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Agriculture Machine Safety


... pipes, and hot fluids are examples of burn points. Thrown objects present ... Stored energy hazards are present in pressurized systems such as hydraulics, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Agriculture Machine Safety

Agriculture Machine Safety
Terms to Know
  • PTO (Power Take Off). A driveshaft on a tractor
    or other machinery used to provide power to an
    attachment or separate machine.
  • ROPS (Roll Over Prevention Structure). Roll
    cages, cabs, and roll bars designed to prevent
    the operator of a machine from being crushed in
    the event of a rollover.
  • Three Point Hitch A hitching system on the back
    of a tractor used to hook up implements such as
    ploughs. The three point hitch allows implements
    to be raised and lowered with ease.

Terms to Know
  • Auger A screw like device used to move grain,
    silage, and other material.
  • Deadman Switch A device that will automatically
    switch off a machine, PTO, or driveline if the
    driver leaves the drivers seat.
  • Tines Prongs or forks on farm machinery such as
    rakes, tedders, harvesters, and bailers which
    pick up crops into the machine.
  • Shear Bolts Bolts that are designed to shear or
    snap under extreme load to avoid damaging the

Terms to Know
  • Forage Pickup The device on the front of
    bailers, harvesters, combines, etc which pick up
    crops for processing utilizing spinning tines.
  • Hydraulic Hoses Hoses containing metal ribbing
    which carry hydraulic oil to machines to make
    them move and articulate.
  • Loaded Tires Tractor tires that are filled with
    calcium chloride for better traction and

Farm Safety in Canada
  • Farming is one of Canadas most dangerous
  • Farming tends to be so dangerous because it is
    often governed almost entirely by voluntary
    workplace standards.
  • Individuals working on farms are exposed to an
    environment with dangerous machines, animals,
    chemicals, and vehicles.

Canadian Farm Statistics
  • 51 of all machine related fatalities in Canada
    involve tractors.
  • 66 of fatalities for children on farms involve
    agricultural machines.
  • Youths aged 15-19 are most frequently injured in
    machine entanglements where 20 lead to
  • Machine rollovers account for 48.6 of
    agricultural deaths in children 1-19 years of age.

Tractor Related Injury and Death
  • The most common tractor related mishaps are
  • By-pass starting
  • Front end loader incidents
  • Rearward rollover
  • Sideways rollover
  • Falls from tractors
  • Tractor runovers
  • Caught between crushing
  • PTO entanglements

Tractor Operator Responsibilities
  • The responsibilities of a person operating a
    tractor are
  • Conduct proper maintenance
  • Conduct pre operation checks
  • Avoid injury-incident situations
  • Maintain safety features
  • Use the tractor as intended
  • Refuel safely
  • Start and stop safely
  • Adjust the tractor for safety

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How to Prevent Injury or Death
  • Ensure the tractor is in good working condition.
  • Become familiar with each tractor.
  • Use safety mechanisms on tractor (seatbelt, ROPS,
  • Reduce speed.
  • Be familiar with landscape.
  • Ensure implements are in good condition.
  • Dedicate attention to the job at hand.
  • Fix breakdowns immediately.
  • Turn off tractor when not in use.
  • Do no allow people to ride on tractor.
  • Always hitch to drawbar or three point hitch.
  • Disengage PTO when not in use.
  • Use tractor gears to advantage.
  • Only use the tractor for the job it is intended
    to do.
  • Disengage power before working on implements or
    other machinery.

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Common Types of Machine Accidents
  • There are 8 main types of machine risks in
    Agriculture. They are
  • 1) Pinch Points
  • 2) Crush Points
  • 3) Wrap (entanglement) Points
  • 4) Pull-in Points
  • 5) Shear and Cutting Point
  • 6) Burn Point
  • 7) Thrown Objects
  • 8) Stored Energy

  • Pinch points are areas where two or more parts
    move together with at least one part moving in a
    circle. The areas where drive belts contact
    pulleys or sprockets mesh with chains are prime
    examples of pinch points

  • Crush points are hazards involving two components
    moving toward each other. Examples of crush-point
    hazards are the raising and lowering equipment
    with a three-point hitch, components that are
    moved by hydraulic cylinders, and the areas
    between the tractor and machinery when hitching
    or turning.

  • Wrap (entanglement) point hazards pertain to any
    exposed rotating component. Wrap-point hazards
    include any type of rotating shaft or driveline.
    PTO drivelines are prime examples of wrapping or
    entanglement hazards.

  • Pull-in point hazards involve mechanisms designed
    to take in crops or other materials for
    processing. They include combine headers, windrow
    pickups, forage chopper headers, and grinders.

  • Shear and cutting point hazards are areas where
    two parts move across one another or one moves
    across a stationary object. Windrower cutter bars
    and grain augers are examples of cutting and
    shear points.
  • Burn point hazards are associated with tractors
    and self-propelled and pull-type machinery. Hot
    mufflers, engine blocks, pipes, and hot fluids
    are examples of burn points.

  • Thrown objects present another type of machine
    hazard. Metal, glass, wire, sticks, or other
    materials may be picked up by a machine and
    propelled with extreme force. Rotary mowers are
    good examples of machines capable of throwing
  • Stored energy hazards are present in pressurized
    systems such as hydraulics, compressed air, and
    springs. The sudden or unsuspected pressurization
    or depressurization of these systems can result
    in crushing and other types of accidents,
    depending on the use of the system. High-pressure
    leaks are also forms of stored energy hazards.

Implement Safety
  • Farm implements such as bailers, harvesters,
    mowers/conditioners, rakes/tedders, silage
    wagons, and manure spreaders contain components
    that can be deadly if not operated properly.
  • Most of these implements contain PTO drives,
    cutting blades, augers, and tines/pickups.
  • These devices do not stop for humans and too
    often farmers are injured and killed with these

PTO Drives
  • PTO drives are mechanical drivelines that can be
    hooked tractors to drive otherwise inoperable
  • PTO drives spin at a very high speed and can pick
    up loose clothing, hair, threads, crops, etc.
  • If this happens, the operator may be pulled into
    the machine resulting in injury or death.

Cutting Blades
  • Machines such as mowers/conditioners and
    harvesters have rotating blades designed to cut
  • Without proper guards in place these blades can
    break or loosen to the point where they are
    propelled from the machine.

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  • Augers are corkscrew like objects that rotate and
    move grain and crops forwards.
  • Augers will quickly pull arms, legs, hands, and
    fingers into machines often resulting in crushing
    and forced amputation.
  • Always ensure the machine is turned off before
    working on augers.

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  • Machines such as rakes/tedders and harvesters
    have tiny fork like pieces called tines.
  • These tines are metal but are thin and bendable.
  • Despite their thin construction, these tines spin
    at quick speeds and have been known to break from

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End of Section Questions
  • 1) What are the eight main risks of agricultural
    machines. Briefly describe each.
  • 2) List at least five of the duties for tractor
  • 3) Why is agriculture one of the most dangerous
    occupations in Canada?
  • 4) List at least ten of the ways to prevent
    injury while operating farm machinery.