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Designing%20Effective%20Instruction%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20Informed%20by%20the%20How%20People%20Learn%20Framework

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Designing Effective Instruction Informed by the How People Learn Framework A Workshop for CELEST Participants on Designing Effective Instruction – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Designing%20Effective%20Instruction%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20Informed%20by%20the%20How%20People%20Learn%20Framework


1
Designing Effective Instruction
Informed by the How People Learn Framework
  • A Workshop for CELEST Participants on Designing
    Effective Instruction

Presented by Alene H. Harris, Ph.D. Director of
Educational Programs of VaNTH ERC, Vanderbilt
University
Portions of this workshop adapted from materials
of Sean Brophy, Ph.D. , Asst. Professor of
Engineering Education, Purdue University
2
Tell Us about Yourself (a 30-second sound
byte)
  • 1. Your name
  • 2. Your science grade level and subject area
  • 3. The most interesting thing youve learned
    thus far here at BU
  • 4. One interesting fact about yourself

3
Two key goals of the VaNTH ERC
My goal today To share some things we have
learned in VaNTH to help you
design lessons that maximize
student learning and meet standards!
4
But before we get into the VaNTH stuff...
So your task is to take the CELEST modules with
which you have been working and translate them
into lessons for your class.
But wait! Did you ever notice that sometimes
there are problems when people work in groups?
Page 15
5
Predicting and Preventing Group Problems
GROUP PROBLEM
ROLE SOLUTION
6
Applying Group Roles in Our Sharing
Your group task is for everyone in the group to
take turns sharing ideas for class implementation
from page iv. Take 10 minutes to share
and be ready to report.
READER/TASK-FOCUSER
Please begin the session by clarifying directions.
TURN-MAKER
Make sure everyone shares their
ideas.
CLOCK-WATCHER
Monitor the time pace the group through the
task(s).
ENCOURAGER/PEACE-KEEPER
Promote a positive climate monitor noise.
RECORDER/REPORTER
Summarize briefly high points of the discussion.
Please distribute the role cards.
Page 15
7
But before we get into the VaNTH stuff...
I asked four people who have been working with
VaNTH and K-12 education What things would
you suggest teachers consider in translating a
University experience into classroom lessons for
secondary students?
Page 15
8
Building on Current Theories
How People Learn - the HPL framework from
current learning theory is the driving
framework used to organize our thinking.
9
Building on Current Theories
How People Learn - the HPL framework from
current learning theory is the driving framework
used to organize our thinking as it allows us to
look systematically at what creates an effective
learning environment.
10
Overview
  • Goals By the end of today you should be able to
    design and evaluate effective student learning
    experiences relative to the How People Learn
    (HPL) Framework.
  • Events
  • Part 1 Examining the design process and how
    HPL can inform instructional design
  • Part 2 - Developing innovative methods to refine
    your current course based on a challenge-based
    instructional approach
  • Part 3 Learning how to use CAPE technology to
    support Legacy Cycle instruction

11
How Will We Get There? (Workshop Steps)
  • WS1- Define your goals for your class share
    ideas.
  • WS2- Review the design process.
  • Planning What are our goals for instruction and
    how will we know weve met these goals?
  • Implementation How can we achieve these goals?
  • WS3- Consider current learning theory and how to
    apply it in lesson design and planning.
  • WS4- See an example from a veteran of HPL lessons
    how she designed and applied HPL instruction.
  • WS5- Begin developing challenge-based instruction
    you can use in your course.

12
WS STEP 1 - Defining Your Goals
PRE-WORKSHOP ACTIVITY 1
DESIGN TASK 1
  • Before coming today, you completed pre-workshop
    Activity 1 of Defining Course Objectives. In
    this activity you identified the following (pp.
    5-6)
  • Major course objectives
  • Course sub-objectives
  • Potential difficulties
  • Real-world contexts

Pages 3 - 5
13
PRE-WORKSHOP ACTIVITY 2-A
DESIGN TASK 2
  • Then in Activity 2-A, you first created a
    model of knowledge by
    creating a concept map (pp. 7-10).

Pages 6 - 9
14
PRE-WORKSHOP ACTIVITY 2-B
DESIGN TASK 2
  • And in 2-B (p. 11), you prioritized items

    from your concept map into
  • Enduring Understanding - concepts fundamental to
    achieving the course objectives and funda-mental
    to the domain in general
  • Important to Know and Do - ideas and skills
    necessary for achieving the objectives, but not
    necessarily requiring mastery by the end of the
    course
  • Worth Being Familiar with - things not critical
    to performing a desired outcome of the course,
    but students should be aware of their association
    with the course objectives

Page 10
15
WS STEP 1 - Defining Your Goals
In a few minutes (and four slides) we will begin
a group collaboration time for you to share your
ideas from pages 5, 7, and 10.
When we do, please use the role cards
to ensure that everyone has
the opportunity to share and
that there is optimal use of
our time.
16
Applying Group Roles in Our Sharing
Your group task is for everyone in the group to
take turns sharing and receiving feedback on what
each developed on pages 5 and 7 Class objectives
(5) Class sub-objectives (5) Potential
difficulties (5) Real-world context(s)
(5) Concept map (7)
READER/TASK-FOCUSER
Please begin the session by clarifying directions.
TURN-MAKER
Make sure everyone shares and
comments.
CLOCK-WATCHER
Monitor the time pace the group through the
task(s).
ENCOURAGER/PEACE-KEEPER
Promote a positive climate monitor noise.
RECORDER/REPORTER
Summarize briefly each group members project.
Please distribute the role cards.
Page 14
17
Applying Group Roles in Our Sharing
Please refer to Sharing Your Ideas Thus Far on
page 14.
Page 14
18
WS STEP 2 - Reviewing the Design Process Working
Backwards (Modified framework from Wiggins
McTighe, 1998)
Objectives
Model of Knowledge
Materials
Delivery
Evidence
4. Identify driving questions and challenges that
target knowledge to be learned this will help
identify infor-mation sources
  1. Identify goals of instruction, including major
    goals and specific sub goals

2. Define model of knowledge that achieves these
goals
3. Define the assessments for these goals
5. Identify learning activities to meet learning
goals
Page 3
19
WS STEP 2 - Reviewing the Design Process
Design Task 1 Determining Objectives
Design Task 2 Creating a Model of Knowledge
Design Task 3 - Deciding on Evidence of Proof of
Learning
Design Task 4 - Selecting Content Materials
Design Task 5 - Determining How To Deliver the
Content
(Page 13 lays out the framework of todays
agenda.)
Page 12
20
(No Transcript)
21
DESIGN TASK 3
Now it is time to address task 3.
Objectives
Model of Knowledge
Materials
Delivery
Evidence
4. Identify driving questions and challenges that
target knowledge to be learned this will help
identify infor-mation sources 5. Identify
learning activities to meet learning goals
  1. Identify goals of instruction, including major
    goals and specific sub goals
  2. Define model of knowledge that achieves these
    goals
  3. Define the assessments for these goals

Page 12
22
Planning for Assessment
DESIGN TASK 3
  • Think of assessment possibilities as being on a
    continuum --

Wiggins McTighe, Understanding by Design, 1998
Page 15
23
Planning for Assessment
ACCEPTABLE EVIDENCE Assess Appropriately
Informal Checks for Understanding
ORAL -Why do you say that? How do you know?
WRITTEN - Single sentence summary - One minute
paper - Muddiest Point - Plusses and Deltas
Wiggins McTighe, Understanding by Design, 1998
Page 15
24
Planning for Assessment
ACCEPTABLE EVIDENCE Assess Appropriately
Observation/Dialogue
Observation - the observer must have in mind
criteria that demonstrate knowledge and
proficiency Dialogue - the person assessing
must be skilled in forming questions that reveal
the others knowledge.
Wiggins McTighe, Understanding by Design, 1998
Page 15
25
Planning for Assessment
ACCEPTABLE EVIDENCE Assess Appropriately
Quiz and Test Items - simple, content-focused
questions
  • Assess factual information/concepts/discrete
    skill
  • Use selected-response or short-answer formats
  • Typically have a single, best answer
    (convergent)
  • Are easily scored
  • Are typically not known in advance (secure)

Wiggins McTighe, Understanding by Design, 1998
Page 15
26
Planning for Assessment
ACCEPTABLE EVIDENCE Assess Appropriately
Academic Prompts - open-ended questions/problems
requiring first critical thinking and then a
response, product, or performance.
  • Require constructed response under exam
    condition
  • No single best answer or strategy (open)
  • Often ill-structured, requiring development of
    strategy
  • Involve analysis, synthesis, or evaluation
  • Require explanation/defense of answer/method
    given
  • Require judgment-based scoring based on
    criteria
  • May or may nor be known in advance

Wiggins McTighe, Understanding by Design, 1998
Page 15
27
Planning for Assessment
ACCEPTABLE EVIDENCE Assess Appropriately
Performance Tasks/Projects - authentic tasks
mirroring actual issues/problems requiring
production/ performance. They differ from
prompts in several ways
  • Feature real/simulated setting involving
    realistic constraints
  • Typically require addressing an identified
    audience
  • Based on a specific purpose relating to the
    audience
  • Allow greater opportunity to personalize the
    task
  • Task, criteria, and standards are known in
    advance

Wiggins McTighe, Understanding by Design, 1998
Page 15
28
Planning for Assessment
DESIGN TASK 3
  • And the choice for assessment depends on the
    level of importance...

Page 15
29
Planning for Assessment
DESIGN TASK 3
  • And the choice for assessment depends on the
    level of importance...

Objectives
Model of Knowledge
Materials
Delivery
Evidence
Page 15
30
Planning for Assessment
DESIGN TASK 3
  • Remember that there are TWO types of assessment
    you want to develop...

THIS IS THE PIECE MOST LIKELY TO BE MISSING IN
COLLEGE INSTRUCTION!
Page 16
31
WORKSHOP ACTIVITY A
DESIGN TASK 3
  • Enduring Understanding
  • Important To Know and Do
  • Worth Being Familiar with
  • If you finish early, go ahead and begin reading
    page 17.

Page 16
32
DESIGN TASK 3
WORKSHOP ACTIVITY A
  • SHARING DIRECTIONS Now, in the next 5 minutes
    share in your group the ideas you listed for both
    formative and summative assessment. Reporters,
    be prepared to give a 2-minute summary.

See if you have any suggestions for one another
on additional ways to check levels of
understanding and mastery of concepts
and skills.
Page 16
33
WS STEP 3 - Examining Current Learning Theory How
People Learn Brain, Mind, Experience, and
School WWW.NAS.edu
The authoring committee observed that effective
learning environments involve four major
dimensions.
Page 17
34
WS STEP 3 - Examining Current Learning Theory How
People Learn Brain, Mind, Experience, and
School WWW.NAS.edu
Page 17
35
WS STEP 3 - Examining Current Learning Theory How
People Learn Brain, Mind, Experience, and
School WWW.NAS.edu
We use these dimensions as a lens to
identify strengths and weaknesses of
materials and of the implementation of a learning
environment.
Page 17
36
Knowledge-Centered Instruction
Provides well-organized and clearly communicated
content
Includes facts, concepts, principles, and values
that you want students to take with them from
your course
Community
Learner-Centered
Knowledge-Centered
Must be organized to facilitate acquisition and
application
Assessment-Centered
Includes an emphasis on sense-making that is,
helping students think about their own thinking
Page 17
37
Knowledge-Centered Instruction
These facts, concepts, principles, and values
fall into one of three categories
  • Enduring Understanding (Fundamental)

Community
Learner-Centered
Knowledge-Centered
  • Important to Know/Do
  • Worth Being Familiar with

Assessment-Centered
Page 17
38
Learner-Centered Instruction
Takes into account what students bring with them
in their heads when they enter the
classroom door.
Works to identify MISconceptions students
bring with them
(and try to build on!)
Includes asking students to make predictions
about various situations and then explain the
reasons for their predictions.
Page 17
39
Learner-Centered Instruction
Takes into account what students bring with them
in their heads when they enter the
classroom door.
Works to identify MISconceptions students
bring with them
(and try to build on!)
Includes asking students to make predictions
about various situations and then explain the
reasons for their predictions.
Page 17
40
Learner-Centered Instruction
Learner-centered teaching does
the following
  • Checks prior knowledge and/or experience
  • Builds on prior knowledge and/or experience
  • Identifies misconceptions
  • Identifies concepts that are hard to comprehend
  • Uses accurate analogies in teaching

Consider how technology might assist in each of
these.
Page 17
41
Assessment-Centered Instruction
Both Formative and Summative
Formative Assessment
Provides students the opportunity to check their
understanding and to revise and improve their
thinking and learning
Provides instructors
the opportunity to check the effectiveness of
their teaching and revise and improve their
lesson planning and instruction.
Page 17
42
Assessment-Centered Instruction
Both Formative and Summative
Formative Assessment
  • Provides students with continuous opportunities
    to demonstrate what they know - to self and
    to teacher

Community
Knowledge-Centered
Learner-Centered
  • Allows students to reflect on what they know

Assessment-Centered
  • Facilitates the continued improvement of
    instruction
  • e.g., Personal Response System

Page 17
43
Assessing Preconceptions with
the PRS
Possible Answers
Level of Confidence
Page 17
44
Assessment-Centered Instruction
Both Formative and Summative
Summative Assessment
Is a test of mastery
at the units end
Is typically sequestered problem-solving
Is used in grading
Page 17
45
Assessment-Centered Instruction
Both Formative and Summative
Summative Assessment
  • Informs the instructor if students have met the
    learning objectives

Community
Learner-Centered
Knowledge-Centered
  • Must gather evidence that aligns with the
    original learning goals or there can be no
    conclusion on the teaching
    effectiveness

Assessment-Centered
Page 17
46
Community-Centered Instruction
Helps students make connections with the
instructor, with peers and to identify with the
subject area.
Provides students with specific structured
in-class opportunities to collaborate
Creates norms of expectation especially useful
is the norm of learning from one another and
continually trying to improve
Page 17
47
Community-Centered Instruction
Community involves a range of issues and
oppor-tunities for learning in and out of the
classroom
  • Classroom school
  • Developing identity
  • Student
  • scientist
  • Understanding of various perspectives
  • E.g., approach to problems and prioritizing
    design factors

Using peers as an opportunity to learn giving
students a vision of the kinds of communities
they will be a part of in the future
Page 17
48
How People Learn (HPL) Framework
  • The HPL Framework provides guidelines for
    identifying critical factors associated with
    effective learning environments.

These guidelines have been translated into
lesson design with the STAR Legacy Cycle.
Page 17
49
Challenge Based Instruction with STAR.Legacy
  • Software
  • Technology for
  • Action and
  • Reflection

Please follow along with your copy of
Legacy Cycle Glossary of Terms.
Page 18
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Begin with a challenge --
something that asks students to bring what they
currently know to bear on a problem.
SAMPLES FROM HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEACHERS
Your grandmother is recovering from a recent
right hip injury, and she needs to learn how to
use a cane to help her maintain her balance. In
which hand should she use the cane and why?
The Legacy Cycle
How can a swim team coach best determine the
physical condition of his/her team throughout the
season? How can he/she modify practices to best
meet the needs of the individual swimmers? How
can an individual swimmer chart his or her
progress during the season?
Page 18
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51
Students bring what they already know to bear on
a problem -- make their best effort/guess.
The Challenges
The Legacy Cycle
Page 18
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52
Generate ideas first individually.
The Challenges
In school, the average teacher wait time for a
response to a question is 3/5 second!
The Legacy Cycle
Thats the model we learned by example.
UNLEARN IT!!!
Page 18
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53
Generate ideas first individually. Then share
ideas.
The Challenges
The Legacy Cycle
Accept and chart all responses.
Encourage multiple responses.
Page 18
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54
Generate ideas first individually. Then share
ideas. Build on prior knowledge.
The Challenges
The Legacy Cycle
Try to link previous subjects/lessons.
Page 18
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55
Provide some different perspectives
on the problem - give some data.
The Challenges
The Legacy Cycle
Page 18
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56
The Challenges
The Legacy Cycle
Page 18
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57
Students try out their ideas
(among friends) -- propose a supported hypothesis
-- and get feedback.
The Challenges
The Legacy Cycle
Page 18
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58
The Challenges
Students revisit the original question
and developing a final answer.
The Legacy Cycle
Page 18
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59
The Challenges
The final answer refers back to the original
challenge.
The Legacy Cycle
Page 18
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60
And now you are ready
to tackle another challenge -- the
next lesson.
The Challenges
The Legacy Cycle
Page 18
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61
WS STEP 4a- Learning from an Experienced HPL
Instructor in HS Physics
Presenting a Legacy Cycle modules from Dr. Stacy
Klein, HS physics teacher and Research Asst.
Professor of Biomedical Engineering -- an
experienced HPL instructor who has literally been
there and done that multiple times.
Page 19
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Using a Study of Skin to Teach Stress and Strain
in Physics and Biology
  • Stacy S. Klein, Ph.D.
  • VIBES
  • Departments of Biomedical Engineering,
    Radiological Sciences, and Teaching Learning
  • Vanderbilt University

Stacy S. Klein, Ph.D. VIBES Departments of
Biomedical Engineering, Radiological Sciences,
and Teaching Learning Vanderbilt University
Page 19
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63
The Legacy Cycle
Page 19
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64
Skin Elasticity Challenge
  • You are a doctor and you get a phone call at your
    office from an elderly patient. She tells you
    that she fell down and has a large wound on her
    arm above the elbow that appears to be a skin
    tear. You tell her to come into the office so
    that she can have it examined, but in the mean
    time suggest she finds a bandage to protect the
    wound until she gets there.
  • What do you suggest she use to close the wound?
  • What properties of a bandage will be required to
    close the wound?

Page 19
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65
Generate Ideas
  • Take a couple minutes to write down your ideas.
    What do you already know that is relevant to the
    question? What do you need to learn about in
    order to answer the question? What do you think
    your students would think of?

Page 19
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66
Multiple Perspectives
Listen to Dr. Michael Miga, Biomechanics Prof.,
Vanderbilt University Interviewer What do we
need to be aware of when approaching the
challenge question? Dr. Miga Well, you need to
know what the nature of force is and what the
types of forces are that are acting on the wound.
So if you have a wound on your arm and you bend
it, you are probably going to apply either a
compression of the skin, in a sense of a closing
of the skin, or you're going to stretch the skin.
If you wanted to stabilize that motion, in other
words you don't want the wound to be able to
compress into itself or to stretch out, what
would you do? Would you place a bandage across
the wound? If so, adhering parts of the bandage
would adhere before and after the wound. The
area of the bandage acts as a little scaffolding
that maintains a fixed distance between the two
sides of the wound. Interviewer What material
properties would be important in the bandage? Dr.
Miga Obviously, the strength of the material
how stiff. Making a bandage with a board is very
different than making it out of a flexible
structure. You need to know and understand the
materials you are going to use to create the
bandage. You need to know their properties too.
If you make a bandage out of paper versus out of
a kind of rubbery substance they have very
different properties in that sense that if I
apply force to it I can rip paper very easily
versus rubber that stretches with the application
of force.
Page 20
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67
Multiple Perspectives
  • Id be sure to consider the elastic properties of
    the skin. How does it normally stretch and why
    didnt it in this case? How and why do objects
    stretch? (SK, Biomedical Engineer)
  • You should be sure to consider how to stabilize
    this type of wound, which is not deep enough to
    require suturing. In the care of superficial
    wounds, torn but still viable skin is often left
    in place to act as a natural bandage for the
    newly exposed tissue. How can this be
    accomplished without suturing? (RJM,
    Dermatologist)

Page 20
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68
Skin Elasticity Module Goals
  • Master the anatomy and physiology of skin
    with special attention to its elastic properties
  • Calculate stress and strain
  • Understand and apply Hookes Law
  • Understand elastic and inelastic deformation
    in 1D, 2D, and 3D
  • Create force vs. displacement plots, add lines
    of best fit, and interpret the slopes of these
    lines
  • Design and implement a testable hypothesis and
    procedure for a particular problem
  • Create a scientific poster

Page 20
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69
Research and Revise
  • Learn about the anatomy and physiology of skin
  • Use provided teacher notes. If you wish, you may
    add information here on glands and hair though
    they are not covered in this module. Be sure to
    make note of the components of skin that allow it
    to stretch.
  • Learn about skin tears
  • Use provided teacher notes.
  • Learn about stress strain
  • Use teacher notes to discuss these topics. Be
    sure to relate these topics back to skin.
  • Assign homework.

Page 20
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70
Test Your Mettle
  • Design research hypothesis and experimental
    procedure for go public.

Page 20
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71
Go Public
  • Your task is to create, implement, and report on
    an experiment designed to answer the following
    problem that relates to the challenge question
  • What type of temporary wound care would best
    mimic natural skin?
  • You must first design an experiment with a
    testable hypothesis and experimental procedure.
    Your teacher must sign off on this hypothesis and
    procedure before you begin work.

Page 20
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Possible Equipment
  • Check with your teacher about the availability of
    these materials.
  • Duct Tape
  • Wooden or metal dowel (to wrap material being
    tested around, so that friction is created)
  • Lab Stand(s)
  • Scissors
  • Chicken Skin
  • Mass hangers
  • Medical Gauze (cloth)
  • String and/or yarn
  • Medical Gauze (foam)
  • Pencil (to wrap material being tested around, so
    that friction is created)
  • Nexcare Active Foam Bandages
  • Binder clip(s)
  • Band-aids
  • Masking tape
  • Nexcare Flexible Clear Tape
  • Needle and thread
  • Paper medical tape
  • Mass set(s)

Page 20
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Our equipment set-up
Page 20
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74
Our Results
Page 20
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75
Our Results
Page 20
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76
Our Results
Page 20
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77
Our Conclusion
  • In conclusion, the more mass that is added, the
    farther the material will stretch. The Nexcare
    Bandages Active Foam could be said to be the best
    choice for skin care because the properties of
    stretch and strain in this product are closest to
    those of skin.
  • Alternatively, your students might argue that the
    Nexcare Flexible Clear Tape is the best choice as
    it is at least as stretchy as skin.
  • Your students may find other results depending on
    the materials they chose to test.
  • The actual product choice the students make is
    not the most important aspect of this lab, as
    long as they provide scientific evidence to
    support any claims that they make.

Page 20
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Other Facts
  • Last for approximately 2 weeks
  • Designed for use in Physics and Anatomy
    Physiology classrooms
  • Meets numerous national standards (AAAS, National
    Science Education Standards, etc.)

Page 20
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Module Overview
  • And that is an overview of a sample Legacy Cycle
    module.
  • As you work through this next part of the
    workshop, reflect back on this example as a
    tested and proven lesson implementation.

Page 20
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80
WS STEP 5 - Begin developing challenge-based
instruction you can use in your course
Consider how you can use the HPL framework
to evaluate an instructors
approach to
designing instruction.
Page 21
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WS STEP 5 - Begin developing challenge-based
instruction you can use in your course
Now it is time to apply HPL in the last two tasks.
Objectives
Model of Knowledge
Delivery
Evidence
Materials
  1. Identify goals of instruction, including major
    goals and specific sub goals
  2. Define model of knowledge that achieves these
    goals
  3. Define the assessments for these goals

4. Identify driving questions and challenges that
target knowledge to be learned this will help
identify infor-mation sources 5. Identify
learning activities to meet learning goals
Page 21
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DESIGN TASKS 4 5
If youve taught the topic before, you probably
have materials and activities (including lecture)
that can be re-used as you design various parts
of a Legacy Cycle lesson.
Materials
Delivery
The place to begin is developing a challenge with
real-world applications.
Page 21
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DESIGN TASKS 4 5
HPL instruction in Legacy Cycle starts with a
challenge question.
A challenge question should be...
- Accessible
- Motivating/authentic
- Contextual
- Complex enough
Your challenge question will lay the groundwork
for the materials and technology you will use.
Page 22
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DESIGN TASKS 4 5
HPL instruction in Legacy Cycle starts with a
challenge question.
Where can you find challenge questions?
Take a moment and read the last three paragraphs
on page 22.
You should already have some ideas of where to
start, based on what you wrote in that bottom box
on page 5!
Page 22
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DESIGN TASKS 4 5
HPL instruction in Legacy Cycle starts with a
challenge question.
A well-designed challenge question creates a
time for telling.
Page 22
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Meet Dr. Bob Roselli a practiced expert in
designing Legacy
Cycle lessons
87
WORKSHOP ACTIVITY B
DESIGN TASKS 4 5
  • INDEPENDENT DIRECTIONS For the next 5 minutes,
    work to list three possible challenge
    questions/scenarios in the first column of page
    23, and then give your rationale for the
    questions effectiveness (look back at the four
    criteria at the top of page 23).
  • Accessible
  • Authentic
  • Contextual
  • Complex enough
  • If you finish early, try to create and give a
    rationale for two more challenge questions.

Page 23
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WORKSHOP ACTIVITY B
DESIGN TASKS 4 5
  • SHARING DIRECTIONS In the next 8 minutes share
    in your group the challenge questions you wrote
    and your rationale on the possible effectiveness
    of each. Reporters, be prepared to give a
    3-minute summary.

See if you have any suggestions for one another
on possible challenge questions
and/or rationales.
Page 23
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QUESTION What is the best teaching method for
the college classroom?
  1. Lecture
  2. Collaborative learning
  3. Inquiry learning
  4. Computer based instruction

Page 24
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  • So, what teaching strategies are available for me
    to design an HPL-informed learning environment,
    and how do I decide which is the best method?

Page 24
91
Design Task 5 Delivery (Selecting Learning
Activities)
  • However, there appears to be a wide array
    of teaching strategies,
    and the problem is deciding on
    which one or ones to use.

The HPL framework provides some insights
on how to sort through this
cacophony of
approaches to instruction.
Page 24
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Teaching Strategies
Bridging the gap between research and practice -
Donovan, Bransford, Pellegrino 1999
Lecture Based
Technology- Enhanced
Skills Based
Inquiry Based
Individual vs. Group
Page 24
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Teaching Strategies
Bridging the gap between research and practice -
Donovan, Bransford, Pellegrino 1999
Lecture Based
Skills Based
Inquiry Based
Individual vs. Group
Page 24
94
Teaching Strategies
You must decide when is the best time to use
what.
Lecture Based
Skills Based
Inquiry Based
Individual vs. Group
Page 24
95
We have found that using an inquiry approach to
instruction is very effective.
The other teaching strategies have a place in the
sequence of learning activities.
Community
Learner-Centered
Knowledge-Centered
Assessment-Centered
Inquiry Based
Page 24
96
The point is that ultimate decisions are based on
Inquiry Based
Page 24
97
The benefits of inquiry include
  • Providing authentic process for engineers
  • Encouraging question asking

Community
  • Designing experiments

Learner-Centered
Knowledge-Centered
  • Engaging in research

Assessment-Centered
Inquiry Based
  • Encouraging information processing and synthesis

Page 24
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Anchored Inquiry
Instruction organized around the inquiry of
driving questions
Page 24
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WORKSHOP ACTIVITY C
DESIGN TASKS 4 5
BRAINSTORMING MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES
FOR A LEGACY CYCLE
  • INDEPENDENT DIRECTIONS During the next 5
    minutes, read page 38 silently or aloud.
  • Then work silently by yourself to list on page 25
    materials and activities you might use for
    Multiple Perspectives.
  • Use the back of the facing page if you need more
    space.

Page 25
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WORKSHOP ACTIVITY C
DESIGN TASKS 4 5
BRAINSTORMING MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES
FOR A LEGACY CYCLE
  • SHARING DIRECTIONS In the next 5 minutes share
    in your group the ideas you have for Multiple
    Perspectives.

See if you have any suggestions for one another.
Page 25
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WORKSHOP ACTIVITY D
DESIGN TASKS 4 5
BRAINSTORMING RESEARCH 8 REVISE ACTIVITIES FOR A
LEGACY CYCLE
  • INDEPENDENT DIRECTIONS During the next 8
    minutes, read the top half of page 39 silently or
    aloud.
  • Then work silently by yourself to list on page 26
    materials and activities you might use for
    Research and Revise. Consider materials and
    activities you may have used previously and where
    and how they might fit into the Legacy Cycle.

Page 26
102
WORKSHOP ACTIVITY D
DESIGN TASKS 4 5
BRAINSTORMING RESEARCH REVISE ACTIVITIES FOR A
LEGACY CYCLE
  • SHARING DIRECTIONS In the next 7 minutes share
    in your group the ideas you have for Research and
    Revise.

See if you have any suggestions for one another.
Page 26
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In Summary General Guidelines for Creating HPL
Learning Experiences
Students need
  • challenges related to real life that check
    preconceptions and set the stage for learning
  • to generate ideas early
  • multiple opportunities to display what they
    know
  • multiple opportunities for formative feedback
  • multiple opportunities to collaborate and
    teach/learn from one another
  • to know the conditions under which to apply
    knowledge
  • to know multiple perspectives on situations
    (users, team members)
  • linked challenges that lead to progressive
    refinement

Page 27
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In Summary General Guidelines for Creating HPL
Learning Experiences
  • Remember that in moving to HPL instruction,
    you can start small and build on
    your existing materials.

Key component one - the use of backwards
design - Begin with the end in mind the
goals - Determine ways to assess -
Select materials to use - Determine
methods/activities of instruction
Key component two - the use of challenge-based
instruction (Legacy Cycle provides a framework
for designing this instruction)
2
Formative assessment consider PRS and Classroom
Assessment Techniques (Angelo Cross, 1993)
Page 27
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Blended Learning or Where Does Technology Fit
in All This?
Many of our investigators have experimented with
learning activities that span one
or all the phases of the learning
cycles.
In many instances, instructors have started small
and guided most of the process within the
classroom.
However, with technology and innovative ideas,
the instructors have identified methods to
distribute the activities beyond just their
classrooms.
Page 28
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Blended Learning
In Class
informs
  • Real-time assessments
  • Responses attributed and recorded

After Class
  • Adaptive exercises
  • Remedial resources
  • Post-Tests

Page 28
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Page 23
The Challenges
The Legacy Cycle
Page 16
Page 25
Page 25
Page 18
65
108
WORKSHOP ACTIVITY E
LEGACY CYCLE
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER TO OUTLINE
A LEGACY CYCLE LESSON
  • INDEPENDENT DIRECTIONS For the next 15 minutes,
    pull from your work before and during this
    workshop to outline a Legacy Cycle lesson module
    for your selected course.
  • Use the form on page 30. Page 31 is for
    you to reproduce for future planning.

Pages 29-30
109
WORKSHOP ACTIVITY E
LEGACY CYCLE
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER TO OUTLINE
A LEGACY CYCLE LESSON
  • SHARING DIRECTIONS In the next 10 minutes
    (about 3 minutes per person) share in your group
    the overall Legacy Cycle plan you have developed.

See if you have any suggestions for one another.
Pages 29-30
110
FORMATIVE FEEDBACK FOR THE PRESENTERS
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER TO OUTLINE
A LEGACY CYCLE LESSON
  • At this point, please take five minutes to share
    in your groups what things you feel you have
    learned thus far in your workshop today.
  • REPORTERS, please be ready to summarize your
    groups ideas.

Thank you for helping your presenters see what
things have been take-away points for you.
Pages 29-30
111
LEGACY CYCLE APPENDIX
Note that pages 32 through 43 offer many proven
techniques for successfully conducting various
aspects of a Legacy Cycle lesson in your
classroom.
Pages 32 - 43
112
What are some of the advantages and disadvantages
you can imagine in using Legacy Cycle?
Building on an HPL framework to enhance student
learning...
113
At this point, what are you wondering about HPL
lessons Legacy Cycle design?
114
Go forth, design lessons, shape minds, and
influence lives!
115
WS STEP 4c - Learning from an Experienced HPL
Instructor in Biomechanics
and in Biotransport
Presenting Dr. Robert Roselli, Professor of
Biomedical Engineering and Chemical Engineering
at Vanderbilt University -- an experienced HPL
instructor who has literally been there and done
that multiple times and pioneered many of the
CAPE applications.
Page 20
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Example of a Challenge Organized Around the
Legacy Cycle
  • Course Biotransport
  • Challenge Post-mortem Interval

117
The Challenge Estimate the Time of Death
As a biomedical engineer, you are called to
testify as an expert witness on behalf of the
defendant, who is accused of murder. The body
of her boyfriend was found at 530 AM in a creek
behind her house. The prosecutors expert
witness places the time of death at about
midnight. The defendant has witnesses that
account for her whereabouts before 11 PM and
after 2 AM, but she cannot provide an alibi for
the period between 11 PM and 2 AM.
118
Generate Ideas
How did the prosecutors expert witness arrive at
the time of death? What information will you
need to challenge the time of death estimate?
Discussion Results How? Rate of Body
Cooling. Info? Temperature measurements
119
Research and Revise
  • Examination of Assumptions

120
Model used from literature by forensic
pathologist to estimate the time of death
  • Where did this come from?
  • List the assumptions made in developing this
    equation.
  • Can you provide a physical interpretation for K?
  • What data are needed to compute K?

121
Thermal Energy Balance on Body Macroscopic
Analysis
Newtons Law of Cooling
neglect internal resistance to heat transfer
Tcore Tsurface T
Rate of Accumulation of Thermal Energy
Thermal Energy entering body
Thermal Energy leaving body
Rate of Production of Thermal Energy
-


0
0
122
Relating Empirical Coefficient K to Physical
Parameters
Thermal Energy Balance
Coroners Empirical Relationship
123
Model and Data used by forensic pathologist to
estimate the time of death
  • Body temperature at 6 AM (rectal) 90.5F
  • Ambient Temperature 65F
  • Body removed to coroners office (65F)
  • Body temperature at 8 AM 88.3F
  • Assumed pre-death body temperature 98.6F

How did the coroner arrive at midnight as the
time of death? K ? h ?
124
Finding T(t)
Separate variables Integrate
Initial Condition t 0, T T0 98.6ºF ? C
ln(T0-Ta)
Solution
125
Finding K from measurements
Solve for K in terms of two temperature
measurements
at 6 AM t t1, T T1 90.5ºF at 8 AM t t2
t1 2hr, T T2 88.3ºF Ta 65ºF
subtract
126
Estimating Time of Death
at 6 AM, t t1, T T1 90.5ºF Ta 65ºF, T0
98.6ºF
So, the estimated time of death occurred 6.11 hr
before 6 AM (at 1153 PM)
127
Are there any assumptions made in deriving the
equation used by the pathologist that may be
inappropriate for this case?
128
Your own Investigation
  • You visit the crime scene. What will you do
    there?
  • You visit the coroners office. What information
    do you request?
  • Any other information you might need?

129
Investigation determines
  • When found, body was almost completely submerged
  • Body was pulled from the creek when discovered at
    530 AM
  • Creek water temperature was 65F
  • No detectable footprints other than the victims
    and the person that discovered the body.
  • Water velocity was nearly zero.
  • Victims body weight 80 kg
  • Victims body surface area 1.7 m2
  • Cause of death severe concussion
  • Medical Records victim in good health, normal
    body temperature 98.6ºF

130
Your investigation also reveals typical heat
transfer coefficients Heat transfer from a body
to a stagnant fluid (W/(m2 C))
  • h for air 2 23
  • h for water 100 - 700
  • Based on these coefficients, you might expect
    temperature of a body in stagnant water at 65F
    to fall at
  • About the same rate as in air at 65F
  • At a faster rate than in air at 65F
  • At a slower rate than in air at 65F

131
Estimating the heat transfer coefficient h from
prosecutors data
m body mass 80 kg Cp body specific heat
1.16 Whr/kgC S body surface area 1.7 m2 K
0.0451 hr-1
132
New estimate of time of death
  • Provide a procedure that can be used to find the
    time of death assuming that
  • the body was in the creek (h 100 W/m2ºC) from
    the time of death until discovered at 530 AM.
  • the body was removed from the creek at 530 AM
    and body temperature measurements made at 6 AM
    8 AM while the body cooled in air (h 2.46
    W/m2ºC).

133
Typical heat transfer coefficients Heat transfer
in a stagnant fluid (W/(m2 C))
  • h for air 2 23
  • h for water 100 - 700

Cooling in water S1.7 m2 Cp 1.16 Whr/kgC m
80 kg h 100 W/m2?C K 1.83 hr-1
134
Estimating Temperature at 530 AM Cooling in Air
at 6 AM, t 6.11hr, T T1 90.5ºF Ta 65ºF,
T0 98.6ºF at 530 AM, t 5.611hr, T T2 ?
135
Estimating time in water
Find T(530 AM) 91.1?F Find t 0.138 hr
8.27 min! Time of death 522 AM
The defendant must be innocent! Not looking good
for the person who discovered the body.
136
Summary Macroscopic Approach (Lumped Parameter
Analysis)
  • Time of death estimated by coroner assuming
    cooling in air was about midnight (guilty!)
  • Time of death estimated by your staff assuming
    initial cooling in water was about 522 AM
    (innocent!).

T98.6F
T(530 AM)
T91.1F
T90.5F
T88.3F
2
3
1
12
4
5
6
7
8 AM
137
PRS An estimate of Post Mortem Interval (PMI)
based on hwater using this method is probably
  1. Accurate
  2. Too long
  3. Too short

138
The prosecutor gets wise and hires a biomedical
engineer!
  • Your model prediction is criticized because a
    lumped analysis (macroscopic) was used.
  • The witness states that internal thermal
    resistance in the body cannot be neglected.
  • They claim the body takes longer to cool than you
    predicted .
  • They present experimental evidence that body
    temperature varies with position and time.

139
T vs t from different regions
Single study
140
How can we find the ratio of internal to external
thermal resistance for heat transfer from a
cylinder?
T8
TS TR
conduction to outside surface
R
QH
Tc
L
conduction from outside surface
141
Ratio of internal to external thermal resistance
for steady-state heat transfer from a heated
cylinder?
T8
TS TR
R
QH
Tc
L
QH hS(TR - T8)
142
Biot Number (Bi)
  • Bi h(V/S)/kbody V Volume, S Surface area
  • Bi h(pR2L/2pRL)/kbody hR/2kbody (cylinder)
  • Bi One half the ratio of internal resistance
    due to conduction to external resistance due to
    convection and conduction.
  • If Bilt0.1, we can neglect internal resistance
    (5)
  • If Bi gt0.1, we should account for radial
    variations (low external resistance or high
    internal resistance)

143
Estimate Biot number for heat loss from body to
water
h 100 W/m2ºC kbody 0.5 W/mºC
Cant Neglect Internal Resistance
144
Cooling of Cylindrical Body Assume Radial
Symmetry
We wish to find how temperature varies in the
solid body as a function of radial position and
time. Evaluate equation term by term
h
R
T?
TR
T(r,t)
keep
keep
Apply assumptions
145
Cooling of a Cylinder Centerline Temperature vs.
Time
Assuming Centerline Temperature Rectal
Temperature Design a procedure to find the time
of death from this chart
x1 R ? (k/?Cp)body m 1/2Bi kbody/hR
146
Using the Graphical Solution to Estimate the Time
of Death.
Core Temperature at 530 AM 91.1F (Tc-T8)/(T0-T
8)(91.1-65)/(98.6-65)0.777
mk/hR0.5/(100 x .15) 0.033
Fo 0.12 t FoR2/? (.12)(.15m)2/(.54x10-3
m2/hr) 5 hr
Time of death 1230 AM /-
Guilty!
147
Should the Defense Rest?
  • Are there any other confounding factors?

Different radius Different h Not a cylinder
148
Tc vs. t for R .2 m
Time of death about 815 PM
Core Temp (ºF)
h 100 W/m2ºC R 0.2 m
91.1ºF at 530 AM
Time since death (hr)
149
Note how one professor used a series of Legacy
Cycle modules to cover the requirements in a
biomechanics course.
Modules/Mosaics
Taxonomy/Topics
The process 1 - Review Taxonomy 2 - Define
Learning Objectives 3 - Design Modules and
Challenges
93
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