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Egypt%20and%20North%20Africa

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Title: Egypt%20and%20North%20Africa


1
Egypt and North Africa
2
Egypts Land
  • 3 main land areas Nile River Valley, Sinai
    Peninsula, and the desert
  • Lifeline of Egypt is the Nile River
  • Silt left behind after flooding that made land
    good for farming
  • Sinai Peninsula is a crossroad between Africa and
    Southwest Asia
  • Suez Canal, opened to help trade, links
    Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea

3
Egypts Land
  • Desert are the Eastern and Libyan Deserts which
    are part of the Sahara
  • Oasis- fertile or green area in a desert
  • Dry desert climate is found here
  • Very little rainfall, instead spring brings hot
    winds, not cooling rain

4
Egypts Economy
  • Economy based on farming
  • Raw cotton, cotton yarn, and clothing are main
    exports
  • Aswan High Dam controls flooding of the Nile for
    farming and provides electricity
  • Disadvantages of the dam block silt so they use
    fertilizers that pollute the water and freshwater
    doesnt reach the delta, but saltwater from Med.
    Sea does, making the land less fertile

5
Egypts Economy
  • Industry produces food products, textiles, and
    consumer goods
  • Tourism an important industry
  • Main energy source is oil
  • Country has phosphate- mineral salt used in
    fertilizers

6
Egypts History
  • Came under British control during building of the
    Suez Canal
  • Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrew monarchy and created
    a republic
  • Population 72.1 million
  • Cairo- capital and largest city in terms of
    population in Africa
  • Fellahin- Egyptian peasant farmer

7
Egypts History
  • Bazaar- marketplace
  • Many city dwellers work in service industry-
    provide services to people rather than produce
    goods
  • Religion- Islam
  • First Muslim nation to sign peace treaty with
    Israel

8
Libya
  • 90 of land is covered by the Sahara Desert
  • Lacks freshwater so government built pipelines to
    carry water from aquifers underneath the desert.
    An aquifer is an underground rock layer that
    store water.
  • Discovery of oil in 1959 brought country great
    wealth.

9
Libya
  • 5.5 million people are mixed Arab and Berber.
    Berber first known people to live in North
    Africa.
  • Most people live in coastal areas of the
    Mediterranean Sea.
  • Libya is a Muslim nation.
  • Tripoli is the capital
  • In 1969, Muammar al-Qaddhafi led a military coup
    that ended Libyas monarchy and set up the Libyan
    Arab Republic.

10
Libya
  • In 1977, Libya changed its name to the Great
    Socialist Peoples Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.(Jamahir
    iya means state of the masses) This is a form
    of a democratic government because the people
    that serve in the Jamahiriya are elected by the
    people.

11
Tunisia
  • Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco make up region
    known as the Maghreb (land farthest west)
  • Tunisia is Africas smallest country
  • Farming takes place in coastal areas
  • Factories produce food products, textiles, and
    oil products
  • Tourism is a growing industry

12
Tunisia
  • Carthage was a powerful trading empire that
    fought against the Roman empire for control of
    the Mediterranean.
  • Tunisia was a colony of France
  • Tunisia is a Muslim nation
  • 9.9 million people are of mixed Arab and Berber
    ancestry
  • Tunis is the capital

13
Algeria
  • The largest country in North Africa
  • Atlas Mountains run through northern Algeria
  • Ergs- huge, shifting sand dunes
  • Imports one-third of its food
  • Oil is an important resource
  • Algeria has trouble with widespread poverty

14
Algeria
  • 31.7 million people of mixed Arab and Berber
    ancestry
  • Algeria was a French colony
  • Fought a fierce civil war to gain independence in
    1954
  • Algeria is a republic
  • Algeria is a Muslim nation

15
Algeria
  • Muslims have fought civil wars to oppose secular
    (nonreligious) policies
  • Algiers is the capital
  • People enjoy casbahs, older sections of the city
    of Algiers

16
Morocco
  • Borders both the Mediterranean Sea and the
    Atlantic Ocean
  • Strait of Gibraltar separates Africa and Europe
    by only 8 miles
  • Farming takes place on coastal plains
  • Morocco is a leading producer of phosphate
  • Tourism is a growing industry

17
Morocco
  • Morocco was a colony of both Spain and France
  • Berbers were the first to settle in Morocco
  • Morocco is a constitutional monarchy
  • Morocco has claimed an area called the Western
    Sahara
  • Have fought a war for control over this area with
    a rebel group that wants to create an independent
    country

18
Morocco
  • United Nations has not settled anything over the
    Western Sahara region
  • Morocco is a Muslim nation
  • Population is 30.7 million
  • Rabat is the capital
  • Moors are an ethnic group of Arab/Berber descent
  • Souks are marketplaces in Morocco
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