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5. Vowels

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Title: Chapter Two Speech Sounds Author: MC SYSTEM Last modified by: Baobao Created Date: 9/19/2006 3:02:58 PM Document presentation format: – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 5. Vowels


1
5. Vowels
he
who
2
Vowels are normally described with reference to
four criteria
  • the part of the tongue that is raised front,
    center, or back.
  • the extent to which the tongue rises in the
    direction of the palate. Normally, three or four
    degrees are recognized high, mid (often divided
    into mid-high and mid-low), and low.
  • the kind of opening made at the lips various
    degrees of lip rounding or spreading.
  • the position of the soft palate raised for oral
    vowels, and lowered for vowels which have been
    nasalized.

3
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4
  • It should be pointed out that it is difficult to
    be precise about the exact articulatory positions
    of the tongue and palate because very slight
    movements are involved. Absolute values are not
    possible due to differences in the mouth
    dimensions of individual speakers.

5
Cardinal vowels
  • The idea of a system of cardinal vowels was first
    suggested by A. J. Ellis in 1844 and was taken up
    by A. M. Bell in his Visible Speech (1867).
  • The system we are now considering here is the
    most famous of all and was put forward by Daniel
    Jones in a number of writings from 1917 onwards,
    particularly in his Outline of English Phonetics
    (1962).

6
  • For Jones, the cardinal vowels are a set of vowel
    qualities arbitrarily defined, fixed and
    unchanging, intended to provide a frame of
    reference for the description of the actual
    vowels of existing languages.
  • When the cardinal vowels are explained, examples
    are usually given from various languages to help
    the student. It should not be thought however
    that the cardinal vowels are actually based on
    whatever examples are given.

7
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8
Jones An Outline of English Phonetics (1918)
Black IPA Red English
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