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Canada and the Victorian Era Immigrants, First Nations and the Victorians Changing Technology Steam power improved the travel time both on land and sea. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Canada%20and%20the%20Victorian%20Era

Canada and the Victorian Era
  • Immigrants, First Nations and the Victorians

Queen Victoria
Immigrants, Rich and Poor
The Reign of Queen Victoria Immigrants, Rich and
  • Much like our society today Canada in the 1850s
    could be luxurious or burdensome. The upper
    class which possessed money, education, and
    social standing lived a splendid life.
  • While thousands others worked long hours with
    little reward.There was no employment insurance,
    no universal health care, and no government
    assistance, as we know it today.
  • Many new immigrants to Canada came from Ireland
    and Scotland. These desperately poor people
    worked as manual labourers, or soiled over the
    cheapest and hardest land they could get their
    hands on.

Native Peoples/First Nations
The Native Peoples
  • Native peoples were pushed to the outskirts of
  • They were forgotten and ignored unless the
    Europeans wanted to buy Indian lands to employ
    Indian labourers.
  • The Indian way of life was changed due to this
    displacement. For example Algonquians, had
    traditionally relied on hunting and fishing for
    food. However, they had to turn to small-scale
    fruit and vegetable gardening and even started to
    shop at the local food stores due to the growth
    of immigrant settlements throughout the Eastern

The Native Peoples (contd)
  • Land claims and territorial disputes were common.
  • The Ojibwa were embroiled in a land dispute as
    several mining companies got the go-ahead by the
    Canadian government to investigate mineral wealth
    in the Shield. Mining operations continued even
    though the government accepted the fact that the
    development was encroaching the Ojibwa territory.

The Native Peoples
  • Many Native bands had to rent out their prime
    reserve land due to dire living conditions.
  • Despite many measures to assimilate Native
    peoples into White society, Native cultures
    stayed alive by oral histories and traditions
    passed down by the elders.

Victorian Attitudes and Values
  • Queen Victoria came to the throne in 1837, while
    still in her teens. Her tastes, values, and
    behaviours set the standards for many British
    subjects, including Canadians and Americans.
  • The Victorians had what we call attitude, being
    sure of themselves and having few doubts about
    their values and beliefs. Victorian society was
    distinctly Christian and placed a great value on
  • The British Empire grew military and expanded the
    British Empire around the world. New discoveries
    in medicine, science, and technology were almost
    reported daily.

  • Religion was very important to Victorians
    (someone who lived during the era of Queen
    Victoria, from 1837-1901). Most towns had at
    least one Anglican (mostly for British people),
    Presbyterian (mostly for Scottish people),
    Methodist, and Catholic (mostly for Irish people)
  • The leaders of the church made decisions about
    education, schools, and community matters, and
    church congregations served as agencies that
    aided the destitute.

Victorian Attitudes and Values
  • Most English Victorians viewed themselves as
    superior and claimed that to be born British was
    to win the lottery of life.
  • Victorian values included a strict moral code and
    an obsession with social status. Middle-class
    Victorians were prudish and extremely
    materialisticthey liked nice things, and spent
    freely on clothes, homes, and furnishings.
  • The church was the most important building
    because it was where most social activities took

Fashion and Décor
Clothing indicated social status and Victorian
values, so even labourers tended to dress
formally. Women wore long dresses and aprons
men wore hats and ties, even to sporting events.
Victorian houses were a sign of prestige, as
they were decorated with the fanciest
furnishings. Poorer sections of town were
emblematic by the size of the homes which was
most often small.
Fashion (Women)
Fashion (Men)
Victorian Homes/Architecture
(No Transcript)
Science and Medicine
Science and Medicine
  •  Science and technology dominated and shaped the
    Western world after 1860, as discoveries came so
    fast that understanding them was often
  • Ideas and discoveries were transplanted across
    the globe through newspapers and journals that
    linked the continents.
  • Exciting medical discoveries were regularly
    featured in the news, such as aspirin
    antibiotics x-rays vitamins and hormones were
    discovered in the latter half of the century.
    Vaccinations also became readily available to
    ordinary people during the Victorian era.

Science and Medicine
  • People hoped that science would find cures for
    many serious diseases such as cholera, smallpox,
    typhoid fever, influenza, tuberculosis, and
    rheumatic and scarlet fevers which killed many
    children. Yet very little was known about
    disease and hygiene, until research on germs and
    antiseptics was furthered.

Science and Medicine
Science and Medicine (cont)
  • Many surgeons ended up infecting their patients
    due to poor sanitary conditions. For example,
    few would wash their instruments or even their
    hands before an operation.
  • In 1857, a French scientist, Louis Pasteur
    discovered the tiny organismsthe bacillithat
    cause many diseases. He also discovered the
    cause of anthrax (a deadly disease that kills
    animals and could infect humans, cholera, and
    rabies. He used carbolic acid as an antiseptic,
    and vaccinated people and animals against disease.

Leisure and Travel
Leisure and Travel
  • Victorian Canadians liked to be entertained. The
    city festivities included parties, concerts,
    fairs, circuses, and shows.
  • In the country barn raisings, quilting bees,
    weddings ceilidhs (parties with Scottish or Irish
    music, dancing and stories), and barn dances were
    quite popular.

Leisure and Travel
  • Books and magazines were popular, often in serial
    format so that people could enjoy next weeks
    issue. Victorians also had a taste for many
    amusements that are still enjoyed by modern
    Canadiansbut some amusements today would be
    considered brutal or bizarre.

Leisure and Travel
Leisure and Travel
  • For example, bare-knuckle boxing matches drew
    plenty of spectators, with bouts lasting as many
    as a hundred hours. Boxing remained a brutal
    sport until Britains Marquis of Queensbury
    issued his famous rules for boxing in the 1860s
    rules that are the basis for todays boxing

Medicine Shows
  • The Victorians loved medicine shows where cures
    for anything and everything were sold
  • Many of these medicines were actually made with
    alcohol, pepper, or turpentine (a fluid obtained
    by distillation from resin obtained from trees,
    mainly various species of pine (Pinus) causing
    many to get intoxicated by the medicine.

Parlour Games
Parlour Games
  • Card games, such as whist, were very popular, as
    were checkers and chess these games were often
    ways of socializing in ofter large gatherings .
  • Those of Native, Black, French, and English
    ancestry had distinct cultural traditions and
    develped their own games. Some popular games
    were pulling the stump, pulling the leg, kissing
    his thumb.

Getting Around/Transportation
The Royal William, 1833
Getting Around
  • People with money to spare travelled to Europe or
    America and enjoyed the entertainment within
    popular cities such as Paris, France.
  • Transatlantic travel became much easier after the
    invention of the steamboat, which reduced the
    time for an ocean crossing to a few weeks. The
    Royal William, built in Quebec in 1833 corssed
    the Atlantic in seventeen days.

Changing Technology
Changing Technology
  • Steam power improved the travel time both on land
    and sea. Railways and steamships also helped to
    build the infrastructure of Canada after 1830.
  • Canadas first railway was the Champlain Saint
    Lawrence Railroad, which ran from La Prairie, a
    suburb of Montreal, to Saint-Jean-sur-Richelle,
    40 km southease of Montreal. It was completed by
    1836. The railway system in British North
    America linked towns and created transportation

The Rise of Newspaper/Communication
The Rise of Newspapers
  • Newspapers became important sources of daily
    information to people who lived in cities. The
    Halifax Gazette was the countrys first newspaper
    founded in 1752.
  • By 1873 there were forty-seven dailies a daily
    was a newspaper published every day of the week.
    Newspapers of the Victorian era did not contain
    comics, profession sports (except horse racing
    and boxing), horoscopes and few non-news or
    special-interest features.

The Rise of Newspaper/Communication
  • What made them so attractive to the readers?
  • They offered news from the outside world and were
    instrumental in going into other peoples
    business. Court reports and the names, sentences
    and fines of offenders were usually published,
    and made for interesting reading.
  • Also, helpful recipes, self-help articles, and
    fad science type articles, like phrenology (the
    science of personality study based on the bumps
    on a persons head), were quite popular.