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HVAC: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning this is a thermostat: it sends signals to the heating/cooling system

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HVAC: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning this is a thermostat: it sends signals to the heating/cooling system – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HVAC: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning this is a thermostat: it sends signals to the heating/cooling system


1
HVAC heating, ventilating, and air
conditioning this is a thermostat it sends
signals to the heating/cooling system
2
an hvac system can include
  • furnace
  • condensing unit
  • cooling coil
  • thermostat
  • ductwork
  • registers grilles
  • heat pump
  • dehumidifier
  • room air conditioner
  • ventilating fan
  • ceiling fan

3
a typical residential size furnace uses natural
gas, or fuel oil, or electricity to produce
heat a fan blows the heated air into a duct
system that reaches throughout the entire house
4
round sheet metal ducts in a house
5
air is blown, from the furnace, into the ducts.
ducts become smaller as they get farther from
the furnace, and branch off into individual
spaces.
6
(No Transcript)
7
ducts are either supply ducts, that bring air
into a space, or return ducts, that take air
from the space back to the heating unit
8
the systems components that run through the space
above a ceiling (called the plenum)
9
HVAC
10
The main purpose of commercial HVAC
(heating, ventilating, and air conditioning)
systems is to provide the people working inside
buildings with "conditioned" air so that they
will have a comfortable and safe work
environment. "Conditioned" air means that air
is clean and odor-free, and the temperature,
humidity, and movement of the air are within
certain comfort ranges.
11
Many factors affect the way people respond to
their work environment. Air quality is one of
these factors. The American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
(ASHRAE) has established standards which outline
air quality for indoor comfort conditions that
are acceptable to 80 or more of a commercial
building's occupants. Generally, these indoor
comfort conditions, sometimes called the
"comfort zone," are between 68 degrees F and 75
degrees F for winter and 73 degrees F to 79
degrees F during the summer. Both these
temperature ranges are for room air at
approximately 50 relative humidity and moving
at velocity of 30 feet per minute or slower.
12
Heat naturally flows from a higher energy level
to a lower energy level. In other words, heat
travels from a warmer material to a cooler
material. The unit of measurement used to
describe the quantity of heat contained in a
material is a British thermal unit (Btu).
13
Typical hvac components
14
1. Fan(s) to circulate the supply air (SA) and
return air (RA). 2. Supply air ductwork in
which the air flows from the supply fan to the
conditioned space. 3. Air devices such as
supply air outlets and return air inlets. 4.
Return air path or ductwork in which the air
flows back from the conditioned space to the
mixed air chamber (plenum). 5. Outside air (OA)
device such as an opening, louver or duct to
allow for the entrance of outside air into the
mixed air chamber.
15
6. Mixed air chamber to receive the return air
and mix it with outside air. 7. Filter
section(s) to remove dirt and dust particles
from the mixed air. 8. Heat exchanger(s) such
as hot water coil(s), steam coil(s), refrigerant
evaporator(s), or chilled water coil(s) to add
heat to or remove heat from the circulated air.
9. Auxiliary heating devices such as natural
gas furnace(s) or electric heating element(s).
10. Compressor(s) to compress the refrigerant
vapor and pump the refrigerant around the system.
16
11. Condenser(s) to remove heat from the
refrigerant vapor and condense it to a liquid.
12. Fan(s) to circulate outside air across
air-cooled condenser(s) 13. Pump(s) to
circulate water through water-cooled
condenser(s) condenser water pump (CWP) and
condenser water supply (CWS) and return (CWR).
14. Pump(s) to circulate hot water from the
boiler(s) through the hot water coil(s) and back
or to circulate chilled water from the
chiller(s) through the chilled water coil(s) and
back to the chiller(s).
17
15. For central systems, water or steam boiler(s)
as a central heating source. 16. For central
systems, water chiller(s) as a central cooling
source. 17. For central systems, cooling
tower(s) with water- cooledcondenser(s). 18.
Controls to start, stop, or regulate the flow of
air, water, steam, refrigerant and electricity.
18
Science heat is transferred in three possible
ways
  • Radiation an energy source transfers energy in
    a direct line to a surface (feeling the heat of
    the sun's light on your skin)
  • Conduction direct contact with a surface of a
    different temperature causes energy transfer
    (burning your finger when you touch a hot oven
    rack)
  • Convection energy transfer through fluid motion
    (hot air rises)

19
condensation on window glass the cold outside
air cools the piece of glass the warm inside air
contacts the cold glass the moisture contained
in the warm air drops out of the warm air as
water/condensation
20
very cold temperatures can cause warm air inside
of a building to become ice on the cold piece of
window glass
21
friday, february 10, 2006 the dew point
temperatures around the country
22
Heating devices include
  • gas or oil burning central furnace
  • wood stove
  • heat pump
  • electric radiator
  • solar panel
  • radiant heating coils in floors, or ceilings
    (these may be electric, water filled, or air
    filled)

23
Cooling methods/devices include
  • natural ventilation
  • air movement fans
  • window air conditioner
  • central air conditioning system
  • massive materials that have a long 'thermal lag'
    time, (such as brick, concrete, stone)

24
Heat pump
25
Vapor compression refrigeration cycle
  • refrigerators, air conditioners, and heat pumps
    each provide cooling through this process (vcrc)
  • this process is a true modern miracle, and it is
    based on the discovery that increased pressure
    creates heat.

26
A refrigerant is a fluid which vaporizes (boils)
at a low temperature. The refrigerant
circulates through tubes ("refrigerant lines")
that travel throughout the heat pump.
At point A the refrigerant is a cold liquid --
colder than the outdoor air. The refrigerant
flows to the outdoor coil (point B). This coil
is a "heat exchanger" with a large surface area
to absorb heat from the air into the colder
refrigerant. The heat added to the refrigerant
causes the fluid to vaporize
27
At point C the refrigerant is a cool gas, having
been warmed and vaporized by the outdoor air.
I t is too cool to warm the house, so that's
where the compressor (point D) comes in. The
compressor raises the pressure of the gas. When
that happens, the gas temperature rises.
The indoor coil (point F) is where the
refrigerant gives up its heat to the indoor air.
A fan blows air past the indoor coil to
distribute heat to the house. This cools the
refrigerant to the point where much of it
condenses, forming a liquid.
28
As it gets colder outside, the heat pump provides
less heat. Yet the house needs more heat to keep
comfortable. At some outdoor temperature it will
be too cold for the heat pump to provide all the
heat the house needs. To make up the difference,
heat pumps have a supplemental heating system -
usually electric resistance coils
29
Heat pump limitations
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