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Period 6 Notes


Period 6 Notes Accelerating Global Change and Realignments, c. 1900 to the Present – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Period 6 Notes

Period 6 Notes
  • Accelerating Global Change and Realignments, c.
    1900 to the Present

Chinese Revolution
  • Overview
  • Chinese Revolution occurred in multiple stages
  • Xinhai Revolution (1911) overthrow of Qing
    Dynasty creation of Republic of China
  • Northern Expedition (1926-28) victory of
    Nationalists over local warlords that resulted in
    reunification of China.
  • 2nd Sino-Japanese War (1936-45) Japanese take
    control of much of NE China
  • Civil War (1945-49) after WWII, Communists
    seize power and Nationalists retreat to Taiwan

Chinese Revolution
  • Who?
  • Sun Yat Sen led overthrow of Qing became 1st
    President (led Guomindang Nationalists)
  • Chaing Kai Shek was ally of Sun Yat Sen and led
    Nationalists after Sens death
  • Mao Zedong led Communist Revolution against
    Chiang Kai Shek
  • Peasants, intellectuals, workers

Chinese Revolution
  • Why?
  • Desire to remove failing Qing Dynasty
  • Increasing Western influence
  • Desire for Republic
  • Anti-foreign sentiment (Manchu, West, Japan)
  • Communism

Chinese Revolution
  • Challenges/Setbacks
  • Division between Nationalists Communists led to
    civil war
  • Weakened state was easier for Japanese to invade
    during 2nd Sino-Japanese War
  • Infighting about Western influence, communism vs.
    capitalism, empire vs. republic, class divisions,

Chinese Revolution
  • Results
  • Internal fighting disorder for most of time
    between 1911 1949
  • End of 2000 years of imperial system
  • Creation of two competing Chinas (Peoples
    Republic of China (Communist mainland China)
    Republic of China (Capitalist Taiwan)
  • PRC highly secretive and restrictive, but quality
    of life improves as 20th century continues
  • Taiwan becomes U.S. ally and large exporter

Long Term Causes of WW I
  • Militarism
  • Massive buildup of armies/arms
  • Obsession with national security was a product of
  • Example British/German naval race

Long Term Causes of WW I
  • Alliances
  • Europe divided into 2 armed alliances pledging
    mutual support
  • Led to domino effect once war started
  • Triple Entente (Allies) Britain, France, Russia
  • Triple Alliance (Central Powers) Germany,
    Austria, Ottoman Empire

European Map of WWI
What disadvantage did the Central Powers have?
Long Term Causes of WW I
  • Imperialism
  • Competition over acquiring colonies (esp. in
    Africa) led to significant tension

Global Map of WWI
What of the world was affected by WWI?
Long Term Causes of WW I
  • Nationalism
  • Countries placed their own self-interest above
  • Fierce rivalries/hatred develop between nations
  • Examples Balkan Peninsula, France/German

Short Term Causes of WW I
  • The spark, or catalyst that starts WWI is the
    Assassination of the Austrian Archduke Franz

By terms of prior agreement France enters war to
aid Russia
Trench Warfare
Why does the US Enter WWI?
  • German unrestricted submarine warfare
  • Zimmerman Telegram
  • Alliance with Great Britain
  • Concern with mounting casualties
  • Desire to be involved in peace talks

Zimmerman Telegram
Short Term Effects of WWI
  • 10 million soldiers killed
  • RUS 2 mil., GER 1.3 mil., FRA 1.3 mil., GB
    900,000, US 115,000
  • 4 million civilians killed
  • 180 billion

Long Term Effects
  • Treaty of Versailles Successes
  • Treaty of Versailles Failures
  • Self-determination not granted to non-European
  • Mandates created in Ottoman Empire
  • Israel not created as Jewish homeland
  • Militaries not reduced
  • Freedom of trade on the seas not established
  • USA does NOT join
  • Alliances not eliminated
  • Creation of League of Nations
  • Self-determination of European countries in
  • Poland formed as new nation between GER RUS
  • Germany takes blame for war, forced to pay
    reparations, demilitarize and give up border land
    to France all colonies

Long Term Effects
  • Destruction of Eastern Central European Empires
  • Communism arises in Russia
  • Weakening of the West
  • Economic instability, loss of colonies,
    concessions made, power shifts to US Japan
  • Social Political Transformations
  • Power shift to middle class
  • Womens suffrage in 1920s

Womens Suffrage
Womens Suffrage
The 1920s
  • Great economic growth in the U.S. (Roaring 20s)
  • Turmoil in Europe as it rebuilds from WWI
    (especially Germany)
  • Colonies grew restless tired of imperial rule
  • Communism grew more popular (especially in Russia

The Great Depression
  • Period of economic depression starting in late
    1920s through the end of WWII
  • Starts first in USA Western Europe but affects
    entire world
  • Causes
  • War induced inflation
  • Overproduction during WWI resulted in supply
    becoming greater than demand

The Great Depression
  • Causes
  • Poor financial decisions of the roaring 20s
  • Colonial economies tied to those of mother
    countries multiplied the impact
  • Stock Market Crash 1929
  • Wall Street Collapse
  • Purchasing of stocks on margin

The Great Depression
  • Effects
  • Western Democracies Japan affected the most
  • Unemployment extremely high
  • Values of exports drop
  • Government gets more involved in economy (FDRs
    New Deal)
  • Extreme political reactions massive rearmament
  • Germany ? Rise of Nazis, Italy ? Rise of Fascism,
    Japan ? Rise of extreme militarism
  • USSR not affected as they did not rely on market
  • Stalin had implemented 5 Year Plans to rapidly
    reorganize and industrialize Russian society

Long Term Causes of WWII
  • Totalitarian Rule
  • Arose in vulnerable countries
  • Aggressive persuasive leaders who had answers
    to post-WWI questions
  • Blamed scapegoats
  • Massive rearming
  • Focus on nationalism

Long Term Causes of WWII
  • Totalitarian Rule
  • Growth of Fascism
  • Starts in Italy with Mussolini
  • Response to economic/social problems
  • Strong central government
  • Aggressive foreign policy
  • Anti-democracy
  • Place state above individual

Long Term Causes of WWII
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • Source of bitterness between GER USSR
  • German financial burden put them in desperate
  • Newly created countries created disputes
  • Failed to resolve nationalist issues

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Long Term Causes of WWII
  • Appeasement
  • GB FRA give into Hitlers demands to avoid
  • League of Nations unable to deter Japanese thirst
    for empire

Long Term Causes of WWII
  • Japans Desire for a Pacific Empire
  • Rival with U.S. for control of the Pacific
  • Increasing need for resources due to rapid
  • Conquest was an expression of feelings of

Short Term Causes of WWII
  • German invasion of Poland
  • September 1, 1939
  • Germany attacks Poland using Blitzkreig tactics
  • Pulls GB FRA into war
  • Hitler did not expect them to intervene after
    pattern of appeasement

WWII in European Theatre of War
Short Term Causes of WWII
  • Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor
  • December 7, 1941
  • Sneak attack on U.S. naval forces
  • Does not destroy entire U.S. fleet
  • I fear we have awakened a sleeping giant.

WWII Pacific Theatre of War
Effects of WWII
  • War Crimes Trials
  • Nuremberg Trials for Nazis
  • Tokyo Trials for Japanese
  • To some degree served as inspiration of modern
    International Criminal Court (ICC)

Effects of WWII
  • European powers lose their colonial empires
  • Occurs slowly throughout 20th century
  • U.S. U.S.S.R. emerged as rival superpowers
  • Led to Cold War
  • Capitalist Democracy vs. Communist Dictatorship

Effects of WWII
  • Growth of International Organizations
  • United Nations (UN)
  • New improved version of League of Nations
  • International peacekeeping organization
  • Security Council placed world powers in control
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  • Created to foster economic cooperation and growth

Effects of WWII
  • Europe rebuilt with the Marshall Plan
  • Economic recovery was meant to keep Europe from
    falling back into despair
  • Bolstered U.S. economy
  • Germany divided into 4 zones of occupation

Effects of WWII
  • Japan rebuilt with assistance of U.S.
  • Direct U.S. military occupation under General
  • Japanese military removed
  • New constitution written
  • U.S. takes responsibility for protection of Japan
  • Japanese economy rebounds quickly

What was the Cold War?
  • Defeat of Germany broke up Grand Alliance of GB,
    US, USSR
  • Soviets break post-WWII promises
  • State of hostilities and suspicion without
    actually direct military conflict between the US
    USSR between 1945 1989.

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Initial Stage of the Cold War (1945-1969)
  • Fall of the West replacement by two superpowers
    their alliances

Initial Stage of the Cold War (1945-1969)
  • Soviet absorption of Eastern Europe
  • Containment Policy Domino Theory
  • George Keenan
  • Truman Doctrine

Initial Stage of the Cold War (1945-1969)
  • Arms Race between US USSR
  • Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) Theory
  • Keeps both powers in check
  • Intensifies importance of diplomacy
  • Makes previous military planning instantly

Initial Stage of the Cold War (1945-1969)
  • Growth of international organizations
  • Necessary to avoid WWIII
  • United Nations
  • NATO vs. Warsaw Pact
  • Globalization of the Cold War
  • Impact on non-aligned (3rd world) countries
  • New nations modernize are freed from Europeans
  • Superpowers compete for influence
  • Fuels Domino Theory

Détente Stage of the Cold War (1969-1979)
  • Détente relaxing of tensions between the US
  • Why?
  • Effects of Cuban Missile Crisis
  • US War weary from 15 years in Vietnam
  • US USSR suffering from economic problems
  • Soviet fear of improving relations between US

Détente Stage of the Cold War (1969-1979)
  • China USSR reenter global market
  • Treaties Signed
  • Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
  • SALT I
  • Helsinki Accords (Human Rights Doctrine)
  • Why does Détente end in 1979?
  • Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
  • American response is hard line foreign policy
    with build up of military again

Final Stage of the Cold War (1979-1989)
  • US becomes more aggressive
  • Reagan ushers in Star Wars program new arms
    race aggressively pushes for Soviet
  • US enters affairs of Latin America to actively
    discourage communist governments
  • Soviet economy influence failing
  • Dissident movements in Soviet union growing
  • Nationalism growing in E. Europe

Final Stage of the Cold War (1979-1989)
  • Gorbachevs reforms
  • Perestroika Glasnost
  • Despite attempts at reform, would not totally
    abandon communism
  • INF Treaty
  • Soviets slowly loosen grip on E. Europe
  • E. Europe Baltic States become free
  • Coup is attempted but fails USSR breaks up

What does this mean to former Soviet Union her