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The 1920s

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The 1920s Louis Armstrong The 1920s became known as the Jazz Age or Roaring 20 s – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The 1920s


1
The 1920s
Louis Armstrong
  • The 1920s became known as the Jazz Age or
    Roaring 20s

2
The 1920s
  • During and after WWI the U.S. was experiencing
    incredible social and economic growth

3
The 1920s
  • Businesses were experiencing record growth.
  • New products were being invented on a scale never
    before seen.

4
The 1920s
  • Government regulation, labor unions and the
    Progressive movement improved working conditions
    and the quality of life in cities.

5
The 1920s
  • The average US citizen became more wealthy and
    was more likely to own their own home than ever
    before.

6
Herbert Hoover
  • Hoover was elected President in 1928

7
Herbert Hoover
  • He was a Republican and believed that the
    government should not use laws to regulate the
    economy
  • However, economic growth during the 1920s was
    dangerously rapid and unstable

8
The Stock Market Crash of 1929
  • From 1925-1929 the average value of
    all stocks tripled

9
CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION
  • Cause 1 Over-Speculation
  • Cause 2 Increasing Consumerism
  • Cause 3 Failures of the Federal Reserve
  • Cause 4 High Protective Tariffs

10
Cause 1 Over-Speculation
  • Speculation - engaging in a risky business
    venture on the chance that a quick or sizable
    profit can be made
  • Many people during the 1920s began to heavily
    speculate in the stock market

11
Cause 1 Over-Speculation
  • Many investors commonly bought stock on margin.
    They only paid for part of the stock and borrowed
    the rest

12
Cause 1 Over-Speculation
  • People who bought stocks on margin did so because
    they knew the price of the stock would go up

13
Cause 1 Over-Speculation
  • Over speculation became very popular and stock
    brokers and banks were lending out huge sums of
    money and this made the stock market and the
    economy very unstable

14
Cause 1 Over-Speculation
  • In 1929 the stock market crashed. The prices of
    stocks plummeted and barrowed money could not be
    paid back and many banks failed

15
Cause 1 Over-Speculation
  • Many American banks also paid unsafe loans to
    Europeans so they could pay off their debts from
    WWI

16
Cause 2 Increasing Consumerism
  • The Industrial Revolution caused the invention
    and mass production of many new products.

17
Cause 2 Increasing Consumerism
  • Following the gloomy period of WWI, people were
    more willing to spend money to enjoy life.

18
Cause 2 Increasing Consumerism
  • New advertising methods attracted consumers to
    buy products they might not want or need.

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20
Cause 2 Increasing Consumerism
  • Salesmen were willing to sell products on
    installment plans (pay some now, pay the rest
    later), which caused many consumers to over-spend.

21
Cause 3 Failures of the Federal Reserve
  • The Federal Reserve (The FED.) was established as
    a federal agency to control and regulate the
    nations banking system and the economy
  • The Federal Reserve failed to prevent banks and
    stock brokers from lending out too much money
    during the 1920s

22
Cause 3 Failures of the Federal Reserve
  • This led to the failure and foreclosure of one
    forth of the banks in the US.

23
Cause 3 Failures of the Federal Reserve
  • This also led to a severe contraction in the
    nations supply of money in circulation

24
Cause 4 High Protective Tariffs
TRADE
  • Tariffs - taxes that are added to imported
    goods. They are designed to protect industries
    and businesses in the U.S.

25
Cause 4 High Protective Tariffs
  • In response to the U.S. tariffs, the countries of
    Europe raised their own tariffs

26
Cause 4 High Protective Tariffs
  • Tariffs interfered with world trade because they
    destroyed foreign markets for American products

27
Cause 4 High Protective Tariffs
  • The Hawley Smoot Tariff was passed in 1930 and
    was one of the highest tariffs in U.S. history
  • This tariff only made the Depression worse
    because countries could not help each other

28
The Great Depression
29
IMPACT OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION
30
Black Monday
  • October 28th, 1929
  • A combination of factors prompt a record 16.4
    million shares to be sold in one day.
  • Over the next two days, the stock market was down
    by 25.
  • By July of 1932, the market was down 90.

31
The Stock Market Crash of 1929
  • Many investors lost their life savings

32
1) Bank Failures
  • When the Stock Market crashed people rushed to
    the banks to withdraw money
  • Because the banks loaned out so much money they
    could not pay everyone when they came to withdraw
    their money

33
1) Bank Failures
  • Much of the money was invested in peoples houses
    and businesses.

34
1) Bank Failures
  • Banks begin to foreclose on peoples mortgages to
    get the money back.
  • Foreclose when banks take peoples property
    when they cant pay their debts.

35
BANK FAILURES 1929-1933
36
1) Bank Failures
  • This caused thousands of banks to close and many
    Americans lost their life-savings
  • The U.S. financial system collapsed because the
    Federal Reserve failed to regulate banks and the
    stock market

37
2) Unemployment and Homelessness
  • At the height of the Depression 25 of Americans
    were unemployed

38
2) Unemployment and Homelessness
  • The unemployed soon were unable to pay their
    rents and were evicted from their homes

39
2) Unemployment and Homelessness
  • Cities and towns throughout the country
    established soup kitchens and bread lines as
    local governments tried to feed the poor

40
2) Unemployment and Homelessness
  • The number of homeless multiplied and they began
    to move into makeshift towns made out of scrap
    wood and tin shelters
  • (These were called Hoovervilles)

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48
3) Political Unrest and Unions
  • Drastic increases in poverty and unemployment led
    to the growing militancy and political unrest of
    labor unions during the 1930s

49
3) Political Unrest and Unions
  • Example Support for the Communist and Socialist
    parties began to rise during the Depression

50
3) Political Unrest and Unions
  • Example The Bonus Army unemployed veterans of
    WWI protested outside the White House demanding
    that they should be paid their income bonus
    early

51
3) Political Unrest and Unions
  • President Hoover used the military to forcefully
    remove the Bonus Army protestors

52
The Bonus Army
53
4) Farm Foreclosures and Migration
  • The Great Depression hit the farmers in rural
    America the worst
  • (crop prices were actually lower than what it
    cost to transport them to market)

54
4) Farm Foreclosures and Migration
  • Many farmers destroyed crops in protest rather
    than sell them for such low prices

55
4) Farm Foreclosures and Migration
  • The banks foreclosed 10 of the nations farms
    and many farmers were forced to migrate

56
4) Farm Foreclosures and Migration
  • Many migrated to cities and coastal areas to seek
    other work

57
5) The Dust Bowl
  • In the mid 1930s a horrible environmental
    disaster struck the farmers of the Great Plains
  • During WWI American farmers began to over-farm
    the Plains

58
5) The Dust Bowl
  • The grasslands were now plowed instead of being
    filled with cattle herds

59
5) The Dust Bowl
  • When severe drought struck, the topsoil blew away
    as huge dust storms that filled the skies

60
5) The Dust Bowl
  • The farmers of the Dust Bowl left as migrants and
    many went to California to work

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66
Class Puzzle
  • Each of you have received a piece of the
    class puzzle when given the go begin to
    complete your puzzle
  • remember you want to beat the other classes!

67
Great Depression Journal Entry
Directions Look at the pictures-select one
picture and assume the role of someone in the
picture. Write a diary entry about your life
during the Great Depression.
68
Brother Can You Spare A Dime
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vCVE72Ae82Tw
  • Brother can you Spare A Dime
  • While song plays please write down a minimal of 5
    references to things we have studied in regards
    to the Great Depression.

69
The Election of 1932
Herbert Hoover VS. Franklin D.
Roosevelt
70
Herbert Hoover
  • 1) Republican
  • 2) Passed the Hawley Smoot Tariff
  • 3) Hoover would not use the government to control
    big businesses (believed in Voluntary Control)
  • 4) Hoover would not use the federal government to
    help the poor (believed in Voluntary Aid)

71
Herbert Hoover
  • President 1928-1930
  • The Do Nothing President
  • Limited Reforms
  • Construction of Boulder Dam
  • Reconstruction Finance Corporation provided
    government loans to banks large industries
  • Reforms were ineffective because they were not
    comprehensive

72
Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • 1) Democrat
  • 2) Rallied a frightened nation by saying We have
    nothing to fear but fear itself.
  • 3) Believed in increasing the size and power of
    the federal government to regulate big business
    and the economy
  • 4) Believed in using government funds to aid the
    poor

73
Election of 1932
  • Republican Herbert Hoover
  • Democrat Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • FDR won in a landslide with 472 to 59 electoral
    votes

74
Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • Franklin Roosevelt rallied the frightened
    nation by saying
  • The only thing we have to fear is fear itself

75
FDR won by 7 million votes
76
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77
Election of 1932
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • a New Deal for the American People
  • THREE GOALS
  • Relief
  • Recovery
  • Reform
  • Speech

78
The New Deal
  • Bank Holiday closed banks
  • Government expected and allowed financially
    secure banks to reopen
  • EFFECT boosted Americans confidence in banks
  • Government offered loans to those banks that
    needed help

79
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80
Fireside Chats
  • PURPOSE calm the fears of American citizens
  • METHOD FDR addressed the nation using the radio
  • CONTENT Explained in clear and simple language
    how the New Deal programs were going to fix the
    economy

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82
Relief Programs
  • PURPOSE help those in immediate need
  • Alphabet Organizations
  • Peopled referred to them by the letters of their
    titles

83
Recovery Programs
  • PURPOSE bring the nation out of depression over
    time through long-term projects

84
Reform Programs
  • PURPOSE make the necessary changes so another
    Great Depression does not occur

85
Franklin Roosevelts New Deal
  • The New Deal FDR created and passed many new
    laws and social programs that were funded by the
    federal government to pull the country out of the
    Depression
  • ALPHABET SOUP WALK AROUND

86
A) Emergency Banking Act
  • To help slow the banking crisis, FDR closed all
    banks in the U.S. for three days
  • He gave banks federal funds so they could reopen

87
B) Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
  • This law insured the money that people deposited
    in the banks
  • FDR did this to restore public trust and
    confidence in the bank and to reform unsound
    banking laws

88
C) The Works Progress Administration The
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
  • These were government relief measures designed to
    provide direct payment to people for immediate
    government aid
  • These programs did this by giving millions of
    unemployed men jobs

89
C) The Works Progress Administration The
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
  • They worked in national parks and other public
    works projects like dams and roads

90
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91
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
  • Responsible for the construction of many parks as
    well
  • Skyline Drive

92
Tennessee Valley Authority
  • Built dams and power plants to provide
    electricity to rural areas.

93
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DAM!
95
D) Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
  • Over-Production of crops made prices drop very
    low
  • FDR used federal funds to pay farmers to NOT
    produce crops
  • This was a recovery program that was designed to
    bring the county out of depression over time

96
E) Social Security Act
  • This new program was designed to offer safeguards
    for workers

97
E) Social Security Act
  • Social Security is a system that taxes workers so
    it can repay them later in life to ensure that
    workers can retire
  • Social Security also provided Unemployment
    Insurance

98
Success of the New Deal
  • New Deal programs did help provide relief to
    workers and they lessened the effects of the
    Depression

99
Success of the New Deal
  • The United States did not fully come out of the
    Depression until WWII
  • (Wars have a tendency to do that)
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