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Cultural and Intellectual Changes 1450 -1750

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Cultural and Intellectual Changes 1450 -1750 Transformations and formations of empires, the slave trade, and hemispheric connections took place along the backdrop of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cultural and Intellectual Changes 1450 -1750


1
Cultural and Intellectual Changes 1450 -1750
  • Transformations and formations of empires, the
    slave trade, and hemispheric connections took
    place along the backdrop of cultural and
    intellectual changes
  • Protestant and Catholic reformations
  • Scientific revolution
  • The Enlightenment

2
The Protestant Reformation
  • The Renaissance of Italy spread North to Europe
    (Northern Renaissance) characterized by a more
    religious devotion
  • 1517 to finance St. Peters Basilica in Rome the
    Catholic Church issued the sale of indulgences
    (buy your way to heaven!)

3
The Protestant Reformation
  • Martin Luther (German Monk) opposed these
    indulgences and wrote The Ninety-Five Theses and
    was in turn excommunicated
  • His ideas spread widely thanks to Johannes
    Guttenberg's invention of the printing press 1455
  • The Protestant Reformation gained momentum in
    Germany quickly because of the German resentment
    of the Pope

4
Spread of Protestantism
  • Occurred in England when Henry VIII broke with
    the Roman Catholic Church so he could divorce his
    wife
  • A protestant named John Calvin preached
    PREDESTINATION
  • God had a plan for every person
  • Spread to America by the migrations of the
    Puritans

5
The Catholic Reformation
  • AKA the Counter-Reformation, met at the Council
    of Trent, and stopped the sale of indulgences and
    restored traditional beliefs
  • The Jesuits (Society of Jesus) organized to serve
    as missionaries and educators

6
Results of the Protestant Reformation
  • Increased European questioning of political
    authority
  • Strengthened power of monarchs as the popes power
    decreased
  • Encouraged education as Protestants wanted their
    children to read the bible
  • Improved the status of women by encouraging
    marriage for love not power or money
  • Created new protestant churches

7
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8
The Scientific Revolution
  • Key theory that began the scientific revolution
    was when Copernicus questioned the geocentric
    (earth at the center of the universe) theory.
  • Heliocentric sun is the center of the universe
  • Galileo used a telescope to confirm these theories

9
  • Johannes Kepler establishes the elliptical
    motions of the planets
  • Issac Newton basic principles of motion
  • John Harvey explains the human circulatory
    system

10
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11
ENLIGHTENMENT
  • Impact of the Enlightenment
  • Challenged old ideas about society
  • Questioned divine right, and unfair govts.
  • Inspired revolutions in US and France.
  • Progress made in science.
  • Humans CAN solve social problems.
  • Questioned Churchs teachings.
  • An individual is important valuable.

12
John Locke
  • People can learn from experience and improve
    themselves
  • Natural Rights life, liberty, and property
  • Purpose of the government protect NATURAL
    RIGHTS!!

13
Mary Wollstonecraft
  • Wrote The Vindication of Rights of Women 1792
  • She argued that women needed to be educated
  • Women should have a right to participate in
    politics
  • FIRST REAL FEMINIST

14
Beccaria and your rights.
  • Laws helped keep order in a society.
  • People have the right to a speedy trial.
  • No cruel or unusual punishment.
  • Against capital punishment (death penalty

15
Baron de Montesquieu
  • French writer dedicated to political liberties
  • Separation of Powers- amongst the branches of
    government
  • Create a system of checks and balances
  • 1 branch can check another branchs power!

16
Voltaire
  • French political satirist (used writing to make
    fun of the government)
  • Sent to jail twice for his writing
  • Admired the English version of government

17
Jean Jacques Rousseau
  • Won recognition as a writer of essays in Paris
  • Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains
  • As people became civilized freedom was destroyed
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