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Unit 5: Social Change


Unit 5: Social Change Ch 16: Population and Urbanization Ch 17: Social Change and Collective Behavior – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 5: Social Change

Unit 5 Social Change
  • Ch 16 Population and Urbanization
  • Ch 17 Social Change and Collective

Ch 16 Population and Urbanization
  • Why study population patterns?
  • Population affects ________________, especially
    in _________ areas.
  • Patterns help sociologists understand predict
    how groups of people will ______. Ex
  • The growth of ___________ has benefited the
    Democratic Party more than Republicans.
  • Population can put a strain on future
    generations as they have to take care of a larger
    group of _________________.

  • Population statistics
  • A population is a group of people living in a
    particular place at a ______________.
  • Demography is the scientific study of ________.
  • Demos is a Greek word meaning ______.
  • When studying a population demographers look at
    many factors such as
  • Size of people
  • _________ how where they are located
  • ____________ what groups make up the population
  • Age structure ages represented in the population
  • ________ births
  • Mortality deaths
  • _________ movement from one place to another

  • Fertility
  • The Duggar Family
  • Measures the actual of children born to a woman
    or to a _____________________.
  • Fecundity is the potential of children that
    could be born if every woman reproduced as often
    as ________ ________.
  • Of course, fertility rates are _____________
    fecundity rates.
  • The highest realistic fecundity rate expected
    from a society would be about ____ births per
  • The crude birth rate is the annual of ________
    per 1,000 members of a population.
  • Crude Birth Rate X
  • The fertility rate is the annual of live births
    per 1,000 women _____________
  • The total fertility rate is the average of
    children born to a woman ________________.
  • Health social factors (such as average age at
    marriage, ___________________, attitudes towards
    birth control, etc) all influence the birth rate.

of live births total population
  • Mortality
  • _________ w/in a population.
  • To analyze patterns of mortality, sociologists
    look at life span life expectancy
  • Life span is the ______________ to which humans
    can survive. (Currently around ___ yrs but
    obviously few people make it anywhere near that).
  • Life expectancy is the _________ of yrs that
    people in a given population born at a particular
    time can expect to live to.
  • The crude death rate is the annual of deaths
    per 1,000 members of a population.
  • Crude Death Rate X
  • The worldwide crude death rate is _______, but
    varies widely around the world.
  • The infant mortality rate is the of deaths
    among infants ___________ of age per 1,000 live

of deaths_ total population
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  • Migration
  • The movement of people from one ____________ to
  • Can be from one country to another or w/in a
    country (Ex. the great migration).
  • The gross migration rate into or out of an area
    is the of people per 1,000 members of a
    population who ___________ a geographic area in a
    given yr.
  • Net migration is the __________ b/w the of
    people entering leaving an area.
  • Ex. 500 enter 200 leave, so the net migration
    is ______.
  • The net migration rate is the annual or
    per 1,000 members
  • In 2003, the net migration rate for the US was
    _______ per 1,000.
  • When the Census Bureau reports migration rates,
    it only includes the of ______________. Thus,
    many illegal immigrants go ___________.

End Section 1
  • World population growth
  • No organization has ever counted all people in
    the world. Instead, they count the most reliable
    census data where available ____________ where
    its not.
  • A census is a regularly occurring _______ of a
    particular population.
  • Rapid world population growth is a relatively
    _______________. The doubling time ( of yrs
    needed to double the base population size) of the
    world has been _______ as the worlds population
    faster faster.
  • Why is it growing so fast?
  • Exponential growth (growth in which the amount of
    is added to the based figure each time
  • Better nutrition/___________
  • _____________

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  • Malthus population growth
  • In 1798, economist Thomas Malthus wrote An Essay
    on the Principle of Population. It described the
    relationship b/w population growth
    ____________________. Key ideas
  • Population growth, if unchecked, would
    ______________ leading to overpopulation, famine,
  • Checks on population can be positive
    preventative. Positive checks are factors that
    ________ (plagues, wars, etc) preventive
    checks ________ (which back then mostly
    consisted of abstinence delayed ___________).
  • The wealthy __________ already exercised
    preventive checks.
  • He emphasized the importance of education

  • The demographic transition theory
  • States that population growth is a function of
    the level of ____________________ in a country.
  • Malthus brought attention to the relationship b/w
    population growth economic development, but
    there are 2 things he hadnt considered
    _____________________ reliable methods of
  • The demographic transition theory takes them into
    account describes 4 stages of population
  • Stage 1 Both birth rate death rate are ______.
    Population growth is ____. __________ are at
    this stage today.
  • Stage 2 Birth rate is ____ death rate is ___
    due to better health care food production.
    Population growth is _______. Most of
    _______________ is at this stage.
  • Stage 3 Birth rate __________, but death rate
    continues to go ___. Population growth is still
    ___. Many ______________ countries are at this
  • Stage 4 Both birth death rates are ______.
    Population growth is ____ if at all. The US,
    Canada, __________, Japan are at this stage.

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  • Future world population growth
  • World population growth reached its peak in the
    late _____ at 2.04. The current growth rate is
    around ____. Its projected to drop to zero by
  • But even though the rate of growth is , the
    population itself is _______________.
  • There are currently over ________ people in the
    world. By 2025, there will be ________. By the
    time the worlds population reaches zero
    population growth (a situation in which deaths
    are balanced by births so that the population
    doesnt grow), it is predicted to be at
  • The population momentum is the ______________
    population growth immediately b/c of a previously
    high rate of growth. It would take _______ yrs
    for the population to stabilize if all women were
    to immediately only have ____ children each.
  • The replacement level is the birth rate at which
    a couple replaces itself w/o adding to the
    population (about ________).

  • Population control
  • Refers to the conscious attempt to regulate
    population size through ___________________
  • Historically, high birth rates were ________ to
    serve as replacement for high death rates,
    children to work parents farms take care of
    them in old age, raise large armies, b/c some
    countries had __________ against birth control.
  • This changed in the middle of the 1900s as some
    countries began to see high birth rates as a
    _______ to their well being.
  • Family planning is the __________ of population
    control methods. Countries that use this method
    of population control may fund family planning
    education, provide birth control materials, etc
    This approach has _____________.

  • "For a prosperous, powerful nation and a happy
    family, please use birth planning." Gov.t sign
    in area of Nanchang where pregnant women hide.
  • Rural Sichuan roadside sign "It is forbidden to
    discriminate against, mistreat or abandon baby
  • Compulsory population control methods have been
    used in China Singapore. They do this through
    a system of ___________________, such as higher
    ____ for families w/ more than 1 child more
    gov.t assistance for families w/ only 1 child.
    Successful, but _____________.
  • Introduced in China in the 1970s to make sure
    they could _______ all their people.
  • People in cities are allowed only _______ (unless
    the couple is an ethnic minority or both are only
  • In rural areas, theyre permitted ____ children.
  • Enforced w/ financial penalties, in the past,
    forced _________ sterilizations.
  • Frequently ________ (a woman might go away come
    back w/ a relatives child or claim they
    adopted the child).
  • Since males are traditionally valued over
    females, it has led to numerous _______ of female
    fetuses to an unbalanced _________________.
  • China announced in March 2008 that it will
    ________________ for at least another 10 yrs.

  • Population pyramids
  • Are graphic representations of the age sex
  • They show _______ ________ rates, which can be
    used to predict school, housing, health
    resource needs, etc
  • They also show the dependency ratio which is the
    ratio of dependent people (those under 15 over
    64) to ___________________ people.
  • Developing nations have a higher _______
    dependency developed nations have a higher
    __________ dependency.
  • So countries w/ a higher youth dependency have to
    worry more about funding for schools other
    youth programs, while countries w/ a higher
    old-age dependency have to worry about programs
    like Medicare, Social Security, etc

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Changes in Japans Population Structure
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Chinas Population Structure
End Section 2
  • Cities
  • Dense ____________ concentrations of people
    living in a specific area working primarily in
  • In the US, a city must have ________ people.
  • In Sweden its only 200 people Japan its
    30,000 .
  • Urbanization is the process by which an
    increasingly larger portion of the worlds
    population lives _______________.
  • Early cities appeared about ___________ yrs ago.
    Ur, one of the worlds 1st major cities (located
    in modern day ____) only had about 24,000 people.
    Rome during the time of the Roman empire had b/w
    ½ - 1 mil people.
  • Preindustrial cities arose due to improving
    __________ techniques.
  • 4 types of people tended to come to early cities
  • _______ to consolidate political, military,
    /or religious power.
  • Functionaries political /or religious
    officials who _________________ of the elites.
  • _________ to work sell their products.
  • The poor hoping to find _____ (but rarely able

  • Modern cities arose after the ______________
    ________ followed by the ________________.
    Factories led to larger groups of people living
    working in the same areas particularly areas near
    _________________ (water, mines, etc).
  • Currently about ½ of the worlds population live
    in urban areas. In developed countries its
    about ____ of the population in developing
    countries about ____.
  • In developing countries, there is a larger supply
    of _______ from the countryside coming into the
    cities than there are ___________. This has led
    to overurbanization (a situation in which a city
    cannot supply adequate ______________ for its
  • In _________ countries, there tend to be a few
    large cities, more medium cities, many small
    cities. Whereas _________ countries often only
    have __________________________.

  • Cities in the US have been _____________ due to
    suburbanization (the loss of population of a city
    to surrounding areas), the US is now
    predominantly _____________.
  • Suburbanization became possible due to advances
    in technology in __________ (phones, tv,
    computers, internet, etc) ____________
    (trains, highways, cars, etc). This makes it
    easier for people to _________________ to stay
    in touch w/ others.
  • Suburbs are attractive to many people b/c of
    their less crowding traffic, ________, better
    schools, less crime, less pollution.
  • In the mid 1900s, cities lost people during the
    white flight (upper middle class whites
    moving to _______, leaving behind a
    disproportionate of minorities
    ________________) businesses also left due to
    lower tax rates, less expensive land, less
    congestion, more customers. This led to a
    central city dilemma for many cities (having a
    high of minorities poor people w/ less tax
    to help w/ ______________________).
  • Suburbanization in the US

  • Some cities are being __________ through
    gentrification (the development of low-income
    areas by ____________ homebuyers, landlords,
    professional developers). Additionally, in
    recent years, more ________ have been moving back
    to some cities.
  • Edge cities have formed. An edge city is a
    suburban unit specializing in a particular
    activity its a smaller, more focused version
    of an ______________. It may specialize in
    technology, financial services, etc Theyre
    kind of like a city w/in a city but w/ no formal
    ______________________ them.

End Section 3
  • Urban ecology
  • The study of the relationships b/w humans
  • Researchers look at things like how areas w/in
    the same city are different, how they
    _____________, what processes change them.
  • There are 4 major theories about city growth
  • Concentric zone theory
  • Sector theory
  • Multiple nuclei theory
  • Peripheral theory
  • None of these theories explain city environments
    ________, but can tell much when put together.

  • The concentric zone theory
  • Describes urban growth in terms of ______ areas
    that grow from the central city outward.
  • The innermost circles in the ____________ ______
    the heart of the city. It contains major
    gov.t private office buildings, major stores,
    entertainment facilities. The property values
    are very high which pushes out _________________.
  • The zone surrounding it is the zone in
    ___________. The property there is often bought
    rented out for profit for businesses or
    apartments. Often this area is not taken care of
    properly contains ________.
  • The surrounding zones are used for ______.
  • Many northern cities developed this way.

  • The sector theory
  • Emphasizes the importance of _____________
    ________ in the process of urban growth.
  • Sectors tend to be ____________ w/ wedges
    radiating from the central business district to
    the citys outskirts. Each sector is organized
    around a major transportation route.
  • Sectors will be predominantly industrial or
    business or residential, etc
  • Includes Richmond, Seattle, _____________.

  • The multiple nuclei theory
  • The peripheral theory
  • Focuses on specific _____________________
    influences on urban growth.
  • These cities arent dependent on a ________
    _______. Instead, they have several separate
    centers (such as manufacturing, retail,
    residential, etc).
  • These separate centers developed due to
    geography, history, tradition, etc
  • _________ is an example.
  • Emphasizes the growth of _______ around the
    central city.
  • As communication transportation have improved
    in the last 50 yrs, much of the business of
    cities is done _________ of the cities.

End Section 4
Ch 17 Social Change and Collective Behavior
  • Change in society
  • Social change is new societal behaviors w/
    important _______________________.
  • Its hard to predict b/c the type of change
    depends on the existing _______.
  • Ex. The rise of democracy in the US included a
    president congress. In Britain, they have a
    queen, prime minister, parliament.
  • Ex. Some societies only allow marriage between 1
    man 1 woman, some allow homosexuals to marry,
    some allow polygamy.

  • Why do some societies change faster more
    dramatically than others?
  • Change w/in a society is a result of several
    processes and major factors
  • Social processes (a series of steps leading to
    change on a societal level)
  • _________
  • Invention
  • Diffusion
  • Major factors
  • Technology
  • __________
  • Natural environment
  • Revolution ______

  • Processes
  • Discovery the process by which something is
    learned or _____________.
  • Earth is round exploration, colonization
  • Women can learn math science
  • Invention the creation of _______________ from
    previously existing items or processes. The more
    _______ the society, the _______ social change
    through invention occurs.
  • Telephones improved communications
  • Cars suburbs, pollution
  • Diffusion the process by which one culture or
    society _______ from another. The culture picks
    chooses what it will will not ________.
  • Food Chinese, Italian, Mexican, etc
  • Clothing more or less modest, whats gender
    appropriate, etc
  • Gov.t Democracy, Communism, etc
  • Language learning an entirely new language or
    just some _______________.

  • Major factors
  • Technology knowledge tools used to achieve
  • Inventions become part of technology possessed.
  • New technology is often a sign that _________
    will follow.
  • Spinning wheel The Industrial Revolution
  • Internet
  • ___________ demographics stay the same or
  • Changes in ages structure, religion, ethnic
    groups, etc can affect societies __________.
  • Natural environment
  • Shapes societies _______________________.
  • American frontier independent, ruggedness, etc
  • Resources coal vs. oil, deserts lack water,
  • Natural disasters
  • Revolution the sudden complete overthrow of
    an existing _____ or __________________.
  • But they usually lead to __________, not radical
  • American Revolution (many same Americans w/
    power, Congress similar to Parliament, etc)
  • War an _________, armed conflict w/in a society
    or b/w nations.
  • Promote invention (tanks, atomic bombs)
    discovery (resources techniques).

End Section 1
  • The functionalist perspectives view on social
  • Functionalism emphasizes stability continuity
    however there are 2 beliefs about social change
    both involving the idea of _____________
  • 1. Equilibrium (a state of functioning
    __________, maintained by a societys tendency to
    make small adjustments to change)
  • So this is about making ______ adjustments.
  • 2. A society in change, moves from stability to
    ___________ then back to stability.
  • So this is about making ______ adjustments to
    find a ______ _________.

  • The conflict perspectives view on social change
  • Believe social change is a result of struggles
    among groups for ________ ____________. Change
    occurs when the conflicts are __________ (at
    least temporarily).
  • Haves vs. have nots
  • Environmentalists vs. industrialists
  • Gender conflicts
  • Racial/ethnic conflicts
  • Religious conflicts
  • Etc

  • The symbolic interactionist perspectives view on
    social change
  • Believe humans interact w/ others based on
    commonly shared symbols, so as shared meanings
    , ______________ social interaction becomes
    more ___________.
  • German sociologist Ferdinard Tonnies argued that
    prior to industrialization, people lived in small
    communities w/ many _____________. After
    industrialization, people lost many of those
    common symbols that had been developed over time
    through a ________________.
  • Urbanism is the distinctive way of life shared by
    the people living in a _______.
  • Some agree w/ Tonnies, some dont. Opponents
    argue about communities w/in cities that maintain
    many shared symbols such as ________________

End Section 2
  • Collective behavior
  • The __________ behavior of a group of people
    responding to ________________.
  • Collectivity is a collection of people who do not
    _______________ who do not share clearly
    defined norms.
  • Stimuli refers to outside events or people that
    cause a response.
  • This means that collective behavior is
  • Some collective behavior occurs when people are
    in ____________ while others occur when a
    collectivity made up of people who arent
    physically connected but follow ____________ or
    respond to common stimuli known as dispersed
  • Ex. On Sept 11th, people at the Twin Towers were
    in physical contact, but all Americans made up
    dispersed collectivity.

  • Rumors, legends, fads, fashions
  • People often respond to certain information in
    similar ways even when _________________.
    Rumors, fads, fashions are collective behaviors
    exhibited by ________ _______________.
  • A rumor is a widely circulating story of
  • Urban legends are a moralistic tale which focuses
    on current concerns ________.
  • They are an expression of our fears allow us to
    be shocked horrified at others ____________.
  • http//www.snopes.com/ (website that examines
    the truth of rumors urban legends)
  • Ex. Someone had a roach in their meal at a
    restaurant, someone got AIDs from a needle left
    at the movies, etc
  • A fad is an unusual ________ pattern that spreads
    rapidly _______________________.
  • Ex. Skateboarding, streaking, etc
  • A fashion is a behavior pattern that is
    _____________ but is expected to
  • Ex. Popularity of clothing labels, styles of
    jeans, slang, architecture, etc

  • Mass hysteria panics
  • Mass hysteria occurs when collective _________ is
    created by acceptance of one or more _______
  • Ex. Salem witch trials, Orson Welless Men from
    Mars radio broadcast, mistaken beliefs about how
    AIDS is spread, etc
  • Ends when ______ are made known.
  • Panic is people reacting to a real threat in
    fearful, anxious, often ______________ ways.
  • Ex. Exiting buildings during fires, leaving
    sinking ships, etc

  • Crowds
  • ___________________ of people who share an
    immediate common interest.
  • 4 different types
  • A _______ crowd least organized, least
    emotional, most ___________.
  • Ex. gathering on a street to watch a performer.
  • A _________ crowd has a specific purpose
    follows excepted norms for behavior.
  • Ex. going to a baseball game or movie.
  • An ________ crowd have no significant or
    long-term purpose beyond unleashing ______. Free
    expression occurs like yelling, crying, laughing,
    jumping, etc
  • Ex. New Years Eve at Time Square, funeral
    procession for a fallen leader, etc
  • An ____ crowd takes action to reach a _________.
  • Another type of crowd may become an acting crowd
    if ____________ lead up to it.
  • Ex. Protesters of a new law, workers picketing,
  • - _______ are also acting crowds.

  • Mobs riots
  • A mob is an ___________________, disorderly crowd
    that is ready to use destructiveness _________
    to achieve a purpose.
  • Achieving the common purpose is essential.
    Everything else is a _________. Members are
    pressured to conform they have
  • Ex. Lynching of blacks during segregation, draft
    protesters, etc
  • A riot is an episode of largely ______________
    violence carried out by a crowd.
  • Rioters often ____________ engage in
    destructive behavior to express their
  • No ______________, targets are often whatever
    whomever is convenient.
  • Usually triggered by a single event but caused by
    a _____________ issue.
  • Ex. LA riots after trial of police charged w/
    beating Rodney King.

  • 3 theories of crowd behavior
  • The contagion theory states that members of
    crowds _______ each other to higher higher
    levels of emotion __________________.
  • People lose their individuality to the ______
    of the crowd.
  • Herbert Blumer proposed a version which has 3
  • _______ people move around aimlessly like
    cattle becoming increasingly aware of one
  • _________________ crowd becomes impulsive,
    unstable, highly responsive to others. Begin
    to lose their own identity take on the crowds.
  • ______________ behavior is rigid, unthinking,
  • Ex. Riots at soccer games, buying things randomly
    at an auction, etc
  • The emergent norm theory states that ________
    develop to guide crowd behavior.
  • Rules develop w/in crowds - the same that govern
  • Groups w/in the crowd will act differently b/c
    they have different _________.
  • Ex. some people loot while others just stand by
    do nothing.
  • The convergence theory states that crowds are
    formed by people who deliberately congregate w/
  • So the crowds are _________ by shared values
  • Ex. Protesters outside an abortion clinic.

More ________
More ______
Somewhat ______
End Section 3
  • Social movements
  • Are movements whose goal is to _________________
    social change.
  • 4 characteristics
  • _______ of people
  • A common goal to promote OR prevent social change
  • Organized w/ __________________
  • Lasts a relatively _____________
  • Theyre the most highly structured, rational,
    ______ form of collective behavior.
  • Ex. American Rev., womens suffrage, The Civil
    Rights Movement, pro-life pro-choice
    movements, etc
  • There are 4 types of social movements
  • Revolutionary movements attempt to change a _____
    _______ (Ex. American Rev., Communist Revs.).
  • Reformative movements attempt to make ________
    changes in _____ (Ex. prohibition, womens
  • Redemptive movements attempt to change ________
    _________ (Ex. religious cults).
  • Alternative movements attempt to make ________
    changes to ________ (Ex. Zero Population Growth

  • The value-added theory
  • Holds that ________________ must exist for social
    movements to occur.
  • Each condition ____________.
  • Structural conduciveness the surroundings/______
    _____ must allow for the social movement to
    flourish (ex. allow for good communication)
  • Structural strains the presence of conflicts,
    uncertainties, inconsistencies which provide a
    belief in the ___________________.
  • Generalized beliefs general recognition that
    there is a problem it needs to be ________.
  • Precipitating factors one or more significant
    events must occur to ________ the movement.
  • ___________ of participants for action the
    movement starts.
  • Social control _________ social control may
    make the movement fail while ________ social
    control might give the movement more momentum.

  • The resource mobilization theory
  • Focuses on how members of a social movement
    secure use _______ needed to ________________.
  • Resources include ______________ (Ex.
    leadership, organization, etc) ________
    _______ (Ex. , property, etc)
  • Movements dont succeed w/o enough of these
    resources, so the movements must successfully
    appeal to the people who can __________ those

End Section 4
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