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The Hydrologic Cycle, Climate, and Weather

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Title: The Hydrologic Cycle, Climate, and Weather


1
Chapter 2
  • The Hydrologic Cycle, Climate, and Weather

2
Chapter Headings
  • The hydrologic cycle
  • Precipitation
  • Runoff
  • Surface and groundwater storage
  • Evaporation
  • Condensation
  • Climate and weather
  • Climate
  • Climate change
  • Weather
  • Weather modification
  • Floods
  • Drought

3
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4
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5
Chapter Headings
  • The hydrologic cycle
  • Precipitation
  • Runoff
  • Surface and groundwater storage
  • Evaporation
  • Condensation
  • Climate and weather
  • Climate
  • Monitoring climate change
  • Weather
  • Weather modification
  • Floods
  • Drought

6
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7
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8
Mean annual precipitation
9
Modern tipping bucket rain gauge
10
http//www.georgiaweather.net/
11
Hurricane Charlie 2004 Doppler radar image
Measure of rainfall Counter-clockwise
circulation around a low pressure area
12
Hurricane Katrina satellite photo, 5 am Aug 29,
2005
13
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14
Chapter Headings
  • The hydrologic cycle
  • Precipitation
  • Runoff
  • Surface and groundwater storage
  • Evaporation
  • Condensation
  • Climate and weather
  • Climate
  • Monitoring climate change
  • Weather
  • Weather modification
  • Floods
  • Drought

15
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16
Hodler and Schretter, The Atlas of Georgia
17
Chapter Headings
  • The hydrologic cycle
  • Precipitation
  • Runoff
  • Surface and groundwater storage
  • Evaporation
  • Condensation
  • Climate and weather
  • Climate
  • Monitoring climate change
  • Weather
  • Weather modification
  • Floods
  • Drought

18
Lakes and Reservoirs
  • Lakes are large inland bodies of water formed
    naturally
  • Usually by glaciers or earthquakes
  • Reservoirs are manmade lakes formed by damming
    rivers
  • Used to store and control water
  • From the French verb to reserve reservoir
  • All lakes in the southeast are reservoirs
  • A reservoir is a long skinny lake

19
Great Salt Lake
  • Terminal lake with no outlet river extending to
    the ocean
  • Broad, shallow terrain
  • High salt content because all the water is lost
    due to evaporation leaving the minerals behind
  • Geologically, this is the forerunner of a salt
    bed
  • Salt content has ranged from 5 (just above sea
    water) to 27 (saturation) depending on water
    level

20
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21
Groundwater Storage
Fetter, Applied Hydrology
22
Groundwater Storage
  • Groundwater recharge
  • Water added to groundwater usually through
    percolation down through the soil to the water
    table
  • Groundwater discharge
  • Water lost from groundwater usually through
    springs, streams, and rivers

23
Recharge and Discharge
Recharge
Discharge
Recharge
Discharge
Fetter, Applied Hydrology
24
Hodler and Schretter, The Atlas of Georgia
25
Chapter Headings
  • The hydrologic cycle
  • Precipitation
  • Runoff
  • Surface and groundwater storage
  • Evaporation
  • Condensation
  • Climate and weather
  • Climate
  • Monitoring climate change
  • Weather
  • Weather modification
  • Floods
  • Drought

26
Evaporation
  • Evaporation loss of liquid water from land and
    water surfaces as it is converted to a gas (water
    vapor)
  • Transpiration liquid water moving from soil
    through a plant and evaporating from the leaves
  • Evapotranspiration (ET) combination of
    evaporation and transpiration

27
Hodler and Schretter, The Atlas of Georgia
28
Evaporation
  • Soil water balance equation
  • ET Si Sf P I D
  • Si initial soil water storage
  • Sf final soil water storage
  • P precipitation
  • I irrigation
  • D drainage
  • All in units of length (inch or mm)

29
Example Problem
  • In a one week period
  • Rainfall 2
  • Irrigation 0
  • Drainage 1
  • Soil water content at beginning of week 5
  • Soil water content at end of week 3
  • How much water was evaporated or transpired (ET)
    during week?
  • ET 5 3 2 - 1 3

30
Chapter Headings
  • The hydrologic cycle
  • Precipitation
  • Runoff
  • Surface and groundwater storage
  • Evaporation
  • Condensation
  • Climate and weather
  • Climate
  • Monitoring climate change
  • Weather
  • Weather modification
  • Floods
  • Drought

31
Condensation
  • Condensation cooling of water vapor (gas) until
    it becomes a liquid
  • Opposite of evaporation
  • As air rises it cools and water condenses forming
    clouds and eventually rain
  • As air falls it warms and condensation does not
    occur
  • Fog and dew are examples of condensation due to
    cooling

32
Chapter Headings
  • The hydrologic cycle
  • Precipitation
  • Runoff
  • Surface and groundwater storage
  • Evaporation
  • Condensation
  • Climate and weather
  • Climate
  • Climate change
  • Weather
  • Weather modification
  • Floods
  • Drought

33
Climate
  • Climate is the long-term average state of the
    atmosphere for a region
  • Changes very slowly under normal circumstances
  • Example Egypt is hot and dry on average
  • Affected by
  • Global air currents
  • Global ocean currents
  • Tilt of the Earths axis

34
Climate
  • Climate is what you expect, weather is what you
    get
  • Dr. Heid Cullen, Weather Channel

35
Global Air Currents
  • Caused by the uneven heating of the Earth
  • Warmer at the equator (rising air)
  • Cooler away from the equator (sinking air)
  • Coriolis force causes winds to diverge
  • To the right in the northern hemisphere
  • To the left in the southern hemisphere

36
Coriolis force
  • Gustave Coriolis, 1792-1843, French mathematician
  • The Earth's rotation causes the surface to move
    fastest at the equator... A bird flying away from
    the equator carries this faster motion with
    itor, equivalently, the surface under the bird
    is rotating more slowly than it wasand the
    bird's flight curves eastward slightly. In
    general objects moving away from the equator
    curve eastward objects moving towards the
    equator curve westward. Wikipedia.

37
Global Air Currents
calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum
38
Global Air Currents
ITCZ Inter Tropical Convergence Zone
calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum
39
Global Air Currents
Worlds deserts tend to occur near 30o N and S
latitudes Rainforests at the equator
40
Global Ocean Currents
  • Ocean currents produced by
  • Global wind currents
  • Tides (gravitational pull of the moon)
  • Coriolis effect
  • Differences in water density due to temperature
    and salinity
  • Ocean currents often temper local climates
  • Example Gulf Stream effects on English Isles

41
Global Ocean Currents
42
Tilt of the Earths Axis
  • Tilt of 23.5o
  • Causes seasons in temperate zones
  • Winter in the northern atmosphere when the North
    Pole is tilted away from the sun
  • Summer in the northern atmosphere when the North
    Pole is tilted toward the sun

43
csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/time/seasons
44
Chapter Headings
  • The hydrologic cycle
  • Precipitation
  • Runoff
  • Surface and groundwater storage
  • Evaporation
  • Condensation
  • Climate and weather
  • Climate
  • Climate change
  • Weather
  • Weather modification
  • Floods
  • Drought

45
Climate Change
  • Climate change may now be accelerating due to
    greenhouse gases such as CO2
  • No question that the earth is in a warming cycle
  • Is it warming faster than normal?
  • What is normal?
  • Intense interest in determining what the Earths
    temperature record has been

46
Climate Change
  • Each year, the Earths climate is recorded in
    tree rings, ice, coral, and sediment cores around
    the world
  • Dendrochronology the study of tree rings
  • Dendro Greek for tree
  • Chronology Science that deals with time
  • Years with favorable weather produce more
    growth and wider rings
  • Calibrated using years with known weather

47
Climate Change
web.utk.edu/grissino/images
48
Climate Change
www.exploratorium.edu/climate/atmosphere
49
Climate Change
Ice cores from ancient times sometimes contain
trapped bubbles of atmospheric air that can be
analyzed for CO2 concentrations to see how they
compare to modern concentrations
news.bbc.co.uk
50
Climate Change
  • Greenhouse gases in upper atmosphere trap heat
  • Allow shortwave radiation from the sun to enter
    the atmosphere
  • Do not allow longwave radiation from the earth to
    escape
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor, methane,
    ozone, nitrous oxide

51
www.defra.gov.uk/environment/climatechange
52
www.defra.gov.uk/environment/climatechange
53
New York Times, Aug 31, 2004
54
Chinas industrial growth depends on coal,
plentiful but polluting, from mines like this one
in Shenmu, Shannxi Province, behind a village
store. NY Times Aug 26, 2007. http//blogs.wsj.com
/chinarealtime/2013/01/14/photos-beijings-air-poll
ution-beyond-crazy-bad/slide/1
55
Scientific Consensus?
  • IPCC
  • http//www.ipcc.ch/
  • Web of Science
  • http//thomsonreuters.com/web-of-science-core-coll
    ection/
  • Peer-reviewed articles on climate change
  • http//thecontributor.com/why-climate-deniers-have
    -no-scientific-credibility-one-pie-chart
  • Google Scholar
  • http//scholar.google.com/

56
Sea Level Rise
  • http//www.nytimes.com/2014/01/14/science/earth/gr
    appling-with-sea-level-rise-sooner-not-later.html

57
Sea Level Rise
http//www.npr.org/2014/01/01/258706269/federal-fl
ood-insurance-program-drowning-in-debt-who-will-pa
y
58
Chapter Headings
  • The hydrologic cycle
  • Precipitation
  • Runoff
  • Surface and groundwater storage
  • Evaporation
  • Condensation
  • Climate and weather
  • Climate
  • Climate change
  • Weather
  • Weather modification
  • Floods
  • Drought

59
Weather
  • Weather is the local, short-term state of the
    atmosphere
  • Determined by
  • Temperature
  • Air pressure
  • Humidity
  • Heating and cooling
  • Wind speed and direction

60
Temperature
  • Oceans have a moderating effect on temperature
  • Maximum 97oF in the Persian Gulf
  • Minimum 28oF in the polar seas
  • Temperature extremes occur in mid-continents
  • Maximum 136oF Sahara Desert (Libya)
  • Minimum -126oF central Antarctica

61
Air Pressure
  • Weight of atmospheric gases cause air pressure
  • Changes with
  • Elevation -- highest at sea level, decreases with
    elevation
  • Temperature density of gases decrease as
    temperature increases
  • Local weather descending air causes a high,
    rising air causes a low

62
Humidity
  • Relative humidity percentage of water vapor
    (water in the gas form) in the air
  • When temperature drops to the dewpoint, air
    reaches saturation and vapor condenses
  • Relative humidity 100
  • Clouds or fog form or it may rain

63
Heating and Cooling
  • As air rises it expands and cools
  • Adiabatic lapse rate
  • Temperature drops 1oF for every 183 ft rise in
    elevation
  • If rising air reaches the dewpoint, clouds form
    and it may rain
  • This is called orographic effect
  • Rising air experiences adiabatic cooling
  • Falling air experiences adiabatic heating

64
Orographic Lifting
65
Orographic Lifting
Wicklow Mountains, Ireland
66
Cascade Mountains orographic rainfall and rain
shadow
67
Figure H shows precipitation patterns across the
Southeast focusing on the areas around the
Appalachian Mountains. An increase in
precipitation is visible over northern Georgia
and southern North Carolina. In far western North
Carolina, drier conditions are felt around
Asheville compared to areas surrounding western
North Carolina. This is because this area is
sheltered from humid winds from every direction
because of the elevation of the mountains
surrounding Asheville, NC. http//www.nc-climate.n
csu.edu/edu/water/water.SEPrecip
68
Heating and Cooling
  • Cold fronts occur where cold air masses collide
    with warm air
  • Cold air is denser than warm air
  • Drives a wedge under warm air and lifts it
  • Adiabatic cooling causes clouds and rainfall
    along the front

69
www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals
70
Satellite image of cold front moving south over
Hong Kong
www.weather.gov.hk/wxinfo/intersat/satellite_galle
ry
71
Wind Speed and Direction
  • Wind constantly moves air from areas of high
    pressure to areas of low pressure
  • Coriolis force deflects these winds (to the right
    in the northern hemisphere)
  • Winds spiral (in northern hemisphere)
  • Clockwise away from a high of descending air
  • Counterclockwise into a low of rising air

72
Hurricane Elena struck Alabama in 1985
www.atmosphere.mpg.de
73
Extreme example of vertical motion of air
74
Chapter Headings
  • The hydrologic cycle
  • Precipitation
  • Runoff
  • Surface and groundwater storage
  • Evaporation
  • Condensation
  • Climate and weather
  • Climate
  • Climate change
  • Weather
  • Weather modification
  • Floods
  • Drought

75
Floods
  • Some flooding is regular and predictable
  • Mississippi River with winter rains
  • Colorado River floods with spring snow melt
  • Nile River
  • Other flooding is erratic and less predictable
  • Tigris-Euphrates and Yangtze
  • Flash floods occur with little or no warning
  • Local weather causes very high rainfall

76
Flooding
Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans, Aug 30, 2005
77
Flooding
  • Flooding is not always bad
  • One of the reasons New Orleans is below sea level
    is that it is subsiding at an accelerated rate
  • 1 cm per year (10 times average global rate)
  • Floodplains built of fine sediment that
    consolidates and subsides over time
  • Normally, each flood brings fresh sediment into
    floodplain
  • Levees prevent flooding of Mississippi River in
    New Orleans and cut off re-supply of sediment

NY Times article, Aug 30, 2005
78
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79
Chapter Headings
  • The hydrologic cycle
  • Precipitation
  • Runoff
  • Surface and groundwater storage
  • Evaporation
  • Condensation
  • Climate and weather
  • Climate
  • Monitoring climate change
  • Weather
  • Weather modification
  • Floods
  • Drought

80
Drought
  • John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath
  • And it never failed that during the dry years
    the people forgot about the rich years, and
    during the wet years they lost all memory of the
    dry years. It was always that way
  • Drought a period of abnormally dry weather
    which persists long enough to produce a serious
    hydrologic imbalance
  • Colorado River
  • http//www.nytimes.com/2014/01/06/us/colorado-rive
    r-drought-forces-a-painful-reckoning-for-states.ht
    ml

81
Chapter Summary
  • Earths water is constantly recycled
  • Climate is the long-term average state of the
    atmosphere for a region
  • Weather is the local, short-term state of the
    atmosphere
  • Dry and wet regions are determined by air
    currents and orographic effects
  • Climate change is underway
  • Flood and drought cycles are common events
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