Emergent Nationalism in the Middle East - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Emergent Nationalism in the Middle East

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Emergent Nationalism in the Middle East The Battle of Islam OVERVIEW In this lesson we examine: Background to Shiite and Sunni conflict Reasons for the Iranian ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Emergent Nationalism in the Middle East


1
Emergent Nationalism in the Middle East
  • The Battle of Islam

2
OVERVIEW
  • In this lesson we examine
  • Background to Shiite and Sunni conflict
  • Reasons for the Iranian Revolution
  • The spread of fundamentalism

3
Shiite and Sunni Conflict
  • Context Question
  • What major branches of Christianity are you
    aware of and what traditional conflict has
    existed between them, if any?

4
  • Sunnis would become the majority
  • Shiites would be the largest minority.
  • Sunnis most Arab states
  • Shia Iran (non-Arab), southern Iraq and southern
    Lebanon.
  • Arab states became mandates or constitutional
    monarchies.

5
The Iranian Revolution
  • Islamic fundamentalists began to make arguments
    in favour of establishing governments based on
    the laws of Islam
  • What were the key supporting examples that they
    used?

6
  • Secular monarchs were politically and
    economically corrupt and elitist ex Mohammed
    Reza Shah Pahlavi
  • Western-style democracies were socially corrupt
    ex objectification of women
  • Communism was oppressive and immoral
  • Nationalist totalitarianism were politically
    corrupt ex Anwar Sadat

7
  • After WWII, the Shah of Iran was a pro-West,
    anti-communist but failed to institute many
    political and economic reforms. In 1978-1979, the
    Shah was overthrown in a popular revolt
  • Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and his Islamic
    supporters transformed Iran into a theocracy
    (religious state) after a referendum. The
    religious leadership transformed Iran into a
    highly conservative society
  • Because the US supported the Shahs exile,
    extremist students stormed the US embassy in Iran
    and took 66 hostages for 15 months.

How might the Arab community view the results of
the Iranian revolution after Camp David?
8
The Iran-Iraq War
  • In September 1980, Iraq invaded Iran. What were
    the major reasons and consequences for this
    invasion?

9
  • Saddam Hussein, was concerned that Iran was
    spreading unrest among the Shia majority in Iraq.
  • Sunnis, such as Hussein, held power in Iraq while
    being the minority.
  • The war ended in 1988 with hundreds of thousands
    of deaths and causalities on both sides. Iraq and
    Iran spent billions of dollars on the war,
    leaving their economies in ruin.

What actions might the Iranian government take to
ensure its continued survival in the Islamic
community?
10
SUMMARY QUESTIONS
  • What were the two major groups within Islam and
    what influence did they play in the Middle East
    after WWII?
  • What major events and reasons did Islamic
    fundamentalists provide in their attempts to gain
    support?
  • What was Iraqs goal in launching an invasion of
    Iran in 1980?
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