mechelli and others 2004). Bilingual
    children have higher rates of engagement in
    particular parts of the brain (Kovelman, Baker,
    and Petitto 2006). This increased brain activity
    may have long-term positive effects (Bialystok,
    Craik, and Ryan 2006).

14
Refuting the Myths About Young English Language
Learners
  • 6 Hispanic Spanish-speaking children enter
    Kindergarten with many social strengths that are
    the result of positive parenting practices that
    need to be acknowledged and enhanced.
  • 7. Hispanic parents value high-quality early
    education and will enroll their young children if
    programs are affordable and accessible.

15
A Perfect Storm The confluence of systems
that contain unresolved cultural and linguistic
issues that impact on the participation and
access to high quality programs for EL children,
families and communities
  • Licensing - facility regulation and health and
    safety
  • Inadequate field-community outreach to provide
    recruitment and application support for EL
    communities. Initial orientation conducted only
    in English inadequate number of home language
    speaking staff to provide technical assistance
    and training through and beyond the application
    stage, i.e., compliance visits and compliance
    resolution
  • Lack of resources and training typically
    provided to English speaking providers. Child
    development, nutrition, small business practices,
    marketing and parent engagement.
  • Lack of human and material resources to support
    EL applicants to meet essential health and safety
    requirements, i. e, first aide, pediatric CPR,
    child abuse reporting requirements and other
    require training

16
A Perfect Storm The confluence of systems that
contain unresolved cultural and linguistic issues
that impact on the participation and access to
high quality programs for EL children, families
and communities
  • Overlapping arenas. Gaps grow, inequity
    distribution of resources

Environmental Rating Scales
Licensing
Ideologically Driven Curriculum
Ideologically Driven Curriculum
Early learning Foundations
Teacher Qualification and Competencies
17
A Perfect Storm.
  • The unintended consequences of culturally
    and linguistically inappropriate application of
    ERS systems may contribute to excessive
    financial burden on program providers and
    cultural discontinuity and language loss among
    children and families.
  • Side Bar Sembrando Semillas Initiative - A
    process for identifying Latino Family Values
  • Respect
  • Family
  • Carino Nurturance
  • Attention
  • Empathy
  • Cooperation
  • Responsibility
  • Self Confidence
  • Self Reliance-Resilience
  • Education (character)
  • Language
  • Ancestral Wisdom
  • Cultural Traditions
  • Spirituality
  • Honesty

18
A Perfect Storm
  • Increased Teacher and Staff Qualifications
  • without adequate access to on-going and long term
    support, are
  • projected to have negative results in retaining
    and professionalizing a
  • culturally and linguistically diverse workforce.
    Issues include provision
  • of
  • Culturally and linguistically appropriate
    coursework
  • Tuition and materials support, including access
    to computers and technology
  • Course alignment and articulation among community
    college, 4 year public and private institutions
  • Bilingual, culturally competent college faculty
    at each IHE
  • Access to appropriate and timely placement tests,
    academic tutoring, career counseling and advising
    beyond ECE courses
  • Development of peer groups and cohorts
  • Course sequence and class schedules that support
    working and non traditional students

19
A Perfect Storm
  • Early Learning Foundations that do not address
    the needs of English language learners and their
    families
  • Are ultimately fundamentally flawed and resulting
    in a failure to address the school readiness
    needs of immigrant children and society for a
    well educated citizenry.
  • Inadequately prepare EL children to acquire
    English language fluency levels required for
    long-term school success (academic English)
  • Will likely result in first language loss or
    stagnation with lifelong negative consequences to
    the child, their family and community.
  • Fail to build on family strengths and culturally
    appropriate continuity and engagement

20
A Perfect Storm
  • Ideologically driven curriculum
  • English-only
  • Myths based
  • Anti-immigrant bias
  • Deficit view of family
  • Ethnocentric values framework
  • Low social and academic expectations for children
  • Cultural experiences reduced to artifacts and
    isolated events

21
Sembrando Semillas
  • Six Research Based Guiding Principles

22
1. A childs home language is a crucial
foundation for cognitive development
  • Several decades of research indicate that a
    childs first language is the best key to
    literacy.
  • Knowledge, concepts, and skills established in
    the home language support and contribute to the
    development of the childs second language.
    (Durgunoglu, Nagy and Hancin-Bhatt, 1993
    Escamilla, 2000 Snow, Burns Griffin, 1999
    Tqabors, 1997 Tabors and Snow, 2001 Vgotsky,
    1985).

23
2. A learning environment that facilitates
social-emotional growth and affirms a childs
culture and language is essential for full
participation and healthy identify development.
  • respect and integrate the key role of a childs
    culture and language to her social-emotional and
    identity development.
  • support young children in bridging across and
    integrating home and school contexts.
  • Bowman, Burns, Donovan, 2000 bowman Stott,
    1994 Day Parlakian, 2003 Kauffman, 2002
    Luria, 1976 Rqaver, 2002 Phillips, 1995).

24
3. One language is enhanced by another
  • The early years are a unique window of
    opportunity for development of native-like
    fluency in two or more languages
  • Young children have the capacity to learn
    multiple languages simultaneously .
  • (Hakuta Garcia, 1989 NAEYC, 1995 Slavin
    Cheung, 2004 Tabors, 1997 Tabors Snow, 2001
    Thomas Collier, 2002).

25
4. Linguistic and cultural congruity build
strong home-school partnerships and support
parents as a childs first teacher.
  • drawing upon the knowledge, expertise and
    cultural capital of families as assets, the
    teacher is better able to understand the child,
    the context in which the child functions and the
    familys values and culture
  • the parents come to know the culture of the
    school.
  • home and classroom activities complement and
    reinforce each other.
  • builds parents confidence and capacity to
    effectively support their childrens
    social-emotional, physical and language/literacy
    development at home.

26
5. Assessments that are culturally and
lingistically appropriate are essential to ensure
the child has access to developmentall
appropriate and high quality early education.
(Genesee, Lindholm-Leary, Saunders Christian,
2004 McLaughlin, Blanchard Osani, 1995 NAEYC
NAECS/SDE, 2005 Raver Zigler, 2004
Shephard, Kagan Wurtz, 1998).
27
6. High quality, research-based professional
development is needed for teachers to meet the
needs of preschool age English Learners and their
families
28
Selected Recommendations for Knowledge, Skills
and Abilities for bilingual teachers QRIS
rating specialists
  • 1. Knowledge of the characteristics, components,
    benefits, and limitations of research-based
    program models of bilingual education (e.g.,
    dual-language, one-way immersion, two-way
    immersion, transitional bilingual, maintenance,
    heritage language).
  • Excerpts from the CSET Bilingual Methodology
    Bilingual Culture Examinations, November 2007.

29
Selected Recommendations for Knowledge, Skills
and Abilities for bilingual teachers QRIS
rating specialists
  • 2. Understanding of theoretical foundations,
    practices, limitations, and effects of the
    deficit perspective of bilingual education (e.g.,
    viewing the primary language as an obstacle,
    limiting use of the primary language, promoting
    assimilation into the target culture).
  • 3. Understanding of the theoretical foundations,
    practices, limitations, and effects of enrichment
    perspective of bilingual education (e.g., viewing
    the primary language as a right and an asset,
    promoting the development of bilingualism and
    biculturalism, promoting acculturation into the
    target culture).

30
Selected Recommendations for Knowledge, Skills
and Abilities for bilingual teachers QRIS
rating specialists
  • 4. Understanding of the roles of code-switching
    and language mixing in the development of
    bilingualism and early biliteracy.
  • 5. Knowledge of developmental processes of
    bilingualism and biliteracy to select appropriate
    language use and usage (e.g., translation,
    language allocation model) when interacting with
    students at different developmental stages of
    bilingualism and biliteracy.
  • 6. Understanding of transferability of language
    and literacy skills between the primary and
    target languages, including ways in which
    language transfer can be affected by the level of
    compatibility between the primary language and
    English.

31
Selected Recommendations for Knowledge, Skills
and Abilities for bilingual teachers QRIS
rating specialists
  • 7. Understanding of concepts of intercultural
    communication, including cultural differences in
    patterns of nonverbal communication (e.g.,
    distance between speakers, eye contact), patterns
    of oral discourse (e.g., overlapping,
    turn-taking, volume of voice, use/role of silence
    forms of address, respect, greetings).
  • 8. Understanding of cultural influences (e.g.,
    different values regarding cooperation and
    competition, different expectations and
    preferences in teacher-child and child-child
    interaction, different attitudes toward
    conformity and individuality).

32
Selected Recommendations for Knowledge, Skills
and Abilities for bilingual teachers QRIS
rating specialists
  • 9. Knowledge of intercultural communication and
    interaction that is linguistically and culturally
    inclusive and responsive to provide literacy and
    content instruction (e.g., role-playing
    intercultural encounters, discussion of current
    events related to a variety of cultures,
    respecting childs primary language/dialect,
    using childs primary language and home culture
    to promote language and early literacy and
    content area learning).
  • 10. Knowledge of effective strategies to
    communicate assessment results to families and to
    provide guidance on ways in which families can
    support their childrens learning at home and at
    the early education center.

33
Selected Recommendations for Knowledge, Skills
and Abilities for bilingual teachers QRIS
rating specialists
  • 11. Knowledge of strategies to identify
    opportunities for families to contribute their
    funds of knowledge and expertise within the
    program and across the school community,
    including participation in a variety of program
    forums and organizations.
  • 12. Knowledge of language structures (e.g., word
    roots, prefixes, suffixes), forms (e.g.,
    registers), and functions (e.g., informing,
    describing, persuading) to develop and delivery
    effective language instruction in the primary and
    target languages.

34
Selected Recommendations for Knowledge, Skills
and Abilities for bilingual teachers QRIS
rating specialists
  • 13. Understanding of ways in which childs life
    experiences (e.g., immigrant or refugee
    experiences, out-of-school time experiences, role
    in family and with siblings and extended family)
    can be used to foster learning and early literacy
    in the primary and target languages.

35
Selected Recommendations for Knowledge, Skills
and Abilities for bilingual teachers QRIS
rating specialists
  • 14. Understanding of the beliefs and values of
    different groups, including indigenous groups
    that are members of the child/family population
    they serve are members of the community.
  • 15. Recognize how cultural and social traditions
    affect teaching and learning practices and
    expectations of the diverse families (e.g., oral
    tradition, rote learning, observation).

36
Selected Recommendations for Knowledge, Skills
and Abilities for bilingual teachers QRIS
rating specialists
  • 17. Knowledge of strategies for interpreting the
    results of primary- and target-language
    assessments to plan, organize, modify, and
    individualize educational plan for an individual
    child as well as a group of children.
  • 18. Knowledge of strategies for reviewing and
    evaluating materials to identify potential areas
    of offense or bias (e.g., race, class, gender,
    religion, country of origin) and to ensure
    appropriate representation of linguistic and
    cultural diversity within and across language and
    cultural groups.
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