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Unit 1 Mix and Flow of Matter

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Unit 1 Mix and Flow of Matter Topic 1 Matter on the Move Remember to name and date your notes! – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 1 Mix and Flow of Matter


1
Unit 1 Mix and Flow of Matter
  • Topic 1
  • Matter on the Move

Remember to name and date your notes!
2
Mix and Flow of Matter Overview
  • What are the three states of matter?
  • What is a fluid? How do you know if a fluid is a
    mixture or a pure substance?

3
Mix and Flow of Matter Overview
  • Why is it easier to do a handstand in water than
    air? How can a boat float while a marble sinks?
    Why does honey flow more slowly than water?

4
Three States of Matter
  • SOLID substance has definite shape and volume
    (ex. Brownie)

5
Three States of Matter
  • LIQUID substance has definite volume but no
    definite shape. (ex. Water)

6
Three States of Matter
  • GAS substance has neither definite volume or
    shape. (ex. Oxygen)

7
Fourth State of Matter?
  • Some scientists define PLASMA as the fourth
    state of matter.
  • PLASMA is a gas like mixture. Plasma has
    particles which collide violently and create
    electricity.

8
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9
Particle Model of Matter
  • 1. All substances made of tiny particles
  • 2. All particles in a pure substance are the
    same.
  • 3. The particles have spaces between them.

10
Particle Model contd.
  • The particles are always in motion.
  • 5. The particles in a substance are attracted to
    one another.

11
CHANGES OF STATE
  • A change of state occurs when one state of matter
    becomes another state of matter.

12
CHANGES OF STATE
  • Example Ice (solid) becomes water (liquid).
  • Sublimation, condensation, vaporization
    (evaporation), melting, freezing these are all
    changes of state.

13
Unit 1 Mix and Flow of Matter
  • Topic 2
  • Mixing and Dissolving

Remember to name and date your notes!
14
Classification of Matter DONT WRITE
  • All substances can be broken down into two
    categories
  • Pure Substances and Mixtures.

15
  • A PURE SUBSTANCE contains only one type of
    particle.
  • A MIXTURE contains two or more types of
    particles.

16
Homogeneous Mixtures
  • Look as though they have only one substance in
    them, although, they may have 2 or more.

17
Solutions
  • A solution is a homogeneous mixture in which no
    settling occurs the substances always stay
    together.

18
Solution
  • Sugar water is an example of a solution.

19
Heterogeneous Mixture
  • Mixtures that contain two or more materials that
    are visible.
  • Also known as Mechanical Mixture
  • Classify the following as
  • HOMOGENEOUS OR HETEROGENSEOUS

20
In-Between Mixtures
  • Suspension a heterogeneous mixture in which
    particles settle slowly after time. (OJ with
    pulp)
  • Colloid a heterogeneous mixture in which the
    particles dont settle (remember Orbitz?)

21
Dissolving
  • Dissolving when a solution is formed by mixing
    two or more materials.
  • Solute the substance that dissolves in a
    solution.
  • Solvent the substance that does the dissolving
    of a solute.
  • There is usually more solvent than solute.

22
Dissolving contd.
  • What is the solute and solvent in each of the
    following?
  • Kool-Aid
  • Ocean Water

23
Dissolving contdagain!
  • Another way of saying that salt will dissolve in
    vinegar is to say that salt is soluble in
    vinegar.
  • Soluble means able to be dissolved in a
    particular solvent.

24
How Much Can Be Dissolved?
  • Saturated Solution one in which no more solute
    will dissolve.
  • EX. Think of adding sugar to watereventually,
    sugar just gathers at the bottom of your glassno
    more can be dissolved and is saturated.

25
  • Unsaturated Solution one in which more solute
    could be dissolved.

26
  • What do you think that insoluble means?
  • Solubility refers to how much of a solute we can
    dissolve in a solvent.

27
Unit 1 Mix and Flow of Matter
  • Topic 3
  • Separating Earths Mixtures

Remember to name and date your notes!
28
Desalinating Water
  • Desalinating water means to remove salt from
    salty water.

29
  • Dehydration the process of removing water from
    a solution.
  • Water is removed through evaporation.

30
Distillation
  • Distillation is a method that allows all liquid
    ingredients of a mixture to be separated and
    collected.

31
Distillation contd.
32
Processing Petroleum
  • Petroleum products such as kerosene, gasoline,
    and diesel, are used to create energy which
    powers our vehicles, produces electricity, etc.
  • When petroleum is pumped out of the ground, it is
    a raw product which must be refined so that we
    can use it.

33
Processing Petroleum
  • Fractional distillation is the process used to
    create different petroleum products.
  • Petroleum is a collection of substances that are
    soluble in each other, but not water.
  • Each substance condenses at a different
    temperature.

34
Processing Petroleum
  • A tower heats the petroleum so that all
    ingredients vaporize.
  • Vapors are then pumped into another tower where
    they rise. As they rise, they cool.
  • Some ingredients cool and condense at higher
    temps at the bottom of the tower.

35
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36
Processing Petroleum
  • Remaining vapors continue to rise.
  • Different ones cool at different levels in the
    tower.
  • Near the top of the tower, which is the coolest
    part, a few vapours remain as a gas and are
    burned off.

37
Unit 1 Mix and Flow of Matter
  • Topic 4
  • Flow Rate and Viscosity

Remember to name and date your notes!
38
Viscosity
  • Viscosity describes a liquids thickness or
    thinness. The thicker the liquid, the higher the
    viscosity.
  • The time it takes for a fluid to run from one
    point to another is the flow rate.

39
  • The thicker a substance is, the higher the
    viscosity.
  • The thinner substance is, the lower the
    viscosity.

40
  • DO NOT WRITE
  • The cosmetics industry must carefully regulate
    viscosity for
  • Lipstick
  • Mascara
  • Nail Polish
  • Why?

41
Viscosity in Liquids
  • It is easier for particles of some fluids to slip
    past each other.
  • Water particles slip past each other easily
    compared to honey.
  • In honey, the particles are attracted to each
    other and slow down in passing.

42
DO NOT WRITE
  • The particles in thick liquids are VERY attracted
    to each other.
  • The particles in thin liquids are not very
    attracted to each other.

43
  • THE VISCOSITY OF A LIQUID DECREASES WHEN HEATED
    AND INCREASES WHEN COOLED.

44
Viscosity of Gases
  • Particles of gas are more likely to collide with
    one another than rub against each other.

45
Heated gases flow less quickly and smoothly
because of increased number of collisions among
particles at higher temps.
46
So, a heated gas has an increased viscosity,
while a cool gas has a lower viscosity. (This is
the opposite of a liquid)
47
Unit 1 Mix and Flow of Matter
  • Topic 5
  • Density

Remember to name and date your notes!
48
Density
  • Density is the crowdedness of the particles
    that make up matter.
  • Each substance has its own unique density based
    on how close together the particles are.

49
  • The particles of a liquid/gas move apart easily,
    allowing a more dense, solid object to pass
    through.
  • The attractive forces between the particles in a
    liquid/gas are not strong enough to prevent a
    solid object from pushing them apart.

50
  • In general, gases are less dense than liquids,
    and liquids are less dense than solids.
  • Particles in a solid cannot easily be pushed
    apart the attractive forces between particles
    are very strong.

51
  • WHAT ABOUT THE DENSITY OF WATER AND ICE?
  • Ice is less dense than water air bubbles are
    trapped in the ice.

52
DENSITY FORMULA
  • Density (D) Mass(m) / Volume (V)
  • D m / V

53
DENSITY FORMULA
  • Mass is the amount of matter in a substance (we
    could use a balance to determine this in grams or
    kilograms)
  • Mass and Weight are not the same.

54
  • Weight is the force of gravity exerted on an
    object.

55
  • Volume is the amount of space occupied by a
    substance. We can calculate using
  • V l x w x h
  • Or, we can use the displacement method for
    irregular shaped objects. (see page 53)

56
  • The density of solids is given in g/cm3
  • The density of a liquid is given in g/L or g/mL
  • Eg. The density of an object, having a mass of
    15g and a volume of 3cm3 is
  • D m / V
  • D 15g / 3cm3
  • D 5g/cm3

57
  • The average density of salt water is 1.03 g/mL
  • The average density of fresh water is 1.0 g/mL
  • Anything with a density below 1.0 g/mL will
    float. Anything with a density above 1.0 g/mL
    will sink.

58
Unit 1 Mix and Flow of Matter
  • Topic 6
  • Buoyancy

Remember to name and date your notes!
59
  • Buoyancy is the tendency for objects to sink or
    float in a fluid it refers to the ability of a
    fluid to support an object floating in or on the
    fluid.

60
  • Buoyant Force is the upward force exerted on
    objects submerged in or floating on fluids.
  • DONT WRITE THIS
  • This force is exerted by the particles of the
    fluid, and exerts in the opposite direction of
    gravity. (UP!)

61
SINK OR FLOAT?
  • Average density enables large objects that would
    otherwise sink, to float. It also helps floating
    objects to sink.

62
  • A steel ship will float because of its large
    hollow hull. That hollow hull ensures that the
    average density (mass of all substances on board
    divided by the volume) is less than that of water.

63
DONT WRITE
  • Mass of ship 50g
  • Volume of ship 75 mL
  • Density mass/volume
  • Density 50/75
  • Density 0.67g/mL
  • Does this ship sink or float?

64
Increased water, means increased mass, which
means an average density higher than that of the
water - sink.
65
Density of Waters
  • Saltwater 1.03g/mL
  • Fresh water 1.00g/mL
  • Salt particles are packed tightly together in
    salt water, allowing salt water to support more
    weight per volume.

66
Dead Sea
67
  • Regular ocean water 35 g of salt
  • per litre.
  • Dead Sea 354 g salt per litre.

68
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69
Unit 1 Mix and Flow of Matter
  • Topic 7
  • Fluid Pressure

Remember to name and date your notes!
70
  • PRESSURE FORMULA
  • Pressure (p) Force (F) Area(A)

71
  • Force measured in N
  • Area measured in m2
  • Pressure measured in N/m2
  • N/m2 is also called a pascal.
  • Kilopascal (kPa) is equal to ____ pascals.
  • 1000 pascals in a kilopascal

72
  • Compressed gas gives us one form of pressure.
  • How is Gas Compression Possible?
  • Gas must be enclosed in a sealed container with
    sturdy walls.

73
  • How is Gas Compression Possible?
  • Even if squeezed tightly, particles are still far
    enough apart to behave as a gas.
  • An outside force is applied to the gas to push
    the particles close.

74
  • Examples of Compressed Gas
  • Air bags in cars
  • Nike Air Shoes
  • Tires
  • Are all examples of devices used to cushion
    shockand they all use compressed air!

75
  • Solids and liquids are said to be incompressible
    because they cannot be squeezed into a smaller
    volume.

76
  • We use a barometer to measure air pressure.

77
  • Mercury possess some very special characteristics
    like a very high density. In principle one could
    use water instead of mercury for a barometer. But
    in that case this kind of barometer should be
    more then 10 meters high! Obviously not for
    practical use.

78
  • On Earth, because there are many miles of air
    molecules stacked up and exerting pressure due to
    the force of gravity, the pressure is about 14.7
    pounds per square inch at sea level.

79
  • You know that hot air is less dense (lighter)
    than cooler air. (Why?) Therefore, on any given
    day you would expect the air over a desert to
    have a lower pressure than the air over an ice
    cap. And that would be true. These same sort of
    pressure differences occur all over the planet
    for various reasons.

80
  • Read page 76 in your workbook to see how a
    barometer works.

81
Unit 1 Mix and Flow of Matter
  • Topic 8
  • Fluid Systems

Remember to name and date your notes!
82
  • Particles always flow from an area of high
    pressure to an area of low pressure
  • When high energy particles are compressed in a
    can, they exit through holes with great force!

83
  • The liquid/gas in a container is under so much
    pressure that adding heat may make the particles
    stronger than the container andboom!

84
  • Keep aerosols in a cool place, or

85
  • Hydraulics study of pressure in liquids.
  • Hydraulic Systems devices that transfer forces
    through a liquid to move something else, due to
    pressure.

86
  • The applied force creates pressure that moves the
    liquid through a series of tubes, pipes, and
    hoses, which causes motion at the other end of
    the system.

87
  • The pressure exerted on a fluid (in a closed
    container) at one end can be felt, undiminished,
    at the other end of the container.

88
  • Today, water, natural gas, and oil are fluids
    transported in long pipelines. Pumps provide the
    force needed to push these through miles of pipe.

89
  • Pneumatic Systems devices that transfer forces
    through a GAS to move something else, due to
    pressure.

90
  • In pneumatic systems, gas is compressed, and when
    pressure is released can create a force that can
    perform powerful tasks.
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