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US FOREIGN POLICY

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The Attack Plan (Japanese) By attacking our three main bases (???) the Japanese hoped to have free reign to take out southern Asia. Wanted oil, rubber & metal. They ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: US FOREIGN POLICY


1
US FOREIGN POLICY FROM 1920 TO 1941
2
The Road to World War II 1919-1939
3
Foreign Policy Tensions
Interventionism
Disarmament
  • Isolationism
  • Nativists
  • Anti-War movement
  • Conservative Republicans
  • Collective security
  • Wilsonianism
  • Business interests

4
Collective Security
5
Washington Naval Conference1921-1922
U. S. Britain Japan France
Italy 5 5 3 1.67
1.67
6
Washington Naval Conference
  • Four-Power Pact (December 13, 1921).
  • Britain, France, Japan and the United States
    agreed to submit disputes among themselves over
    Pacific issues to a conference for resolution.
  • Pledged mutual respect for the possessions and
    mandates of other signatories (participants) in
    the Pacific.

7
Washington Naval Conference
  • Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty (February 6,
    1922).
  • The leading naval powers, Britain, France, Italy,
    Japan and the United States pledged adherence to
    limitations on the tonnage of capital ships and
    accepted a moratorium on new naval construction.
    5-3-1 ration
  • Britain could only have 1 ship for every 3 ships
    in Japan, and Japan could only have 3 ships for
    every 5 ships in the U.S. Britain, U.S. and Japan
    agreed to dismantle some existing vessels to meet
    the ratio.

8
Washington Conference
  • Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty (February 6,
    1922).
  • Agreed on a series of rules for the use of
    submarines in future warfare and also outlawed
    the use of poisonous gases as a military weapon.

9
Washington Conference
  • Nine-Power Treaty (February 6, 1922).
  • Big Four, plus Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands,
    Portugal and China endorsed the Open Door Policy
    and pledged mutual respect for Chinese
    territorial integrity and independence.
  • In the following months, the U.S. Senate ratified
    all of the treaties from the Washington
    Conference.

10
Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928
  • 60 nations committed to outlawing aggression and
    war for settling disputes.
  • Problem ? no way of enforcement.

11
Kellog Briand Pact
  • The Kellogg-Briand Pact provided for outlawing
    war as an an instrument of national policy, and
    was further notable for the following
  • The pact was signed in August 1928 by 15 nations.
  • In the following months, more than 60 countries
    joined in this renunciation of war.
  • The U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee
    studied the matter and issued a report that
    maintained that the pact did not impair the
    nations ability to act to protect the Monroe
    Doctrine.
  • US Senate ratified this treaty.

12
Kellog Briand Pact
Afghanistan Finland Peru
Albania Guatemala Portugal
Austria Hungary Rumania
Bulgaria Iceland Russia
China Latvia Kingdom of the Serbs
Cuba Liberia Croats and Slovenes
Denmark Lithuania Siam
Dominican Republic Netherlands Spain
Egypt Nicaragua Sweden
Estonia Norway Turkey
Ethiopia Panama
Additional countries which join by July 24,
1929. Persia, July 2, 1929 Greece, August 3,
1929 Honduras, August 6, 1929 Chile, August 12,
1929 Luxemburg August 14, 1929 Danzig,
September 11, 1929 Costa Rica, October 1, 1929
Venezuela, October 24, 1929.
13
Kellog Briand Pact
  • The Kellogg-Briand Pact provided for outlawing
    war as an an instrument of national policy, and
    was further notable for the following
  • Major problems with this treaty
  • No enforcement mechanism was provided for
    changing the behavior of warring signatories.
  • The agreement was interpreted by most of the
    signatories to permit defensive war.
  • No expiration date was provided.
  • No provision existed for amending the agreement
    was included.

14
Kellog Briand Pact
  • In the 1930s, the idealism of ending all war
    would be shattered when the Japanese, Italy,
    Germany and Soviet Union began WWII.
  • Idealism, is what it is ideas. Some can work
    and others cant.
  • In a realistic world, countries realized that
    they needed to protect themselves from aggressor
    nations.
  • It is still this way today but we have the United
    Nations to promote world peace and contain
    aggressor nations.

15
FDRs Good Neighbor Policy
  • Important to have all nations in the Western
    Hemisphere united in lieu of foreign aggressions.
  • FDR ? The good neighbor respects himself and the
    rights of others.
  • Policy of non-intervention and cooperation.

16
democracies
U.S RESPONSE TO FASCIST AGGRESSION
  • BETWEEN 1931 TO 1941, JAPAN INVADES MOST OF ASIA
    AND WAS THREATENING U.S. ISLANDS AND OUR OPEN
    DOOR TRADE POLICY.
  • FROM 1935 TO 1939, HITLER REMARMED GERMANY IN
    VIOLATION OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES.
  • GERMANY/ITALY CONQUERED ALL THE DEMOCRACIES IN
    EUROPE.
  • US POLICY WAS STRICT NEUTRALITY BUT ULTIMATELY
    WOULD BE DRAWN INTO WWII.

17
Japanese Attack Manchuria (1931)
  • League of Nations condemned the action.
  • Japan leaves the League.
  • Hoover wanted no part in an American military
    action in the Far East.

18
Hoover-Stimpson Doctrine(1932)
  • US would not recognize any territorial
    acquisitions that were achieved by force.
  • Japan was infuriated because the US hadconquered
    new territories a few decades earlier.
  • Japan bombed Shanghai in 1932 ? massive
    casualties.

19
FDR Recognizes the Soviet Union (late 1933)
  • FDR felt that recognizing Moscow might bolster
    the US against Japan.
  • Maybe trade with the USSR would help the US
    economy during the Depression.

20
Nye Committee Hearings(1934-1936)
  • The Nye Committee Iinvestigated the charge that
    WW I was needless and the US entered so
    munitions owners could make big profits
    merchants of death.
  • The Committee did charge that bankers wanted war
    to protect their loans arms manufacturers to
    make money.
  • Claimed that Wilson had provoked Germany by
    sailing in to warring nations waters.
  • Resulted in Congress passing several Neutrality
    Acts.

Senator Gerald P. Nye R-ND
21
FDRs I hate war Speech (1936)
22
Ludlow Amendment (1938)
  • A proposed amendment to the Constitution that
    called for a national referendum on any
    declaration of war by Congress.
  • Introduced several times by Congressman Ludlow.
  • Never actually passed.

Congressman Louis LudlowD-IN
23
Neutral
NEUTRALITY ACTS
  • 1935 prohibited arms shipments to all
    belligerent countries.
  • 1936 forbid loans to all belligerents
  • 1939 prohibited Americans from traveling on
    ships of belligerent nations
  • FDR responds to Fascist aggression in Europe by
    protecting democracies and preparing the US for
    war..BUT TRYING TO REMAIN ISOLATED AND NEUTRAL

24
Neutral
NEUTRALITY ACTS
  • Americans wanted to remain neutral.
  • America First Committee
  • Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
  • Feb. 21, 1940 If Germany is defeating England
    France, should the U.S. declare war on Germany
    and send our Army and Navy to Europe to fight
    against Hitler? Yes 23 No 77

25
Neutral
NEUTRALITY ACTS
December 16, 1940 Do you think it was a mistake
for the U.S. to enter the first World War? Yes
39 No 42 No opinion 19
26
atlantic1
FOUR FREEDOMS SPEECH
  • FIRST, freedom of speech and expression,
    everywhere in the world.
  • SECOND, freedom of every person to worship God in
    his own way,everywhere in the world.
  • THIRD, freedom from want, which translated into
    world terms, economic and healthy peace time
    life, everywhere in the world.
  • FOURTH, freedom from fear, worldwide reduction of
    armaments, everywhere in the world.
  • Other things FDR stated
  • The world order is to seek cooperation of free
    countries, in a friendly civilized society.
  • Freedom means the supremacy of human rights
    everywhere.
  • FDRs speech to Congress in Jan. 1941 describing
    the threat of the Axis Powers.
  • FDR believed American security was seriously
    threatened and believed the struggle was over
    American democracy.

27
LEND LEASE
LEND LEASE
  • RENTING, LEASING, GIVING BRITAIN AND LATER SOVIET
    UNION AND CHINA, MILITARY WEAPONS TO ARM THEM
    AGAINST THE GERMANS AND JAPANESE
  • FDRs FINAL ATTEMPT TO REMAIN NEUTRAL!
  • USA BECOMES THE ARSENAL OF DEMOCRACY

28
U. S. Lend-Lease Act,1941, US becomes the
arsenal of democracy
Great Britain.........................31
billionSoviet Union...........................11
billionFrance...................................
... 3 billionChina..............................
.........1.5 billionOther European..............
...500 millionSouth America...................4
00 millionThe amount totaled 48,601,365,000
29
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30
lend lease
US offered Lend Lease as a last defense to stay
out of war. It was given to Britain during the
Battle of Britain in 1940, the Soviet Union after
Hitlers invasion in 1941 and China. The US
became the arsenal of democracy.
31
June 22, 1941, Hitler invades the Soviet Union
Chapter 24, Section 2
1940 Norway, Denmark, Holland, Belgium,
Netherlands and France 1941 Soviet Union
32
atlantic1
ATLANTIC CHARTER
  • FDR and Winston Churchill meet on the USS Augusta
    in the North Atlantic to sign the Atlantic
    Charter, August 12, 1941.
  • They met together to make known certain common
    principles of their respective countries on which
    they base their hopes for a better futurefor the
    world.

33
atlantic1
ATLANTIC CHARTER
FIRST, we seek not conquest of land or
territory.. SECOND, no territorial changes of
land between nations. THIRD, Restoration of
sovereign rights and self-government FOURTH,
Access to raw materials for all FIFTH, World
economic cooperation SIXTH, Freedom from fear
and want SEVENTH, freedom of the seas EIGHTH,
Disarmament of aggressors NINTH, a United Nations
for world peace.
34
The Attack Plan (Japanese)
  • By attacking our three main bases (???) the
    Japanese hoped to have free reign to take out
    southern Asia.
  • Wanted oil, rubber metal.
  • They wanted control of East Asia (all the way
    down to Australia).
  • They concentrated on attacking the Dutch East
    Indies (Indonesia). This would allow the
    Japanese to attack Australia.
  • All that would be left would be small islands
    here and there in the Pacific and the Japanese
    would feel no threat from them.

35
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36
map/japan
37
WWII Military Leaders
PEARL HARBOR ATTACK
  • Captain Mitsuo Fuchida
  • Led the attack at Pearl Harbor.
  • Tora, Tora, Tora
  • Attack, Attack, Attack
  • Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto
  • Commander of the Japanese Navy
  • Responsible for the success of the Japanese
    attack of Pearl Harbor.

38
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39
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40
Infamy9
DAY OF INFAMY
41
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42
DAY OF INFAMY
  • In less than 2 hours, the Pacific Fleet lost two
    battleships, six others were heavily battered and
    nearly a dozen lesser vessels put out of action.
  • More than 150 planes were wrecked over 2,300
    servicemen were killed and 1,100 wounded.
  • Blame was widespread, both on the Officials in
    Washington and on the Admiral and the General in
    Hawaii.

43
  • After FDRs Day of Infamy speech asking for a
    declaration of war against Japan, Congress
    approved the declaration.
  • FDR signed the declaration of war against Japan
    on Dec. 8, 1941
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