Environmental Hazards and Human Health - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Environmental Hazards and Human Health PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7e7516-YWQ2N


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Environmental Hazards and Human Health


Chapter 17 Environmental Hazards and Human Health – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:99
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 39
Provided by: you9230
Learn more at: http://images.pcmac.org


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Environmental Hazards and Human Health

  • Chapter 17
  • Environmental Hazards and Human Health

Core Case Study Are Baby Bottles and Food Cans
Safe To Use? The BPA Controversy
  • Some synthetic chemicals act as hormone mimics
    and disrupt the human endocrine system
  • 93 of Americans older than 6 have BPA levels
    above the threshold level set by the EPA
  • Higher in children and adolescents
  • BPA (bisphenol A)
  • Estrogen mimic excess effects on males
  • In polycarbonates and other hardened plastics
  • Baby bottles, sipping cups, reusable water
    bottles, sports drinks, microwave dishes, food
    storage containers. liners of most food and soft
    drink cans

We Face Many Types of Hazards
  • Biological
  • Pathogen an organism that causes disease in
    other organisms
  • Chemical
  • Physical
  • Cultural
  • Lifestyle choices
  • Risk
  • Probability of suffering harm from a hazard

Some Diseases Can Spread from One Person to
  • Infectious disease
  • Pathogen invades the body and multiplies
  • Transmissible disease
  • Contagious or communicable disease
  • Infectious disease transmitted between people
  • Flu, tuberculosis, measles
  • Nontransmissible disease
  • Not caused by living organisms
  • Heart disease, most cancers, diabetes

Some Diseases Can Spread from One Person to
  • Infectious diseases spread through
  • Air, water, food, body fluids
  • Can cause epidemics and pandemics. Can also
    build up resistance to drugs and pesticides
  • Since 1950, death from infectious diseases have
    declined due to
  • Better health care, better sanitation,
    antibiotics, vaccines

Science Pathways for Infectious Diseases in
Fig. 17-3, p. 439
Major Causes of Death from Infectious Diseases in
the World, 2007
Fig. 17-4, p. 439
Case Study The Growing Global Threat from
  • One in ten will become sick with TB
  • 1.8 million deaths each year, primarily in
    less-developed countries
  • Why is tuberculosis on the rise?
  • Not enough screening and control programs
  • Genetic resistance to a majority of effective
  • Person-to-person contact has increased
  • AIDS individuals are very susceptible to TB

Lung Tissue Destroyed by Tuberculosis
Fig. 17-5, p. 440
Viral Diseases and Parasites Kill Large Numbers
of People
  • 1 Killer - Influenza or flu virus
  • 2 Killer - HIV
  • 3 Killer - Hepatitis B virus (HBV)
  • Emergent diseases West Nile virus
  • Reduce chances of infection
  • Wash your hands
  • Avoid touching your face
  • Avoid sick people

We Can Reduce the Incidence of Infectious Diseases
  • Good news
  • Vaccinations on the rise
  • Oral rehydration therapy
  • Bad news
  • More money needed for medical research in
    developing countries

Some Chemicals Can Cause Cancers, Mutations, and
Birth Defects
  • Toxic chemicals
  • Carcinogens
  • Chemicals, types of radiation, or certain viruses
    the cause or promote cancer
  • Mutagens
  • Chemicals or radiation that cause mutations or
    increase their frequency
  • Teratogens
  • Chemicals that cause harm or birth defects to a
    fetus or embryo

Case Study PCBs Are EverywhereA Legacy from the
  • PCBs are
  • Class of chlorine-containing compounds
  • Very stable
  • Nonflammable
  • Break down slowly in the environment
  • Travel long distances in the air
  • Fat soluble
  • Biomagnification
  • Food chains and webs
  • Banned, but found everywhere

Potential Pathways on Which Toxic Chemicals Move
Through the Environment
Fig. 17-9, p. 447
Some Chemicals May Affect Different Systems
  • Some natural and synthetic chemicals in the
    environment can weaken and harm our
  • Immune system
  • Nervous system
  • Neurotoxins PCBs, arsenic, lead, some pesticides
  • Endocrine system

Many Factors Determine the Harmful Health Effects
of a Chemical
  • Toxicity dependent on
  • Dose
  • Age
  • Genetic makeup
  • Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS)
  • Solubility
  • Persistence
  • Biomagnification
  • Response
  • Acute effect immediate or rapid
  • Chronic effect permanent or long-lasting

Toxicity Ratings and Average Lethal Doses for
Table 17-1, p. 453
Are Trace Levels of Toxic Chemicals Harmful?
  • Insufficient data for most chemicals
  • We are all exposed to toxic chemicals
  • Are the dangers increasing or are the tests just
    more sensitive?

Some Potentially Harmful Chemicals Found in Most
Fig. 17-15, p. 455
Why Do We Know So Little about the Harmful
Effects of Chemicals?
  • Severe limitations estimating toxicity levels and
  • Only 2 of 100,000 chemicals have been adequately
  • 99.5 of chemicals used in the United States are
    not supervised by government

Global Outlook Number of Deaths per Year in the
World from Various Causes
Fig. 17-16, p. 458
  • Chapter 21
  • Solid and Hazardous Waste

Core Case Study E-wasteAn Exploding Problem
  • Electronic waste, e-waste fastest growing solid
    waste problem
  • Most ends up in landfills and incinerators
  • Composition includes
  • High-quality plastics, valuable metals, toxic and
    hazardous pollutants
  • Shipped to other countries - What happens in
    China and India?
  • International Basel Convention
  • Bans transferring hazardous wastes from developed
    countries to developing countries

Core Case Study E-wasteAn Exploding Problem
  • What should be done?
  • Recycle
  • E-cycle
  • Reuse
  • Prevention approach remove the toxic materials

We Throw Away Huge Amounts of Useful Things and
Hazardous Materials (1)
  • Solid waste
  • Industrial solid waste
  • Mines, farms, industries
  • Municipal solid waste (MSW)
  • Trash
  • Hazardous waste (toxic waste)
  • Threatens human health of the environment
  • Organic compounds
  • Toxic heavy metals
  • Radioactive waste

We Throw Away Huge Amounts of Useful Things and
Hazardous Materials (2)
  • 8090 of hazardous wastes produced by developed
  • U.S. is the largest producer - Leader in solid
    waste problem Leader in trash production, by
    weight, per person Recycling is helping
  • Why reduce solid wastes?
  • ¾ of the materials are an unnecessary waste of
    the earth's resources
  • Huge amounts of air pollution, greenhouse gases,
    and water pollution

Natural Capital Degradation Solid Wastes
Polluting a River in Indonesia
Fig. 21-3, p. 560
We Can Cut Solid Wastes by Reducing, Reusing, and
  • Six strategies
  • Redesign manufacturing processes and products to
    use less material and energy
  • Develop products that are easy to repair, reuse,
    remanufacture, compost, or recycle
  • Eliminate or reduce unnecessary packaging
  • Use fee-per-bag waste collection systems
  • Establish cradle-to grave responsibility
  • Restructure urban transportation systems

We Can Burn or Bury Solid Waste or Produce Less
of It
  • Waste Management
  • Reduce harm, but not amounts
  • Waste Reduction
  • Use less and focus on reuse, recycle, compost
  • Integrated waste management
  • Uses a variety of strategies

We Can Use Integrated Management of Hazardous
  • Integrated management of hazardous wastes
  • Produce less
  • Convert to less hazardous substances
  • Rest in long-term safe storage

Case Study Recycling E-Waste
  • 70 goes to China
  • Hazardous working conditions
  • Includes child workers
  • Reduce toxic components in electronics
  • Dell and HP take recycle their products
  • Europe has high-tech smelters with strict

Case Study Hazardous Waste Regulation in the
United States (1)
  • 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
  • EPA sets standards and gives permits
  • Cradle to grave
  • Covers only 5 of hazardous wastes

Case Study Hazardous Waste Regulation in the
United States (2)
  • 1980 Comprehensive Environmental, Compensation,
    and Liability Act (CERCLA)
  • National Priorities List
  • 2010 1300 sites, 340 sites cleaned so far
  • Pace of cleanup has slowed
  • Superfund is broke
  • Laws encouraging the cleanup of brownfields

International Treaties Have Reduced Hazardous
Waste (1)
  • Basel Convention
  • 1992 in effect
  • 1995 amendment bans all transfers of hazardous
    wastes from industrialized countries to
    less-developed countries
  • 2009 Ratified by 195 countries, but not the
    United States

International Treaties Have Reduced Hazardous
Waste (2)
  • 2000 Delegates from 122 countries completed a
    global treaty
  • Control 12 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) -
    Dirty dozen includes DDT, PCBs, dioxins.
    Everyone on earth has POPs in blood
  • 2000 Swedish Parliament law
  • By 2020 ban all chemicals that are persistent and
    can accumulate in living tissue

We Can Make the Transition to Low-Waste Societies
  • 2000 Swedish Parliament law
  • By 2020 ban all chemicals that are persistent and
    can accumulate in living tissue
  • Norway, Austria, and the Netherlands
  • Committed to reduce resource waste by 75
  • East Hampton, NY, U.S.
  • Reduced solid waste by 85

Unit 7 test review
  • According to 2003 CDC study what of Americans
    over 6 showed trace BPA level above EPA
  • What are the 5 main types of hazards?
  • Examples of biological hazards, natural hazards,
    viral diseases, transmissible and
    non-transmissible diseases.
  • Terms pandemic, epidemic, malaria, west nile
    virus, lyme disease, carcinogen, immune system,
    endocrine system, toxicity, dose,
    biomagnification, chronic effects, acute effects.

  • The top toxic substances in terms of human and
    environmental health.
  • of e-waste components containing materials that
    could be recycled/reused?
  • US produces how much of the worlds solid waste?
  • Approaches for dealing with solid waste (waste
    reductions, integrated waste management, etc.)
  • of solid waste buried in US landfills.
  • Most efficient beverage container on the market.
  • What can people do to save resources?
About PowerShow.com