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Renaissance

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Renaissance 1300 - 1600 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Renaissance


1
  • Renaissance
  • 1300 - 1600

2
Renaissance
  • Those who survived the Middle Ages
  • wanted to enjoy life.
  • Educated people began to reject Medieval values
    and look to the classical past.
  • The Renaissance was the REBIRTH of the classical
    civilizations.

3
Renaissance
  • Renaissance Begins in Italy
  • Advantages of Italy
  • 1.Thriving Cities
  • Crusades strengthened northern cities
  • Exchange of ideas in the cities
  • 2. Merchant Class
  • City-states were small with large percentage
    of participation by citizens
  • Wealthiest
  • Social status individual merit
  • Medici Family political control patrons
  • of the arts

4
Renaissance
  • 3. Classical Heritage of Greece Rome
  • Artists and philosophers drew inspiration
  • from the Roman ruins.
  • Byzantine scholars fled (with prized Latin
  • with prized Latin manuscripts) to Italy
  • when Constantinople fell to the Turks.

5
Renaissance
  • Medici Family in Florence
  • Lorenzo the Magnificent
  • ruled as a dictator
  • appeared to be an elected leader
  • great supporter of the arts
  • controlled
  • city-state
  • politics

6
Renaissance
  • Classical Worldly Values
  • Humanism focus on human value potential
    (Greeks Romans)
  • Secular worldly, concerned with the here and
    now. Although most people remained devout
    Catholics, it was a secular age.
  • Patrons wealthy churchmen/merchants who
    supported the arts by financially supporting the
    artists.

7
Renaissance
  • Renaissance Man
  • All educated people expected to create art.
  • Strove to master ever area of study.
  • Courtier by Castiglione
  • taught readers how to be Renaissance
  • men.
  • Renaissance Women
  • Upper Class well educated and expected
  • to inspire rather than create
  • well educated

8
Renaissance
  • Renaissance Art
  • used to religion to convey spiritual ideals
  • religious subjects copied from Greeks
  • and Romans
  • realistic and glorifying the human body
  • used perspective (3-D)to bring realism
  • to art

9
Renaissance
  • ART

10
Renaissance
  • Leonardo da Vinci the Renaissance Man
  • Painter, sculptor, inventor, scientist
  • Known for Mona Lisa The Last Supper
  • Raphael Advances Realism
  • Studied under Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci
  • Used Madonna and Child as his main subject
  • Known for the School of Athens which shows the
    influence of the Greeks on the Renaissance

11
Renaissance
  • Renaissance Sculpture

DAVID by Donatello First free standing nude
bronze.
DAVID by Michelangelo - Marble sculpture.
12
Renaissance
  • Michelangelo
  • Painter, sculptor, architect, and poet
  • Most famous for his portrayal of the human
    body in painting and sculpture.
  • Influenced by classical art and showed the power
    and grandeur supporting the idea of human
    potential.

13
Renaissance
  • Women Artists
  • Sofanisba Anguissola
  • - the first woman artist who gained
  • international attention
  • - known for portraits of royalty
  • Renaissance Writers
  • - Petrarch humanist who wrote
  • sonnets
  • - Boccaccio Decameron
  • Machiavelli
  • - The Prince
  • - Advice to young princes, do what you
  • have to do to get what you want

14
Renaissance
  • Northern Renaissance
  • Countries of strong monarchs
  • Many monarchs became patrons of the arts
  • Renaissance ideas from Italy mixed with
  • northern traditions
  • Northern Renaissance more religious than the
  • Italian Renaissance

15
Renaissance
  • German Painters
  • Durer known for woodcuts engravings
  • - helped spread Renaissance ideas
  • Hans Holbein the Younger portraits that looked
    like photography
  • Flemish Painters
  • Jan van Eyck famous for work in oil and the
    blending of colors
  • Peter Bruegel the Elder known for realistic
    details and protesting harsh Spanish rule through
    his paintings

16
Renaissance
  • Northern Writers
  • Christian Writers Humanists
  • Desiderius Erasmus Praise of Folly made fun
    of greedy merchants, lovers, and priests
  • Thomas More Utopia ( means no place)
  • In Mores book Utopia came to mean the ideal
    place, where greed, corruption, war, and crime
    did not exist.

17
Renaissance
  • Francis Rabelais contrast to Erasmus and Thomas
    More
  • - wrote in the vernacular
  • - believed people should live by their
  • instincts
  • William Shakespeare - greatest playwright of all
    time
  • - most famous works include Macbeth, Hamlet, and
    Romeo and Juliet
  • - wrote both comedy and tragedy
  • - influenced by classical works as seen
  • in Julius Caesar

18
Renaissance
  • The Elizabethan Age
  • Renaissance England was also called the
    Elizabethan Age.
  • - ruled by Queen Elizabeth
  • - highly educated monarch who
  • was a poet and patron of the arts

19
Renaissance
  • Printing Press
  • Renaissance ideas were spread through the
    invention of the printing press.
  • - invented by Johann Gutenberg
  • - against the advice of others, printed
  • the Gutenberg Bible first
  • - made books cheaper
  • - produced many religious works
  • - people began to read interpret the
  • Bible for themselves
  • - promoted literacy

20
Reformation
  • Because of conflict within the church a movement
    arose to question the authority, tradition, and
    structure of the church. From the protest and
    conflict came a division of the Christian church
    in Europe.

21
Reformation
  • Setting The Stage For
    Reformation
  • The Renaissance emphasis on the secular and the
    individual challenged Church authority.
  • Attempt to reform the church in the Middle Ages
  • Many unresolved issues remained
  • Guttenbergs printing press spread secular ideas
  • Rulers resented popes authority over them
  • Merchants resented paying taxes to the church

22
Reformation
  • Problems in the Church
  • Corruption
  • Personal indulgences popes patronized the arts,
    spent lavishly on personal pleasure
  • Popes fought wars
  • Immorality Pope Alexander VI, publicly admitted
    he had several children. Others broke their
    priestly vows by marrying, or by gambling or
    drinking to excess.
  • Poorly educated priests/monks

23
Reformation
  • Early Reformers
  • Advocates of Church Reform
  • John Wycliff (England) Jan Hus (Bohemia)
  • Both advocated church reforms and denied the
    popes worldly power
  • Bible has more authority than clergy leaders

24
Christian Humanists Add to the fray
  • Humanists like Desiderius Erasmus, Thomas More,
    and Ulrich Zwingli add their voices to the chorus
    of criticism.
  • Girolamo Savonrola came to Florence and preached
    fiery sermons calling for reforms or changes.
  • Some reformers died for their beliefs, but their
    calls for change lived on

25
Reformation
  • Martin Luther
  • Monk
  • Professor of Bible at Wittenberg University in
    the German state of Saxony
  • Sought righteousness in the church
  • Took a stand against John Tetzel
  • Selling of indulgences (forgiveness)
  • Posted 95 Thesis (statements) for debate at
    Wittenberg University
  • False Teachings in the church

26
Reformation
  • Martin Luther Believed monk in 1505
  • He wrote the 95 Theses He went beyond the
    corruptness of the Church. He wanted full
    reforms!
  • Salvation comes through faith.
  • Pope and church traditions are false authorities.
  • People of faith are equal and do not need
    priests.
  • Many people supported his teachings.
  • Martin Luthers actions begin the Reformation, a
    movement for religious reforms.

27
Reformation
  • Response to Martin Luther His
  • Ideas become increasingly more radical!
  • Pope Leo X - at first, need correction from
    superior
  • later the threat of excommunication. Later, he
    does
  • excommunicates Martin Luther.
  • Emperor Charles V - opposed Luthers teachings
  • Brought Luther to Worms for a trial
  • Edict 0f Worms Luther is an outlaw and
  • heretic, no person could give him
    shelter or
  • aid.

28
Reformation
  • Peasant Revolts
  • German peasants followed Luthers teachings and
    apply Luthers ideas to revolutionary society.
  • Demanded and end to serfdom
  • Raided the villages, monasteries, etc.
  • Luther was angry, he urged the German princes to
    show the peasants no mercy in a written pamphlet.
  • German princes crush the revolt killing 10,000.
  • Many peasants rejected Luther for his failure to
    support them in the riots

29
Reformation
  • German Religious Wars
  • Many German princes supported Lutheranism
  • Some followed Luther to break away from the
    Catholic Church and the popes authority
  • Those following Luther signed a protest
    statement, thus becoming PROTESTANTS
  • Catholic forces went to war against Protestants
  • PEACE OF AUGSBURG the religion of each German
    state would be decided by the ruler

30
Reformation
  • England Becomes
  • Protestant
  • Henry VIII
  • Devout Catholic
  • Wanted a male heir
  • 30 year marriage to Catherine of Aragon failed to
    produce a son
  • Their only living child is MARY
  • Wanted a divorce from Catherine

31
Reformation
  • England Becomes Protestant
  • Church did not allow divorce
  • Sought an annulment (set aside the marriage)
  • Pope refused (he did not want to offend Emperor
    Charles V, the nephew of Catherine of Aragon)
  • Henry asked Parliament to end the popes
    authority
  • in England, making Henry the head of the
    church
  • Henry seized church land and property,
    increasing his royal power

32
Reformation
  • Henrys Lineage
  • Catherine of Aragon (Mary) Divorced
  • Anne Boelyn (Elizabeth) Beheaded
  • Jane Seymour (Edward VI) Died
  • Anne of Cleves not so pretty Divorced
  • Catherine Howard Beheaded
  • Catherine Parr Survived
  • Following Henrys death
  • 1. Edward ruled - Protestant
  • 2. Mary (Bloody Mary) Catholic
  • 3. Elizabeth (Virgin Queen) Protestant ( head of
    the Anglican Church) but
  • made many concessions to please the Catholics

33
Reformation
  • Spanish Armada
  • King Philip II of Spain
  • Catholic king angry at Elizabeth for supporting
    Protestant Spanish subjects who rebelled against
    him
  • sailed the Spanish Armada into the English
    Channel with
  • 130 ships, 8,000 sailors and 19,000 soldiers
  • Spanish ships too large, did not work well in the
    channel
  • Smaller faster British ships defeated them
  • Spanish escaped by way of the North Sea only to
    be destroyed by a terrible storm. (The Protestant
    Winds!)

34
Reformation
  • Other Reformers
  • John Calvin Protestant theology based on
    predestination. (God knows who will be saved)
  • - led followers to Geneva, Switzerland
  • - established a theocracy
  • - Calvinism spread
  • John Knox Scottish minister studied Calvinism
  • - took Calvinism to Scotland
  • - each church governed by
    presbyters
  • - known as Presbyterians
  • - in France, known as Huguenots

35
Reformation
  • More Reforms
  • Anabaptist baptize only those old enough to
    decide for themselves to accept Christ
  • Church and state should be separate
  • Refused to fight in wars
  • Forerunners of Mennonites and Amish
  • Women Reformers
  • Katherina Von Bora (M. Luthers wife) sent to a
    convent at the age of 10. Took her nun vows by
    16. She was inspired by Luthers teachings and
    she escaped from the convent. Married Luther and
    had six children. Argued that women should have
    an equal role in marriage.

36
Reformation
  • Catholic Reformation
  • The events of the Protestant Reformation led the
    Catholic Church to investigate its own practices.
  • Ignatius of Loyola Spain The great turning
    point in his life came when he was injured,
    bed-ridden, and thought about his past sins.
  • He wrote Spiritual Exercises in 1522
  • In 1540, the pope made Ignatiuss followers a
    religious order called the Society of Jesus, or
    Jesuits.
  • The Jesuits founded academic and trained in
    theological schools. Their mission worked as a
    Catholic missionary
  • tried to stop the spread of Protestantism

37
Reformation
  • Catholic Reformation
  • Two popes, Popes Paul III and Paul IV, supported
    the Catholic Reformation. Paul III took four
    steps toward reform.
  • Called for a council to investigate Catholic
    practices, like selling indulgences. He approved
    the Jesuit order. He used the Inquisition to seek
    out and punish heresy in papal territory, he
    called the council of leaders to meet in Trent,
    in northern Italy.
  • Council of Trents Decision
  • Churchs interpretation of the Bible IS FINAL
  • FAITH WORKS are needed for salvation
  • BIBLE CHURCH are equal authorities for
    Christians
  • INDULGENCES are valid expressions of faith, but
    not false indulgences

38
Reformation
  • Reformation Legacy
  • Protestant Churches multiplied despite opposition
  • Religion no longer united Europe
  • As church power declined, power of the monarchs
    increased, supporting nation states.

39
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