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C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008)

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Title: C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008)


1
C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2nd
edition (Newburyport, MA Focus, 2008)
  • Chapter 23

2
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  1. Athematic (-µ?) verbs
  2. Athematic (-µ?) verbs, first principal part
  3. Athematic (-µ?) verbs, third principal part
  4. Further comparison of adjectives in -???, -?st??
  5. Declension of comparatives -???

3
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  1. Athematic (-µ?) verbs
  2. Athematic (-µ?) verbs, first principal part
  3. Athematic (-µ?) verbs, third principal part
  4. Further comparison of adjectives in -???, -?st??
  5. Declension of comparatives -???

4
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • Athematic (-µ?) verbs
  • Almost all verbs in Greek are thematic verbs,
    because they have a thematic vowel (the ?/e
    before the endings). They are also known as ?
    verbs, since their first principal part ends in
    ?.
  • A small number of Greek verbs are athematic
    because they have no thematic vowel. These are
    known as µ? verbs, since their first principal
    part ends in µ?.

5
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • Athematic (-µ?) verbs
  • These verbs display slightly different endings
    and sometimes feature small changes to their
    stems at unusual times.
  • This system of endings also lies behind the forms
    of the aorist passive system.

6
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • Athematic (-µ?) verbs
  • Although there are very few µ? verbs, some are
    very common.
  • You first learned the most common µ? verb,
    e?µ?.
  • In Chapter 14, you learned another µ? verb, f?µ?
    say.

7
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • singular
  • -µ?
  • -?
  • -s?
  • plural
  • -µe?
  • -te
  • -as?
  • MIDDLE/PASSIVE
  • singular
  • -µa?
  • -sa?
  • -ta?
  • plural
  • -µe?a
  • -s?e
  • -?ta?

for ?
for e?
for ??s?
present tense (with differences from thematic
verbs noted)
8
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • singular
  • -?
  • -?
  • -
  • plural
  • -µe?
  • -te
  • -sa?
  • PASSIVE
  • singular
  • -µ??
  • -s?
  • -t?
  • plural
  • -µe?a
  • -s?e
  • -?t?

for ??
imperfect tense (with differences from thematic
verbs noted)
9
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  1. Athematic (-µ?) verbs
  2. Athematic (-µ?) verbs, first principal part
  3. Athematic (-µ?) verbs, third principal part
  4. Further comparison of adjectives in -???, -?st??
  5. Declension of comparatives -???

10
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • µ? verbs
  • This section shows the forms of four common µ?
    verbs.
  • Their principal parts are (with stems
    highlighted)
  • de????µ?, de???, ?de??a, d?de??a, d?de??µa?,
    ?de????? show
  • t???µ?, ??s?, ????a, t????a, -t??eµa?, ?t???? put
  • ?st?µ?, st?s?, ?stasa/?st??, ?st??a, ?staµa?,
    ?st???? stand
  • d?d?µ?, d?s?, ?d??a, d?d??a, d?d?µa?, ?d???? give

11
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • µ? verbs
  • This section shows the present and imperfect
    indicative, from the first principal part.
  • de????µ?, de???, ?de??a, d?de??a, d?de??µa?,
    ?de????? show
  • t???µ?, ??s?, ????a, t????a, -t??eµa?, ?t???? put
  • ?st?µ?, st?s?, ?stasa/?st??, ?st??a, ?staµa?,
    ?st???? stand
  • d?d?µ?, d?s?, ?d??a, d?d??a, d?d?µa?, ?d???? give

12
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • singular
  • de????µ?
  • de?????
  • de????s?
  • plural
  • de????µe?
  • de????te
  • de????as?
  • MIDDLE/PASSIVE
  • singular
  • de????µa?
  • de????sa?
  • de????ta?
  • plural
  • de????µe?a
  • de????s?e
  • de?????ta?

present tense stem de????
13
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • singular
  • t???µ?
  • t????
  • t???s?
  • plural
  • t??eµe?
  • t??ete
  • t???as?
  • MIDDLE/PASSIVE
  • singular
  • t??eµa?
  • t??esa?
  • t??eta?
  • plural
  • t???µe?a
  • t??es?e
  • t??e?ta?

? for e
present tense stem t??e
14
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • singular
  • ?st?µ?
  • ?st??
  • ?st?s?
  • plural
  • ?staµe?
  • ?state
  • ?st?s?
  • MIDDLE/PASSIVE
  • singular
  • ?staµa?
  • ?stasa?
  • ?stata?
  • plural
  • ?st?µe?a
  • ?stas?e
  • ?sta?ta?

? for a
present tense stem ?sta
15
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • singular
  • d?d?µ?
  • d?d??
  • d?d?s?
  • plural
  • d?d?µe?
  • d?d?te
  • d?d?as?
  • MIDDLE/PASSIVE
  • singular
  • d?d?µa?
  • d?d?sa?
  • d?d?ta?
  • plural
  • d?d?µe?a
  • d?d?s?e
  • d?d??ta?

? for ?
present tense stem d?d?
16
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • singular
  • ?de?????
  • ?de?????
  • ?de????
  • plural
  • ?de????µe?
  • ?de????te
  • ?de????sa?
  • PASSIVE
  • singular
  • ?de????µ??
  • ?de????s?
  • ?de????t?
  • plural
  • ?de????µe?a
  • ?de????s?e
  • ?de?????t?

imperfect tense stem de????
17
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • singular
  • ?t????
  • ?t????
  • ?t???
  • plural
  • ?t??eµe?
  • ?t??ete
  • ?t??esa?
  • PASSIVE
  • singular
  • ?t???µ??
  • ?t??es?
  • ?t??et?
  • plural
  • ?t???µe?a
  • ?t??es?e
  • ?t??e?t?

? for e
imperfect tense stem t??e
18
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • singular
  • ?st??
  • ?st??
  • ?st?
  • plural
  • ?staµe?
  • ?state
  • ?stasa?
  • PASSIVE
  • singular
  • ?st?µ??
  • ?stas?
  • ?stat?
  • plural
  • ?st?µe?a
  • ?stas?e
  • ?sta?t?

? for a
imperfect tense stem ?sta
19
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • singular
  • ?d?d???
  • ?d?d???
  • ?d?d??
  • plural
  • ?d?d?µe?
  • ?d?d?te
  • ?d?d?sa?
  • PASSIVE
  • singular
  • ?d?d?µ??
  • ?d?d?s?
  • ?d?d?t?
  • plural
  • ?d?d?µe?a
  • ?d?d?s?e
  • ?d?d??t?

?? for ?
imperfect tense stem d?d?
20
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  1. Athematic (-µ?) verbs
  2. Athematic (-µ?) verbs, first principal part
  3. Athematic (-µ?) verbs, third principal part
  4. Further comparison of adjectives in -???, -?st??
  5. Declension of comparatives -???

21
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • µ? verbs
  • This section shows the aorist indicative, from
    the third principal part.
  • t???µ?, ??s?, ????a, t????a, -t??eµa?, ?t???? put
  • ?st?µ?, st?s?, ?st??, ?st??a, ?staµa?, ?st????
    stand
  • d?d?µ?, d?s?, ?d??a, d?d??a, d?d?µa?, ?d???? give
  • The aorist of de????µ? (?de??a) and the 1st
    (weak) aorist of ?st?µ? (?stasa) are both
    regular, so they are not shown separately.

22
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • singular
  • ????a
  • ????a?
  • ????e
  • plural
  • ??eµe?
  • ??ete
  • ??esa?
  • MIDDLE
  • singular
  • ???µ??
  • ??es?
  • ??et?
  • plural
  • ???µe?a
  • ??es?e
  • ??e?t?

?? for e
aorist tense stem ?e
23
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • singular
  • ?st??
  • ?st??
  • ?st?
  • plural
  • ?st?µe?
  • ?st?te
  • ?st?sa?
  • MIDDLE
  • None.
  • This tense is intransitive.
  • Transitive active and middle
  • forms belong to the (regular)
  • 1st (weak) aorist ?st?sa.

aorist tense stem st? Notice that these forms
resemble the regular aorist passive.
24
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • singular
  • ?d??a
  • ?d??a?
  • ?d??e
  • plural
  • ?d?µe?
  • ?d?te
  • ?d?sa?
  • MIDDLE
  • singular
  • ?d?µ??
  • (?d?s? ?) ?d??
  • ?d?t?
  • plural
  • ?d?µe?a
  • ?d?s?e
  • ?d??t?

?? for ?
aorist tense stem d?
25
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • µ? verbs
  • ?n the infinitive mood, µ? verbs use the ending
    ?a? in the active (as do the perfect active and
    aorist passive) and the regular s?a? in the
    middle.

26
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • present
  • -?a?
  • aorist
  • -?a?
  • MIDDLE
  • present
  • -s?a?
  • aorist
  • -s?a?

infinitives
27
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • present
  • de?????a?
  • aorist
  • regular 1st (weak)
  • MIDDLE
  • present
  • de????s?a?
  • aorist
  • regular 1st (weak)

infinitives
28
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • present
  • t????a?
  • aorist
  • ?e??a?
  • MIDDLE
  • present
  • t???s?a?
  • aorist
  • ??s?a?

infinitives
29
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • present
  • ?st??a?
  • aorist
  • st??a?
  • MIDDLE
  • present
  • ?st?s?a?
  • aorist
  • ---

infinitives
30
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • present
  • d?d??a?
  • aorist
  • d???a?
  • MIDDLE
  • present
  • d?d?s?a?
  • aorist
  • d?s?a?

infinitives
31
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • µ? verbs
  • ?n the participle mood, µ? verbs resemble the
    1st (weak) aorist.
  • In the active, the forms are analogous to
  • p?? p?sa p??.
  • The middle participles all use the regular
  • -µe??? -? -??.

32
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • present
  • de????? de????sa de?????
  • aorist
  • regular 1st (weak)
  • MIDDLE
  • present
  • de????µe??? -? -??
  • aorist
  • regular 1st (weak)

Participles
33
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • present
  • t??e?? t??e?sa t????
  • aorist
  • ?e?? ?e?sa ???
  • MIDDLE
  • present
  • t???µe??? -? -??
  • aorist
  • ??µe??? -? -??

Participles The active forms are like the regular
aorist passive (Chapter 22.3).
34
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • present
  • ?st?? ?st?sa ?st??
  • aorist
  • st?? st?sa st??
  • MIDDLE
  • present
  • ?st?µe??? -? -??
  • aorist
  • ---

Participles The active forms resemble p?? p?sa
p??.
35
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • ACTIVE
  • present
  • d?d??? d?d??sa d?d??
  • aorist
  • d??? d??sa d??
  • MIDDLE
  • present
  • d?d?µe??? -? -??
  • aorist
  • d?µe??? -? -??

Participles
36
Shelmerdine Chapter 23
  • µ? verbs
  • ?n the imperative mood, µ? verbs are mostly
    regular.
  • In the present active, the 2nd person singular
    ending e contracts (de????, t??e?, ?st?, d?d??).
  • In the aorist active, the 2nd person singular
    forms are ???, st???, and d??.
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