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Chapter Six: Pesticide Use and Safety and IPM


Chapter Six: Pesticide Use and Safety and IPM Renee Hypes, IPM Technician Colonial Williamsburg Foundation – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter Six: Pesticide Use and Safety and IPM

Chapter Six Pesticide Use and Safety and IPM
  • Renee Hypes, IPM Technician Colonial Williamsburg

  • What is a pest?
  • For the purposes of pesticide application, there
    is a legal definition of pest.
  • "Pest" means any deleterious organism that is
    (i) any vertebrate animal other than man (ii)
    any invertebrate animal excluding any internal
    parasite of living man or other living animals
    (iii) any plant growing where not wanted, and any
    plant part such as a root or (iv) any bacterium,
    virus, or other microorganisms (except for those
    on or in living man or other living animals and
    those on or in processed food or processed animal
    feed, beverages, drugs as defined by the Federal
    Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and cosmetics as
    defined by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic
    Act. Any organism protected under federal or
    state laws shall not be deemed a pest for the
    purposes of this chapter.

  • And because there is a legal definition of pest,
    there also is a legal definition of pesticide.
  • "Pesticide" means (i) any substance or mixture
    of substances intended for preventing,
    destroying, repelling, or mitigating any insects,
    rodents, fungi, bacteria, weeds, other forms of
    plant or animal life, bacterium, or viruses,
    except viruses on or in living man or other
    animals, which the Commissioner shall declare to
    be a pest (ii) any substance or mixture of
    substances intended for use as a plant regulator,
    defoliant, or desiccant and (iii) any substance
    intended to become an active ingredient in any
    substance defined in clause (i) and (ii).

Pest Management and Decision-Making
  • This is where IPM comes in, which we will talk
    about in more depth later.
  • The book poses excellent questions to facilitate
    decision-making in terms of pests.
  • Is the problem actually caused by a pest?
  • What kind of pest?
  • Is the problem severe enough to require action?
  • Can the pest be controlled at this stage of
  • Are pesticides registered for the pest and site?
  • Is pesticide use the best management option?
  • Is pesticide use cost-effective?

Pest Management and Decision-Making
  • If there is a problem that requires action, there
    are factors that will help with what action to
  • Pest life cycle and habits
  • Pest population size and distribution
  • Factors that attracted pest to site
  • Management options
  • Ways to prevent future problems

Safe Use Precautions
  • If you decide to use a pesticide, the label must
    be followed.
  • In place of specific instructions on the label,
    always use common sense.
  • Before your trip to Lowes, Ace or Cookes, be
    sure of your pest.
  • Consult a knowledgeable friend, extension agent
    or knowledgeable garden center employee.

Safe Use Precautions
  • Be as close to 100 positive as possible on what
    youre trying to control.
  • Misidentification will waste time, money and
  • Also, unnecessary exposure of pesticide to
    yourself and the environment will result.

Safe Use Precautions
  • Read labels carefully and make sure you
    understand it
  • If you have questions ask someone at the store or
    call an extension agent for advice
  • Before leaving make sure you have all of the
    necessary equipment including PPE
  • Make sure the product is labeled not only for the
    target pest but also the site

Safe Use Precautions
  • The book also recommends not buying pesticides
    intended for professional use.
  • Professional pesticides may be cheaper per unit,
    but usually you end up with way more than needed
  • Professional formulations also have a greater
    risk for mistakes and consequently exposure

Safe Use Precautions
  • Generally professional pesticides require very
    little concentrate per water which makes mixing
    smaller amounts harder, such as a gallon
  • The requirements for PPE are usually more strict
    as are other precautions particularly for the
  • All of these stipulations also mean a longer,
    more difficult to understand label another good
    reason to stay away from professional products.

Pesticide Terminology
  • Acaricide
  • A substance used to kill acarids (a subclass of
    aracnids that includes mites and ticks)
  • Attractant
  • A substance used to lure a pest
  • Avicide
  • A substance used to kill birds
  • Bactericide
  • Fungicide

Pesticide Terminology
  • Growth Regulator
  • Herbicide
  • Insecticide
  • Miticide
  • Nematicides
  • A substance used to control nematodes
  • Repellants
  • Rodenticide

Pesticide Terminology
  • Band
  • Spraying in-between rows, a small strip
  • Broadcast
  • Dip
  • Directed
  • Drench
  • In-furrow
  • Application to or within the furrow

Pesticide Terminology
  • Spot treatment
  • Sidedress
  • Over-the-top
  • Contact
  • Stomach
  • Systemic
  • Translocated/translaminar
  • Selective/non-selective

Pesticide Label
  • Labeling-all of the printed information on or
    attached to a pesticide container
  • The EPA is the federal agency that gives broad
    approval for a product that claims to have
    pesticidal activity
  • In Virginia, manufacturers also have to be
    approved by VDACS
  • This approval process ensures the claims made by
    the company can be proven and also that the
    product conforms to safety standards

Pesticide Label
  • The most important thing to know about pesticides
    is that the label is the law!
  • The label is the law!
  • The label is the law!
  • The label is a contract between EPA,
    manufacturer, seller and purchaser.
  • Purchasing a pesticide is agreeing to the terms
    on the label.

Pesticide Label
  • The label has parts
  • Brand name
  • Common name
  • Chemical name and composition/ingredient
  • EPA registration number
  • EPA establishment number
  • Name and address of the manufacturer
  • Net contents

Pesticide Label
  • Restricted use designation
  • Restricted use chemicals require a pesticide
    license and will not be in most retail
    establishments and are not meant for homeowner
  • Precautionary Statements
  • Signal Word
  • Danger/Poison
  • Warning
  • Caution
  • Statement of Practical Treatment

Pesticide Label
  • PPE
  • Hazards to human and domestic animals
  • Environmental hazards
  • Directions for use
  • Misuse statement
  • Storage and disposal
  • Emergency assistance

Pesticide Formulations
  • Aerosol (A)
  • Bait (B)
  • Dust (D)
  • Emulsifiable Concentrate (E,EC)
  • Granule (G)
  • Ready-to-use (RTU)
  • Water Dispersible Granule (WDG), Dry Flowable
  • Wettable Powder (WP)

  • Adjuvants are added to increase effectiveness or
  • Includes activators, compatibility agents,
    deflocculators, detergent, dispersants,
    emulsifiers, foam and drift suppressants, and
    spreading, sticking and wetting agents
  • Sometimes they are already part of the
    formulation, sometimes they need to be added or
    are unnecessary

  • Not all pesticides can be mixed together
  • The label will give instructions on what can and
    cannot be mixed
  • Sometimes the label will also tell you to perform
    a jar test, but this is usually only with
    professional pesticides

Personal Safety
  • One of the first things to know about personal
    safety is what PPE is and what PPE the pesticide
    you are using requires
  • The label will give instructions on the minimum
    PPE, this is a requirement, not a suggestion!
  • Most often PPE consists of long pants,
    long-sleeved shirt, shoes plus socks and
    sometimes chemical resistant gloves and eye

Personal Safety
  • Be aware of what you need to wear for each
    activity, mixing and loading may require more PPE
    that applying
  • Eating, drinking, smoking and chewing gum should
    not happen while spraying, nor should these items
    be present when you spray
  • Pesticide contaminated clothing should be washed
    separately from other laundry and an empty cycle
    should be run after washing PPE

Symptoms of Poisoning
  • Different pesticides affect people differently
    but knowing common symptoms can help you get help
  • Symptoms of mild poisoning or early acute
    poisoning include
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Blurred vision
  • Excessive sweating and salivation

Symptoms of Poisoning
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Stomach cramps
  • Diarrhea
  • Moderate poisoning or intermediate acute symptoms
  • Increased severity of early symptoms
  • Inability to walk
  • Weakness

Symptoms of Poisoning
  • Chest discomfort
  • Muscle twitches
  • Constricted pupils
  • Severe or acute poisoning
  • Unconsciousness
  • Sever constriction of pupils
  • Muscle twitches
  • Convulsions
  • Secretions from the mouth and nose
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Death

Symptoms of Poisoning
  • Acute symptoms appear within 24 hours and are
    usually reversible with treatment
  • An MSDS will tell you what to expect and give
    numbers to call in emergency
  • If symptoms appear after 12 hours check with a
    doctor to make sure you have pesticide poisoning
    and not something else

Emergency Procedures
  • The label will list specific procedures for
    specific pesticides
  • Depending on the specific pesticide it may be
    particularly harmful to the eye or skin and
    require certain remedies
  • In general, if a pesticide gets on the skin, wash
    with soap and water as soon as possible and
    remove contaminated clothing

Emergency Procedures
  • Clothing soaked with concentrate should be thrown
  • If pesticide gets into the eye, flush with a
    gentle stream of water for 15 minutes
  • If someone has been acutely poisoned, seek
    medical attention immediately
  • Give the doctor the name of the pesticide and how
    much was ingested
  • Take the pesticide and the MSDS with you
  • Or call poison control-1-800-222-1222

Protecting the Environment
  • Protecting insect pollinators (bees)
  • Avoid spraying when plants are blooming
  • Spray in the early morning or evening
  • Choose spray formulations over dust and do not
    apply when temperatures are cool because residues
    will stay active longer
  • If you have any concerns about bees, including
    identification, habits and swarm or nest
    collection contact the state apiarist at VDACS or
    the local master beekeepers

Protecting the Environment
  • Persistence and Accumulation
  • Persistence refers to how long a pesticide
    remains active in the environment
  • Most are broken down by sun, temperature or
    microbial activity
  • Pesticides that build up in the tissues of
    animals are said to accumulate
  • Most pesticides that accumulate have limited uses
    or are off the market

Pesticide Movement
  • Drift
  • Spray droplets
  • Pesticides attached to soil particles that erode
  • Volatilization
  • Tendancy for a liquid to turn to gas
  • Some volatize more readily than others like 2,4-D
  • Do not mix, store or apply pesticide near any
    source of water or a storm grate

  • Well talk about that more in depth later!

Application Equipment
  • There are different ways to apply different
  • Most of the time the application method is
    determined by the formulation
  • Reading and understanding the label will tell you
    haw the pesticide should be applied

Application Equipment
  • Any application equipment should be maintained
  • Cleaned after use
  • Stored properly
  • Applicators used for herbicide should not be used
    for any other pesticide or fertilizer
  • Caution should also be used when using
    non-selective herbicides

Application Equipment
  • Sprayers
  • Use compression to force liquid/suspension out
  • One of the most common ways to apply pesticide
  • Hand duster
  • Either separate device or built in to the
  • Hard to get uniform coverage and tends to drift

Application Equipment
  • Spreaders
  • For granule formulations
  • More uniform coverage and low drift
  • Be careful when applying near hard surfaces and
    clean excess when finished

Sprayer Calibration and Application Techniques
  • Calibration ensures the equipment performs to
    certain specifications
  • When using sprayers and spreaders it is important
    to make sure the equipment is applying the
    correct amount
  • This is especially important for labels that
    express rate as an amount per area, such as
    ounces per 1000 square feet

Sprayer Calibration and Application Techniques
  • Calibrating a sprayer does not take much time and
    is relatively easy
  • Clean our the sprayer including the hose
  • Mark out an areas, something easy like 10 x 10
  • Fill the sprayer with a known volume of water,
    such as 1 gallon
  • Spray the area in a continuous fashion as you
    would when spraying actual chemicals

Sprayer Calibration and Application Techniques
  • Spray the remaining volume out of the sprayer and
    measure it
  • Subtract the remaining amount from the starting
    amount of liquid
  • This amount over the area sprayed is your rate
  • When spraying or spreading it is important to
    have a good pattern to achieve uniformity

Sprayer Calibration and Application Techniques
  • Try not to spray so that you are walking through
  • A good way to get a uniform broadcast application
    is to spray half the rate in one direction and
    then again in a perpendicular direction

Storage and Disposal
  • Always read the label for instructions on how to
    properly store and dispose of any chemical
  • There are general guidelines but the label will
    have specific concerns and requirements

Storage and Disposal
  • In general a pesticide storage area should have
  • Security
  • Good ventilation
  • Good lighting
  • Moisture control
  • Protection from temperature extremes
  • Enough space to store and separate pesticides
  • Construction so that spills and leaks can be

Storage and Disposal
  • Make sure you have clean-up materials at hand
  • The clean-up supplies should be for pesticide
  • Pesticides should always be stored in their
    original container!
  • Changing containers can be confusing and the
    second container may not be able to hold the

Storage and Disposal
  • Pesticide should always be stored by itself and
    never with food (animal or human), cleaning
    products or drugs
  • Keep track of what has been purchased and use
    older pesticides first
  • Check for deteriorating containers and labels
  • Replace labels when necessary ensuring they are
    fixed to the container

Storage and Disposal
  • By keeping good inventory and only buying what is
    needed for the growing season, disposal problems
    are eliminated
  • If the product is still legal for use the best
    and most recommended way to dispose of it is to
    use it according to the label
  • If you cannot use it, see if you can give it to
    another gardener

Storage and Disposal
  • The label will give specific directions on
    disposing of unused concentrate
  • It may be returned to the manufacturer or the
    point of sale but generally that only happens
    when the product is illegal for use
  • Another way to dispose is to participate in a
    homeowner waste collection program or VDACS
    pesticide disposal program

Storage and Disposal
  • NEVER pour concentrate out anywhere
  • Plan carefully to avoid dealing with excess
  • Storage is not recommended, but to use what is
    mixed according to the label
  • Try to reuse rinsate in another mix
  • Containers should also be disposed of according
    to label directions

Pesticides and the Law
  • The EPA and VDACS are the agencies that regulate
    pesticides in Virginia
  • FIFRA is the federal legislation on pesticides
  • The Pesticide Control Act is the Virginia
    legislation that governs pesticides

Choosing the Right Pesticide
  • If you are unfamiliar with pesticides or have a
    new problem contact the local extension agent for
  • A knowledgeable garden center employee is also
  • There are internet resources for pest control as
    well, including the Virginia Pest Management
    Guide published yearly by Virginia Cooperative

Choosing the Right Pesticide
  • Some things to consider when choosing a pesticide
  • Site
  • Equipment and PPE
  • Minimize waste
  • Least toxic
  • Environmental hazards
  • Disposal

  • What is IPM?
  • Science-based decision-making process that
    identifies and reduces risks from pests and pest
    management related strategies
  • IPM coordinates
  • Pest biology
  • Environmental information
  • Available technology

  • The goals of IPM are
  • To prevent unacceptable levels of pest damage
  • Use the most economical means
  • Pose the least risk to people, property,
    resources and the environment

  • There are 5 basic steps in IPM
  • Pest identification
  • Pest biology
  • Monitoring/scouting
  • Establish thresholds and determine treatments
  • Evaluation of results

  • The first step is proper pest identification
  • To that I would also add plant identification too
  • Without proper identification of the host as well
    as the problem, effective treatment cannot happen

  • Basic plant identification
  • Woody or herbaceous?
  • Perennial, biennial, annual?
  • Simple or compound leaves?
  • Color variation?
  • Flowers or fruit visible?
  • Habit?
  • Leaf shape

  • Disease Identification
  • Symptoms
  • Dieback
  • Chlorosis
  • Wilting
  • Necrosis
  • Growths/galls
  • Cankers
  • Odd coloration

  • Signs
  • Fruiting bodies
  • Mycelia
  • Bacterial ooze

  • Insect identification
  • Eight legs or six?
  • Complete or incomplete metamorphosis?
  • Wings
  • Held like a tent
  • Fixed
  • Fold flat
  • One set hard, or patchy-looking
  • Only one set

  • Antennae
  • Clubbed
  • Segmented
  • Feathered
  • Elbowed
  • Body segments
  • Thin abdomen
  • Fat abdomen
  • Distinct/indistinct separation of segments
  • Head visible from above or hidden

  • The next step in IPM is understanding pest
  • It is impossible to go over the specifics of all
    the pests you might encounter so learning how to
    find and utilize good resources is key
  • Good resources can be books, other knowledgeable
    persons, or the internet

  • Some of my most used books
  • Websites
  • Various state extension websites
  • Knowledgeable persons
  • Extension agents
  • AREC personell

  • The Pest Management Guide from VA cooperative
  • Can have it in print or bookmark the website
  • Updated every year
  • Looks like this

  • Important aspects of pest biology
  • Life cycle
  • Habitat-does it change with stage of life
  • Feeding habits
  • Vulnerability
  • Specific stage of life
  • Specific type of pesticide

  • Monitoring and scouting
  • In order to effectively manage pests, it is
    necessary to assess populations
  • Knowing pest biology will determine when is the
    best time to be looking for the pest
  • Helps determine populations and in conjunction
    with thresholds determines treatment
  • Also can determine populations of beneficial bugs

  • Monitoring or scouting can be once a month, week,
    biweekly or just a few times a year
  • Pest pressure and thresholds will determine a
  • Tools for monitoring include
  • Hand lens
  • Pen and notebook to keep track
  • Min-max thermometers

  • Determining thresholds and establishing
  • In IPM, thresholds need to be established
  • A threshold is the point where action is taken
  • Thresholds can be number of pests, or amount of
    damage to plants
  • There can also be multiple thresholds for
    multiple treatments

  • After thresholds are set, treatments can be
  • Treatments can escalate as thresholds increase
  • Treatments should include as many of the
    following types as possible
  • Cultural
  • Focus on plant health
  • Proper conditions for optimal growth
  • Crop rotation

  • Physical/Mechanical
  • Physically altering the environment or the pest
    to obtain a level of control
  • Tilling
  • Hand-weeding
  • Row covers
  • Resistance
  • Using plants that are resistant to pests
  • Biological
  • Other living organisms to control another
  • Such as ladybugs, Beauvaria bassiana

  • Chemical
  • Pesticides
  • Evaluate results
  • Keeping track of what was used and when can give
    a good idea of how well it worked
  • Review records at end of season to find trends
    and make the program better for the coming year

  • Aphids
  • Identification
  • Small, often smaller than a grain of rice
  • Two projections on the rear called cornicles
  • Can be many different colors and are soft-bodied
  • Tend to congregate
  • May see cast skins and sooty mold
  • Leaves of plants can be distorted and curled
  • May see winged males
  • Segmented antennae almost as long as the body
  • Fat abdomen
  • Incomplete metamorphosis

  • Pest biology
  • Have incomplete metamorphosis
  • Populations are primarily females
  • All females can produce other female aphid nymphs
  • Aphids give live birth
  • Males may or may not be produced
  • Eggs are the overwintering stage
  • Can complete a life cycle in as little as ten days

  • Set thresholds
  • Depends on the plant
  • How much damage can it sustain
  • How long are the insects active on the plant
  • What is the chance for re-infestation
  • Depends on the situation
  • How much damage is acceptable
  • What control options are available
  • Set threshold based on damage to plant or insect

  • Determine Treatment(s)
  • Cultural
  • Keeping healthy, vigorous plants to out-grow
  • Mechanical/Physical
  • Row covers
  • Syringing-a forceful spray of water to dislodge
    the aphids
  • Resistance
  • May not have varietal resistance but different

  • Biological
  • Predators-ladybugs, lacewings, parasitic wasps
  • Beauveria bassiana
  • Pyrethrum
  • Neem oil
  • Chemical
  • Soaps and oils work well
  • Other contact insecticides
  • Rotenone
  • Pyrethrins

  • Systemic insecticide
  • Imidacloprid
  • Monitoring/Scouting
  • How often
  • Weekly or monthly?
  • Evaluation of results
  • Keep records of monitoring and controls
  • Did you achieve the amount of control desired
  • Do any adjustments need to be made

  • Pest identification
  • Pest biology
  • Set thresholds and determine treatments
  • Monitoring/scouting
  • Evaluate results

Pesticides and IPM
  • Any questions?
  • 565-8721