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Church History-4th Century

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Title: Church History-4th Century


1
Church History-4th Century
  • St. Athanasius the Apostolic-20thPope,St. John
    Chrysostom, Patriarch of Constantinople,
  • The Council of Nicea

2
St. Athanasius the Apostolic-20th Pope of
Alexandria
3
St. Athanasius, cont.
  • Short Biography
  • Born c. 297 AD (13 AM)
  • Appointed a reader in 312 AD
  • Ordained a deacon in 318 AD and became
    secretary to Pope Alexander (19th Pope of
    Alexandria)
  • In 325 AD he accompanied Pope Alexander the
    Council of Nicea
  • In 328 AD became successor to Pope Alexander
  • In 338 AD St. Anthony visited him to assure his
    admiration and respect
  • in 369 AD summoned a council in Alexandria to
    discuss the Orthodox faith
  • In 373 AD reposed in the Lord

4
St. Athanasius, cont.
  • Gods Purpose in St. Athanasius Life
  • Story of him as a child acting as Pope
    baptising children at the beach
  • Studied at the School of Alexandria, and ca.
    318 AD became a disciple of St. Antony
  • The main figure at the council of Nicea
  • All his theological arguments were concerning
    mans salvation
  • Never despaired even during the darkest hour of
    strife

5
St. Athanasius, cont.
  • St. Athanasius Achievements
  • His role with Arius and Arianism
  • His Theological and Spiritual Writings
  • In 330 AD ordained Frementius as 1st Bishop to
    Ethiopia (Abbot Salama the First)
  • His Ecumenical Stature
  • One of the four Great Doctors of Eastern Orthodox
    Churches
  • Doctor of the Church in the Catholic Church
  • Called The Apostolic
  • Venerated in Lutheranism, Anglican Communion

6
St. Athanasius, cont.
  • Events during St. Athanasius Life
  • Council of Nicea which condemned Arius as
    heretic
  • Wrote St. Anthonys Biography while in Exile in
    France
  • His Bishopric lasted 46 years, about 17 of them
    spent in exile
  • In Constantines era (335-337) in Treves
  • In Constantius era (339-346), visited Rome
  • In Constantius era (356-362) in Eg. wilderness
  • In Julians era (362-363) in Egyptian wilderness
  • In Valens era (365-366) in Egyptian wilderness

7
The 1st Ecumenical Council (Nicaea at 325 AD)
  • Around the Council of Nicaea
  • Arius vs. Athanasius
  • Statement of Anathema
  • Other Outcome of the Council

8
The 1st Ecumenical Council (Nicaea at 325 AD),
cont.
  • Place, time, and attendees
  • Nicaea (on the Black Sea)
  • June 325 AD
  • 318 bishops
  • Defense against the heresy
  • The Creed
  • Written by Pope Alexander, St. Athanasius, and
    bishop Leontius of Caesarea
  • The Son is coeternal and of the same essence with
    the Father (Oomoosios)

9
The 1st Ecumenical Council (Nicaea at 325 AD),
cont.
  • Arius vs. Athanasius
  • Arius
  • The Lord possessed me at the beginning of His
    way Proverb 822
  • St. Athanasius
  • In the Hebrew version The Lord begot Me
  • I have been established from everlasting, from
    the beginning, before there was ever an earth
    Proverb 823

10
The 1st Ecumenical Council (Nicaea at 325 AD),
cont.
  • Arius vs. Athanasius
  • Arius
  • My Father is greater than I John 1428
  • St. Athanasius
  • The Son in the flesh is less than the Father as
    He is carrying the human nature in a mission to
    redeem the human being but He is always in the
    bosom of the Father.
  • I am in My Father and My Father is in Me John
    1410

11
The 1st Ecumenical Council (Nicaea at 325 AD),
cont.
  • Arius vs. Athanasius
  • Arius
  • All authority has been given to Me in heaven and
    on earth Matthew 2818
  • St. Athanasius
  • The Son, as He is born from the Father before
    all ages, has gained all authority because He
    said Go and baptize in the name of the Father,
    and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit Matthew
    2819.

12
The 1st Ecumenical Council (Nicaea at 325 AD),
cont.
  • Arius vs. Athanasius
  • Arius
  • But of that day and hour, no one knows, not even
    the angels of heaven, but My Father only Matthew
    2436
  • St. Athanasius
  • Our Lord said this as He was in the flesh the
    Son of Man. However, St. Peter said to Him Lord
    you know all things John 2117

13
The 1st Ecumenical Council (Nicaea at 325 AD),
cont.
  • Arius vs. Athanasius
  • Arius
  • I do not seek My own will but the will of the
    Father who sent Me John 530
  • St. Athanasius
  • He who has seen Me has seen My Father John
    149
  • I am in My Father and My Father is in Me John
    1410

14
The 1st Ecumenical Council (Nicaea at 325 AD),
cont.
  • Statement of anathema
  • As for them who say concerning the Son of God,
  • - there was a time when He was not,
  • - OR He was not before He was produced,
  • - OR He was produced from things that are not
  • - OR He is of another substance or essence, or
    created, or subject to conversion or mutation,
  • the Universal-Apostolic Church says let them be
    anathema

15
The 1st Ecumenical Council (Nicaea at 325 AD),
cont.
  • Other outcome of the Council
  • Easter date
  • The head of the church of Alexandria would write
    an annual Paschal letter to all churches advising
    with the date of the Easter
  • b) Re-baptism
  • Baptism is administered ONCE in a life time.
  • 20 Canons
  • Related to clergy and church orders among them
    the marriage of the clergy.

16
The 2nd Ecumenical Council (Constantinople at 381
AD)
  • The Council
  • Macedonian Heresy
  • Apollinarius Heresy
  • Sabellius Heresy
  • The Outcome of the Council

17
The 2nd Ecumenical Council (Constantinople at 381
AD), cont.
  • Called by Emperor Theodosius I at 381 AD
  • Attended by 150 bishops the main figures
  • Pope Timothy of Alexandria (from 378 AD)
  • Pope Meletius of Antioch (from 360 AD)
  • St. Gregory of Nazzianzus (theologian)
    Archbishop of Constantinople (379 AD)
  • St. Nectarius Archbishop of Constantinople (397
    AD)
  • St. Gregory of Nyssa bishop of Nyssa in Turkey
    (372 AD)

18
The 2nd Ecumenical Council (Constantinople at 381
AD),con.
  • Macedonian Heresy
  • By Macedonius I bishop of Constantinople
  • The Heresy
  • The Holy Spirit was a creation of the Son and a
    servant of the Father and the Son
  • God the Son was of similar substance to the God
    the Father, but not of the same essence
  • The Defense
  • St. Athanasius gt Letters to Serapion
  • St. Basil the Great gt On the Holy Spirit
  • The council added to the creed from Nicaea
    starting from Yes, we believe in the Holy Spirit

19
The 2nd Ecumenical Council (Constantinople at 381
AD),con.
  • Apollinarius Heresy
  • By Apollinarius bishop of Laodicea (Syria)
  • The Heresy
  • Christ had a human body and soul but the Divine
    Lagos replaced the human mind gt crucifixion of
    Divinity!!!
  • Thus Christ was considered not a perfect Man and
    hence not a complete Redeemer
  • The heresy, also, believed of difference among
    the Hypostasis of the Trinity
  • The Defense
  • The incarnation of Christ means the assumption of
    the entire human nature w/o the sin

20
The 2nd Ecumenical Council (Constantinople at 381
AD),con.
  • Sabellius Heresy
  • By Sabellius a theologian and priest from Libya
    and taught in Rome
  • The Heresy
  • States that the Father, the Son, and the Holy
    Spirit are different modes or aspects of one
    God
  • The Defense
  • God is one with a distinction between the
    Hypostasis (Person) and nature gt 3 distinct
    Hypostasis (Persons) who share one Godhead
    (Divinity)

21
The 2nd Ecumenical Council (Constantinople at 381
AD),con.
  • Outcome of the Council
  • The Holy Spirit is God
  • Christ God Incarnate assumed the entire human
    nature w/o the sin
  • The Hypostasis of the Trinity are equal and
    distinct but share the same Godhead
  • Seven canons, four are doctrinal and three are
    disciplinary

22
St. John Chrysostom, Patriarch of Constantinople
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