How do we define the underlying principles of American government? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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How do we define the underlying principles of American government?

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How do we define the underlying principles of American government? LESSON 1 Principles of Government – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: How do we define the underlying principles of American government?


1
How do we define the underlying principles of
American government?
  • LESSON 1
  • Principles of Government

2
Why study government? Whats the big deal,
anyway?
  • CIVICS
  • What is it? The study or science of the rights
    and responsibilities of the individual
  • Why do we bother with it? It provides an
    understanding of why we need government and why
    government needs us

3
Why does a society need a government when we can
provide our own order?
  • THE PURPOSES OF GOVERNMENT
  • PROTECTION Sovereignty important ? the right to
    be free from outside interference
  • MAINTENANCE OF PUBLIC ORDER
  • Laws
  • Police forces
  • Court systems
  • NATION-STATE The basic political unit ? a
    country
  • Characteristics
  • TERRITORY
  • POPULATION
  • SOVEREIGNTY
  • GOVERNMENT

4
Why does a society need a government when we can
provide our own order?
  • NATION-STATE The basic political unit ? a
    country
  • Characteristics
  • TERRITORY
  • POPULATION
  • SOVEREIGNTY
  • GOVERNMENT
  • RESOLUTION OF SOCIAL CONFLICTS
  • RESPONSIBILITY FOR STABLE ECONOMY Governments
    role has changed throughout history
  • PROVISION OF PUBLIC SERVICES
  • How extensive should these programs be?
  • Key debate money spent on programs

5
What different theories may explain the American
style of government?
  • ORIGINS OF GOVERNMENTAL STRUCTURE
  • Force Theory
  • The state is born of force ? person or group
    causes all within area to submit to their rule
  • Evolutionary Theory
  • State developed naturally out of early family
    structure
  • Families joined networks of related families

6
What different theories may explain the American
style of government?
  • Divine Right Theory
  • God created state and gave royalty the right to
    rule
  • Opposition seen as mortal sin and treason
  • But, opposition is foundation of democracy today
  • Social Contract Theory (Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau)
  • Most significant theory in American political
    history
  • Humans left in state of nature lived in
    constant disorder
  • People agree to give state power in exchange for
    protection against others
  • State arose out of voluntary act of free people
  • Promoted key developmental concepts in America
  • POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY
  • LIMITED GOVERNMENT
  • INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS

7
Who has power in our society?
  • POWER FORMS OF GOVERNMENT
  • Elites
  • Marxist Theory Those who control economy have
    real power
  • The power elite Policies made by leaders in
    three important groups
  • Corporate leaders
  • Top military officers
  • Key political leaders

ELITES Those whose political or economic power
give them unusual influence within government
8
Who has power in our society?
  1. The bureaucrats People behind the scenes whose
    expertise and specialized talents are responsible
    for managing societies
  2. The pluralists Those who believe that power is
    shared among many different types of elites

9
Paul Freer?
10
How does a central government receive its power?
  • Forms of government
  • UNITARY SYSTEM All powers held by government
    exist in single, central agency ? centralized
    government (most common)
  • FEDERAL SYSTEM Powers of government divided
    between central government and several local
    governments
  • CONFEDERATION An alliance of independent states
    that give limited powers to a central government
    (ex states under Articles, European Union)

11
Who has power within a government?
  • Legislative and Executive Branches
  • PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT Government that
    combines presidency and legislature
  • PRIME MINISTER Leader of majority party in
    legislature
  • CABINET Premiers advisors that are also members
    of legislature
  • PRESIDENTIAL GOVERNMENT Government where
    presidency and legislature are separated and work
    independently within system of checks and balances

12
How many should participate in governing?
  • Number of people who participate
  • AUTOCRACY ? Rule by one
  • Absolute monarchy King/queen with no restraint
    on their power
  • Dictatorship One who assumes total control by
    force and removes all opposition
  • OLIGARCHY ? Rule by a few
  • Aristocracy Rule determined by social position
    or wealth
  • Theocracy Religious group rules
  • Political party Party leaders effectively
    control government (ex USSR, China)

13
How many should participate in governing?
  • DEMOCRACY ? Rule by many
  • Direct democracy Where most citizens participate
    directly by voting on major issues
  • Democratic centralism A ruling party or group
    who claims to make decisions based on what people
    want or need
  • Representative democracy Most common democratic
    form in modern times where representatives of
    citizens make decisions based on popular will

14
How can Americans participate in governments?
  • FIVE WAYS PEOPLE CAN PARTICIPATE IN THEIR
    GOVERNMENT
  • Vote
  • Act as representatives
  • Lobbying
  • Contribute to/volunteer for a political campaign
  • Contact your representatives
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