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Americans and a World in Crisis

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Americans and a World in Crisis 1933-1945 The United States in a Menacing World 1933-1939 Nationalism and the Good Neighbor Policy FDR declares a Good Neighbor ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Americans and a World in Crisis


1
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2
Americans and a World in Crisis
  • 1933-1945

3
The United States in a Menacing World
  • 1933-1939

4
Nationalism and the Good Neighbor Policy
  • FDR declares a Good Neighbor policy toward
    Latin America
  • Renounce the right to intervene in the affairs of
    another country
  • We withdraw from Haiti, Dominican Republic, end
    the Platt Amendment
  • Uses economic leverage, not the military

5
The Rise of Aggressive States in Europe and Asia
  • Benito Mussolini in Italy
  • Fascism nationalism above all else
  • Suppresses dissent, govt. controls the state
  • Adolf Hitler In Germany
  • Elected when Germany in depression, blaming the
    Allies
  • Brutal dictatorship purifying Germany
  • Builds up the military, starts taking territory
  • Appeasement In the Munich Pact, Britain and
    France let him take it as long as he promises to
    stop
  • Militarists in Japan
  • Want to expand Manchuria, then all of China

6
The American Mood No More War
  • Isolationism focus on economic issues at home,
    not problems in Europe
  • Disillusioned by World War I
  • Neutrality Acts, 1935-1937
  • Outlawed arms sales and loans to nations at war

7
The Gathering Storm 1938-1939
  • Germany breaks the Munich Pact 6 months later,
    invades Czechoslovakia
  • German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
  • So Hitler can focus on Poland
  • FDR wants to do more to stop Germany
  • Asks for 300 million for military spending
  • Increases plane and supply production

8
America and Jewish Refugees
  • Things get worse in Germany for Jews
  • Nuremberg Laws
  • Kristallnacht
  • 500,000 flee Germany Austria
  • U.S. refuses to abolish quota system, wont let
    them in
  • Turn away the St. Louis
  • Anti-Semitism, Depression

9
Into the Storm
  • 1939-1941

10
The European War
  • Germany invades Poland, Sept. 1939
  • Britain and France declare war on Germany
  • Cash-and-Carry policy
  • We will let Allies purchase weapons if they pay
    cash, carry them on their own ships
  • Germany pushes through all of Western Europe
  • Great Britain the only one holding out
  • They ask for our help

11
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12
From Isolation to Intervention
  • Election of 1940
  • FDR runs for a third term against Willkie (R)
  • People want him to stay in charge with this new
    crisis
  • Isolationists America First Committee
  • Henry Ford, Charles Lindbergh
  • Lend-Lease program
  • Will lend military supplies to Britain, Soviet
    Union
  • Atlantic Charter FDR and Churchill meet
  • Agree after the war on self-determination, free
    trade, collective security

13
Pearl Harbor
  • Japan continues expanding in the Pacific
  • U.S. stops selling them fuel, scrap metal
  • Japan signs the Tripartite Pact Axis Powers
  • Japan takes over most of Southeast Asia
  • U.S. bans all trade with Japan, freeze their
    assets in the U.S.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941
  • Destroyed much of U.S. fleet
  • We are at war

14
America Mobilizes for War
15
Organizing for Victory
  • The military
  • FDR creates the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Office of
    Strategic Services (OSS)
  • The economy
  • War Production Board give out contracts,
    materials
  • Companies convert to war production
  • National War Labor Board negotiate disputes
    between management and labor
  • Office of Price Administration ration products,
    impose price and rent controls
  • HUGE economic growth

16
The War Economy
  • Massive government spending
  • 320 billion twice as much as U.S. had spent
    since 1776
  • Ended the depression, economy booms
  • The sunbelt emerges
  • From the Southwest to the Southeast
  • Govt. spends money there, creates new jobs,
    industries
  • Middle class expands
  • Only shift toward greater equality in income
    distribution
  • Labor movement grows
  • Got big benefits in return for not striking
  • Government tries to prevent inflation
  • Rationing, price controls, selling war bonds

17
Scientific Developments
  • Office of Scientific Research and Development
    to create new weapons, medicine
  • Radar, sonar, rockets, new bombs
  • New plane technology
  • Earliest computers
  • Better blood transfusions, safer surgeries
  • Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb
  • First successful test July 16, 1945

18
Propaganda and Politics
  • Government controls the media
  • Delays publishing casualty reports, photos,
    censors letters
  • Office of War Information to sell the war
  • Show it as a struggle between good and evil
  • Politics shifting to the Right
  • Congress gets rid of New Deal agencies
  • Govt. still playing a huge role in peoples lives

19
The Battlefront
  • 1942-1944

20
Liberating Europe
  • Allies agree to focus on Germany first, then
    Japan
  • Operation TORCH we attack Germany through North
    Africa instead
  • Move up through Italy
  • Soviets begin turning Germany back, 1943
  • Operation OVERLORD attack through France, push
    back into Germany
  • D-Day, June 6, 1944
  • Battle of the Bulge

21
War in the Pacific
  • New type of fighting
  • Aircraft carriers planes
  • Battle of the Coral Sea
  • We stop Japans attack on Australia
  • Battle of Midway
  • Puts Japan on the defensive
  • U.S. starts pushing them back to the Japanese
    mainland

22
The Grand Alliance
  • FDRs 2 goals
  • Win the war with minimum loss to U.S.
  • Create a new world order for peace
  • Meets with Churchill, Stalin to plan the war,
    what happens after
  • Wins the Election of 1944 against Dewey
  • Not healthy

23
War and American Society
24
The Home Front
  • Internal migrations
  • To the West to work in factories, away from rural
    areas
  • Tension there people feel isolated, alone
  • Women go to work
  • Rosie the Riveter work in war factories
  • Many were wives and mothers
  • New opportunities jobs, college, military
  • Still discrimination, unequal pay
  • Forced to give up their jobs when the war is over

25
Racism and New Opportunities
  • Double V campaign
  • Victory over discrimination at home, Axis powers
    abroad
  • NAACP membership soars
  • CORE founded nonviolent resistance
  • A. Philip Randolph calls for a march on
    Washington
  • FDR issues Executive Order 8802 outlaws
    discrimination by federal agencies, companies,
    unions in war production
  • Military still segregated
  • African Americans begin expecting more from the
    government

26
War and Diversity
  • Native Americans
  • Wind talkers in the military
  • Others leave reservations to work in war
    factories
  • Braceros
  • U.S. imports Mexican temporary workers
  • Treated badly by employers, deported after the
    war
  • Hispanic Americans move from farms to Western
    cities
  • Segregated, treated badly

27
The Internment of Japanese-Americans
  • Japanese American citizens moved to relocation
    centers guarded by the military
  • FDR okays it with Executive Order 9066
  • Supreme Court upholds it in Korematsu v. U.S.
  • Afraid of espionage and sedition
  • NO evidence of it
  • Japanese lost their property, forced to stay
    until the end of the war

28
Triumph and Tragedy
  • 1945

29
The Yalta Conference
  • FDR, Churchill, and Stalin meet
  • Stalin makes demands they had suffered the
    most, pushed Germany all the way back
  • FDR, Churchill give in
  • Stalin will go to war with Japan sometime after
    Germany surrenders
  • Unclear on what will happen to Germany
  • Vague language on what will happen to countries
    in Eastern Europe
  • Agree on the United Nations

30
Victory in Europe
  • Soviets and Allies marching into Germany from
    both sides
  • Hitler commits suicide May 2, 1945
  • Germany surrenders May 5, 1945
  • FDR dies April 12, 1945
  • Harry Truman becomes President
  • Takes tough stand on Soviet Union stalls in
    giving them aid, ignores Yalta promises
  • Relations with S.U. deteriorate at Potsdam
    Conference

31
The Holocaust
  • U.S. ignores / downplays the Holocaust until 1942
  • Many dont believe it there arent pictures
  • U.S. decides best way to end it is to defeat
    Germany
  • No direct response to the Holocaust
  • After the war, U.S. helps create Israel as a
    homeland for Jews

32
The Atomic Bombs
  • U.S. pushing Japan back
  • Iwo Jima, Okinawa huge casualties for a tiny
    island
  • Japanese fight to the death
  • Japans military refuses to surrender
  • Truman doesnt want to invade Japan
  • At Potsdam, Truman warns Japan to surrender or
    face utter destruction
  • Drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945
  • 2nd bomb dropped on Nagasaki
  • By the end of the war, we will attack civilians
  • Gives us an advantage over the Soviet Union
  • Japan surrenders August 16, 1945
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