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AP Government Review

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Title: AP Government Review


1
AP GovernmentReview
  • Chapter 1

2
Political Culture
  • A set of beliefs and basic values shared by most
    citizens.
  • Majority rule
  • Free elections
  • Equality in law
  • Private property
  • Individual freedoms

3
AP GovernmentReview
  • Chapter 2 The Constitution

4
Goals of the US Constitution
  • Create a strong union of states
  • Establish justice
  • Preserve Domestic Order
  • Provide for the common defense
  • Promote general welfare
  • Promote individual freedoms

5
Constitution Remedies the Articles of
Confederation
  • Creates Federalism
  • A balance between the national and state
    governments
  • National government could tax
  • Congress could regulate commerce between the
    states and foreign nations

6
Constitution Remedies the Articles of
Confederation
  • Article II created an executive department to
    enforce laws
  • Article III created a national judiciary with
    lower courts established by Congress

7
Constitution Remedies the Articles of
Confederation
  • Only the national government could coin money
  • States are represented based on population in the
    House of Reps and equally in the Senate

8
Constitution Remedies the Articles of
Confederation
  • Bills need a simple majority in the House and
    Senate
  • 2/3 of Congress and ¾ of the states are necessary
    to amend the Constitution

9
Basic Principles of the Constitution
  • Limited government
  • Popular sovereignty
  • Separation of powers
  • Checks and balances
  • Federalism

10
AP GovernmentReview
  • Chapter 3 Federalism

11
Federalism
  • Delegated powers
  • Expressed powers given to the national government
  • Implied powers
  • Powers that may be reasonably inferred from the
    Constitution (Necessary and Proper Clause)
  • Inherent powers
  • Powers that exist from the national government
    because the government is sovereignnt 10)

12
Federalism
  • Concurrent powers
  • Belong to both the states and national
    governments
  • Reserved powers
  • Powers that belong to the states (Amendment 10)

13
National Supremacy
  • Article IV Supremacy Clause
  • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) Federal law is
    supreme over state law
  • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) National supremacy over
    interstate commerce

14
Federalism Today
  • Dual Federalism (1789-1932)
  • Layer cake federalism National and state have
    power within their own sphere of influence
  • Cooperative Federalism (1932-1968)
  • Marble cake federalism National and state work
    together

15
Federalism Today
  • New Federalism (Nixon, Reagan, Bush 41)
  • Devolution of national power to the states

16
Fiscal Federalism
  • Grant in aid
  • Money and resources provided by the national
    government to state and local projects and
    programs
  • Categorical grants
  • Grants that have specific purpose defined by law
  • Block grants
  • General grants which can be used for a variety of
    purposes

17
AP GovernmentReview
  • Chapter 7 Public Opinion and Political
    Socialization

18
Political Socialization
  • The process in which citizens acquire a sense of
    political identity
  • Family and home life
  • Education
  • Demographic factors (age, sex, race, religion)
  • Mass media
  • Historical events

19
Public Opinion
  • A collection of shared attitudes of many
    different people in matters relating to politics,
    public issues, or making of public policy.

20
Measuring Public Opinion
  • 1930s Gallup developed polling
  • Random Sampling
  • valid questions
  • Controlling how the poll is taken
  • Analyzing and reporting results

21
Political Ideology
  • A set of beliefs about politics and public policy

22
Political Spectrum
  • Liberal supports active government in promoting
    individual welfare and social rights
  • Conservative promotes a limited government role
    in helping individuals, supports traditional
    lifestyle

23
AP GovernmentReview
  • Chapter 9 Political Parties

24
Political Parties
  • An association of people who seek to control the
    government through common principle.
  • Two Party System There are several parties but
    only two major parties compete and dominate
    elections
  • Minor Parties sometimes can upset the election

25
What do Parties do?
  • Recruit candidates
  • Nominate and support candidates for office
  • Educate the electorate
  • Organize the government (majority vs. minority)

26
Party Identification
  • Ideology
  • Income
  • Race
  • Religion
  • Region of country
  • Education
  • Occupation
  • Gender
  • Family tradition
  • Marital status

27
Why a Two Party System
  • British heritage
  • Federalist/Anti-Federalist
  • Electoral system
  • Election laws

28
AP GovernmentReview
  • Chapter 10 Campaigns, Nominations, and Elections

29
Political Participation
  • Voting in elections
  • Discussing politics and attending political
    meetings
  • Forming interest groups and PACs
  • Contacting public officials
  • Contributing money to a candidate or political
    party
  • Running for office
  • Protesting government decisions

30
Low Voter Turnout
  • Voter turnout is higher for Presidential
    elections
  • Lower turnout for midterm elections
  • Lower when compared to other nations

31
Low Voter Turnout
  • No perceived differences between candidate or
    party
  • Mistrust of the government
  • Apathy
  • Lack of political efficacy

32
Types of Elections
  • Primary Election voters choose candidates from
    their party
  • Closed primary only voters who are registered in
    the party may vote to choose the candidate
  • Open primary voters may vote to choose the
    candidate of either party, whether they belong to
    that party or not

33
Types of Elections
  • Blanket primary voters may vote for candidates
    of either party
  • Runoff primary when no candidate from a party
    receives a majority of the votes, the top two
    candidates face each other

34
Electoral College
  • President and Vice-President are chosen by the
    538 electoral votes
  • States use a winner take all method
  • Majority candidate (270) is declared winner.
  • If no winner is declared the House of
    Representatives chooses the President and the
    Senate chooses the Vice-President

35
Campaign Finance
  • Federal Election Campaign Act (1971)
  • Restricted
  • Amount spent on campaign advertising
  • Required disclosure of contributions and
    expenditures
  • Federal Election Commission
  • Enforces the FECA
  • Created public financing for presidential
    candidates

36
AP GovernmentReview
  • Chapter 8 Interest Groups

37
Interest Groups
  • Raise awareness and stimulate interest in public
    affairs
  • Serve as a link between members and the
    government
  • Provide information to the government
  • Provide channels for political participation

38
STOP
39
AP GovernmentReview
  • Chapter 12 Congress

40
Congress
  • Article I of the US Constitution creates a
    bicameral legislature consisting of the House of
    Representatives and the Senate
  • The current structure was a result of the
    Connecticut or Great Compromise reached at the
    Constitutional Convention

41
House of Representatives
  • Membership
  • 435 members apportioned by population
  • Term of Office
  • 2 years entire House elected every 2 years
  • Qualifications
  • At least 25 years old
  • Citizen for 7 years
  • Must live in state where district is located
  • Constituencies
  • smaller, by district
  • Prestige
  • Less prestige

42
House of RepresentativesGetting Elected
  • Apportionment distribution among the states
    based on the population of each state
  • Reapportionment the redistribution of
    Congressional seats after the census determines
    changes in population distribution among the
    states

43
House of RepresentativesGetting Elected
  • Congressional districting the drawing by state
    legislatures of congressional districts for those
    states with more than one representative
  • Gerrymandering drawing congressional districts
    to favor one political party or group over another

44
House of Representatives
  • Leadership
  • Speaker of the House
  • Presiding officer and most powerful member
  • Assigns bills to committee
  • Controls floor debates
  • Appoints party members to committees
  • Majority Leader
  • Assistant to the Speaker
  • Helps plan partys legislative program
  • Directs floor debates
  • Minority Leader
  • Major spokesperson for the minority party
  • Organizes opposition to the majority party

45
House of RepresentativesHow a Bill becomes a Law
  • A bill is introduced
  • The bill goes through committee
  • The rules committee sets terms of debate for the
    bill
  • The bill is debated by the House
  • A vote is taken. Bills that pass go to the Senate
  • Conference committee resolves any differences
    between House and Senate Bill
  • Resolved bill is voted on in the House
  • If approved, sent to the President

46
US Senate
  • Membership 100 members (2 from each state)
  • Term of office 6 years staggered terms with
    one-third of the Senate elected every 2 years
  • Qualifications
  • At least 30 years of age
  • Citizen for 9 years
  • Must live in state
  • Constituencies Larger, entire state
  • Prestige More prestige

47
US Senate
  • Getting Elected
  • Members were originally chosen by the state
    legislatures in each state
  • Since 1913, the 17th Amendment allows the direct
    election of senators by the people of the state

48
US Senate
  • Leadership
  • US Vice President
  • Presiding officer of the Senate.
  • Cannot debate and only votes to break a tie
  • President pro tempore
  • Senior member of the majority party
  • A ceremonial position
  • Majority leader
  • The most influential member of the Senate
  • The majority partys spokesperson
  • Minority leader
  • Performs the same role as the House minority
    leader

49
US SenateHow a Bill becomes a Law
  • A bill is introduced
  • The bill goes through committee
  • No rules committee!
  • The bill is debated by the Senate
  • A vote is taken, where the bill is passed or
    defeated. Bills that pass the Senate are sent to
    the House
  • Conference committee resolves any differences
    between House and Senate Bill
  • Resolved bill is voted on in the Senate
  • If approved, sent to the President

50
Congressional Override
  • If the President vetoes the bill then it is
    returned to the Congress, where they may override
    the veto by a two-thirds vote in each house.

51
Types of Committees
  • Standing
  • A permanent committee that deals with specific
    policy matters (agriculture, energy)
  • Select
  • A temporary committee appointed for a specific
    purpose (Senate Watergate Committee)

52
Types of Committees
  • Joint
  • Made up of members of both Houses (Joint
    Committee on the Library of Congress)
  • Conference
  • A temporary committee of members from both
    Houses, created to resolve differences in the
    House and Senate versions of the bill

53
Roles of Members of Congress
  • Policymaker
  • Representative
  • Constituent servant
  • Committee member
  • Politician/Party member

54
House of Representatives/Senate
  • Incumbency Effect the tendency for office
    holders to easily get reelected
  • Name recognition
  • Credit claiming (bringing positive results to the
    district or state)
  • Casework for constituents (helped constituents
    solve problems)
  • More visible to constituents
  • Media exposure
  • Fundraising abilities
  • Experience in campaigning
  • Voting record

55
Powers of Congress
  • Legislative Powers
  • Expressed powers Powers specifically granted to
    Congress, mostly found in Article I, Section 8 of
    the Constitution
  • Implied powers powers which may be reasonably
    suggested to carry out the expressed powers
    found in Article I, Section 8, Clause 18,
    necessary and proper
  • Limitations of powers power denied Congress in
    Article I, Section 9 and the 10th Amendment

56
Powers of Congress
  • Electoral powers selection of the President by
    the House and Vice-President by the Senate upon
    the failure of the electoral college to achieve a
    majority vote
  • Amendment powers Congress may propose amendments
    by 2/3 votes of each house

57
Powers of Congress
  • Impeachment
  • House may bring charges, or impeach, the
    President, Vie-President, or any civil officer by
    a simple majority
  • Senate holds the trial and acts as a jury with a
    2/3 vote needed to find guilt
  • Executive powers of the Senate
  • Must approve appointees by the Executive Branch
    by a simple majority
  • Must approve treaties by a 2/3 vote
  • Investigation/oversight powers investigate
    matters falling within the range of its
    legislative authority

58
Legislative Tactics
  • Filibuster or Cloture in the Senate only,
    unlimited debate in an attempt to stall action on
    a bill cloture is the method by 60 votes to end
    a filibuster

59
Legislative Tactics
  • Pork barrel legislation an attempt to provide
    funds and projects for a members home state or
    district

60
Legislative Tactics
  • Logrolling an attempt by members to gain support
    of other members in return for their support on
    the members legislation

61
Influences on Congress
  • Constituents
  • Other lawmakers and staff
  • Party influences
  • President
  • Lobbyists and interest groups

62
AP GovernmentReview
  • Chapter 13 The Presidency

63
President of the United States
  • Article II of the Constitution establishes the
    many responsibilities and functions of the
    President
  • Term and Tenure
  • 4 year term
  • 2 terms (10 year max) 22nd Amendment

64
President of the United States
  • Formal Qualifications
  • Natural born citizen
  • At least 35 years old
  • Resident of the US 14 years prior to election
  • Informal, many presidential candidates share
    several characteristics
  • Political or military experience
  • Political acceptability
  • Married
  • White male
  • Protestant
  • Northern European ancestry

65
Succession and Disability
  • The Constitution provides that if the President
    can no longer serve in office the Vice-President
    will carry out the powers and duties of the
    office
  • 25th Amendment
  • The Vice-President becomes President if the
    office of the president becomes vacant
  • The President will nominate a new Vice-President,
    with approval of a majority from both houses of
    Congress

66
Impeachment and Removal
  • The Constitution gives the House of
    Representatives the authority to bring charges
    against the President or Vice-President for
    Treason, Bribery, or other High Crimes and
    Misdemeanors.
  • Once charges are brought the Senate holds the
    trial. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
    presides over the trial
  • Conviction requires a 2/3 vote

67
Electoral College System
  • 12th Amendment
  • An electoral college elects the President and
    Vice-President separately
  • If a majority is not reached the House votes on
    the top 3 candidates for President and the Senate
    votes on the top 2 candidates for Vice-President

68
The Vice-Presidency
  • Presides over the Senate, casting tie-breaking
    votes
  • Help determine presidential disability under the
    25th Amendment and take over presidency if
    necessary
  • Has the same formal qualifications as the
    President

69
Presidential Powers
  • Executive powers
  • Enforces laws, treaties, and court decisions
  • Issues executive orders to carry out policies
  • Appoints officials, removes officials
  • Assumes emergency powers
  • Presides over cabinet and executive branch

70
Presidential Powers
  • Military powers
  • Serves as commander in chief
  • Has final decision making authority in matters of
    national and domestic defense
  • Provides for domestic order

71
Presidential Powers
  • Legislative Powers
  • Gives annual State of the Union message
  • Issues annual budget and economic reports
  • Signs or vetoes bills
  • Proposes and influences legislation
  • Calls for special sessions of Congress

72
Presidential Powers
  • Diplomatic Powers
  • Appoints ambassadors and other diplomats
  • Negotiates treaties and executive agreements
  • Meets with foreign leaders
  • Accords diplomatic recognition to foreign
    governments
  • Receives foreign dignitaries

73
Presidential Powers
  • Judicial Powers
  • Appoints members of the federal judiciary
  • Grants reprieves, pardons, and amnesty

74
Presidential Powers
  • Party Powers
  • Leader of the party
  • Chooses vice presidential nominee
  • Strengthens the party by helping members get
    elected (coattails)
  • Appoints party members to government positions
    (patronage)
  • Influences policies and platform of party

75
Limitations on Presidential Powers
  • Congressional Checks
  • Override presidential veto
  • Power of the purse
  • Power of impeachment
  • Approval powers over appointees
  • Legislation limiting the presidents power (War
    Powers Act)

76
Limitations on Presidential Powers
  • Judicial Checks
  • Judicial review of executive action
  • Political checks
  • Public opinion
  • Media attention
  • popularity

77
AP GovernmentReview
  • Chapter 14 The Bureaucracy

78
The Bureaucracy
  • A systematic way of organizing a complex and
    large administrative structure.
  • Hierarchical authority similar to a pyramid with
    the top having authority over those below
  • Job specialization each worker has defined
    duties and responsibilities, a division of labor
    among workers
  • Formal rules established regulations and
    procedures which must be followed

79
History and Growth
  • Beginnings standards for office included
    qualifications and political acceptability
  • Spoils system practice of giving offices and
    government favors to political supporters and
    friends
  • Reform movement competitive exams were tried and
    failed due to inadequate funding from Congress

80
History and Growth
  • Pendleton Act Civil Service Act of 1883,
    replaced the spoils system with a merit system
  • Hatch Act of 1939 prohibits government employees
    from engaging in political activities while on
    duty
  • Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 created the
    office of Personnel Management to recruit, train,
    and establish classifications and salaries for
    federal employed

81
Organization
  • The federal bureaucracy is divided into four
    basic types
  • Cabinet departments (15 executive departments)
  • Independent executive departments (NASA, Small
    Business Administration)
  • Independent regulatory agencies (Securities and
    Exchange Commission, Federal Reserve Board)
  • Government corporations (Tennessee Valley
    Authority, US Postal Service)

82
Influences on the Federal Bureaucracy
  • Executive influences appointing the right
    people, issuing executive orders, affecting the
    agencys budget
  • Congressional influences influencing
    appointments, affecting the agencys budget,
    holding hearings, rewriting legislation
  • Iron triangles alliances between bureaucratic
    agencies, congressional committees, and interest
    groups

83
Executive Office of the President
  • White House Office
  • National Security Council
  • Office of Management and Budget
  • Office of Faith Based and Community Initiatives
  • Office of National Drug Control Policy
  • Office of Policy Development
  • Council of economic Advisors
  • Office of US trade Representative

84
Executive Departments
  • State
  • Treasury
  • Defense
  • Interior
  • Justice
  • Agriculture
  • Commerce
  • Labor
  • Health and Human Services
  • Housing and Urban Development
  • Transportation
  • Energy
  • Education
  • Veterans affairs
  • Homeland Security

85
STOP
86
AP GovernmentReview
  • Chapter 16 Domestic and Economic Policy

87
Agenda-Setting
  • Recognizing an issue as a problem which must be
    addressed as a part of the political agenda.
  • Problems are brought to the political agenda by
  • Citizens
  • Interest groups
  • The Media
  • Government Entities

88
Domestic Policy
  • Health Care Medicare (elderly),
    Medicaid (poor), CDC, VA, FDA
  • Social Welfare Social Security, Housing
    Programs,unemployment
    benefits

89
Economic Policy
  • Federal Budget Proposed each year
    (fiscal year is October 1
    through September 30)
  • Proposals
  • Each federal agency must submit a budget request
    to the Office of Management and Budget.
  • The President submits a budget proposal to
    Congress based on the OMB
  • The Congress proposes its own budget based on the
    advise of the Congressional Budget Office

90
AP GovernmentReview
  • Chapter 15 The Judiciary

91
The Federal Court System
  • The US has a dual court system of courts-a
    federal court system and the court system of the
    50 states
  • Article III of the Constitution states that there
    shall be a Supreme Court and that Congress may
    establish a system of inferior courts

92
Jurisdiction
  • Original jurisdiction
  • Lower courts have the authority to hear cases for
    the first time.
  • District Court conducts trials, evidence is
    presented, and juries determine the outcome of
    the case
  • Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in cases
    involving representatives of a foreign
    government, and certain types of cases where a
    state is a party

93
Jurisdiction
  • Appellate jurisdiction
  • Courts that hear reviews or appeals of decisions
    from the lower courts
  • Court of Appeals
  • Supreme Court

94
Structure of the Judicial System
  • District Courts
  • Created by the Congress in the Judiciary Act of
    1789.
  • There are 94 District Courts
  • Decide civil and criminal cases

95
Structure of the Judicial System
  • Court of Appeals
  • Created by Congress in 1891
  • There are 13 US Court of Appeals
  • Decide appeals from the District Courts

96
Structure of the Judicial System
  • Supreme Court
  • Created by Article III of the Constitution
  • Most of its cases are appeals from the US Court
    of Appeals and State Supreme Courts
  • Has original and appellate jurisdiction

97
Judicial Selection
  • The President appoints all federal judges with
    confirmation from the US Senate
  • There are no formal qualifications
  • Serve a life term
  • Federal judges may be removed through impeachment

98
Supreme Court Selection
  • Presidents only make appointments to the Supreme
    Court if a vacancy occurs during their term of
    office
  • When making appointments, Presidents often
    consider
  • Party affiliation
  • Judicial philosophy
  • Race, gender, religion, region
  • Judicial experience
  • Political ideology
  • Acceptability

99
The Supreme Court at Work
  • The term of the Supreme Court begins on the first
    Monday in October and generally lasts until June
    or July of the following year.

100
Accepting Cases
  • Cases that are accepted must pass the rule of
    four four of the nine justices must agree to
    hear the case.
  • Writ of certiorari an order by the court
    directing the lower court to send up the records
    of a case for review
  • Certificate a lower court may ask the Supreme
    Court about a rule of law or procedures in
    specific cases

101
Briefs and Oral Arguments
  • Once a case reaches the Supreme Court, lawyers
    for each party to the case file a written brief
  • Written briefs include detailed statements of
    the facts of the case supported by relevant facts
    and citations from previous cases

102
Briefs and Oral Arguments
  • Interested parties may be invited to submit
    amicus briefs (friends of the court) supporting
    or rejecting arguments of the case
  • Oral arguments allow both sides 30 minutes to
    present their positions to the justices

103
Writing Opinions
  • Once the Supreme Court has made a decision in a
    case, the decision is explained in a written
    statement
  • Majority opinion a majority of the justices
    agree on the decision and its reasons
  • Concurring opinion a justice who agrees with the
    majority opinion but not the reasoning behind the
    decision

104
Writing Opinions
  • Dissenting opinion a justice or justices who
    disagree with the majority opinion
  • Majority opinions become precedent in deciding
    future cases

105
Judicial Activism
  • Holds that the court should play an active role
    in determining national policies
  • The philosophy advocates applying the
    Constitution to social and political questions

106
Judicial Restraint
  • Holds that the court should avoid taking the
    initiative on social and political questions.
  • Operating strictly within the limits of the
    Constitution

107
AP GovernmentReview
  • Chapter 4 Civil Liberties

108
Civil Liberties
  • Constitution
  • Writ of habeas corpus you must be brought before
    the court and informed of charges against you

109
Civil Liberties
  • Bill of Rights
  • Freedom of religion, speech, press, petition, and
    assembly
  • No unreasonable search and seizure
  • Protections against self-incrimination and double
    jeopardy
  • Protections in criminal procedures

110
Civil Liberties
  • 14th Amendment
  • Provided for the expansion of the Bill of Rights
    to the states and local governments
  • Incorporation
  • Legislation
  • Laws that set limits or boundaries on one
    persons rights over another person
  • Courts
  • Judicial review

111
Freedom of ReligionEstablishment Clause
  • Congress cannot
  • Establish a national religion
  • Favor one religion over another
  • Tax citizens to support any one religion

112
Freedom of ReligionEstablishment Clause
  • Please know the following Supreme Court cases
  • Engle v. Vitale
  • Lemon v. Kurtzman

113
Freedom of ReligionFree-Exercise Clause
  • Guarantees the right to practice any religion or
    no religion at all

114
Freedom of Speech
  • Pure Speech the most common form of speech,
    verbal speech
  • Symbolic Speech using actions or symbols to
    convey an idea
  • Speech Plus verbal and symbolic speech used
    together

115
Freedom of Speech
  • Know these cases
  • Schenck v. United States
  • Gitlow v. New York
  • Tinker v. Des Moines
  • Texas v. Johnson

116
Freedom of Assembly
  • The government is allowed to set limits on
    assembly to protect the rights and safety of
    others

117
Right to Privacy
  • The Constitution makes no mention of a right to
    privacy, however the Supreme Court has
    interpreted several rights that may fall under
    the category of privacy
  • Griswold v. Connecticut
  • Roe v. Wade

118
Fourth AmendmentSearch and Seizure
  • Know these cases
  • Mapp v. Ohio

119
Fifth AmendmentSelf-Incrimination
  • Know this case
  • Miranda v. Arizona

120
Sixth AmendmentRight to an Attorney
  • Know these cases
  • Gideon v. Wainwright

121
AP GovernmentReview
  • Chapter 5 6 Civil Rights

122
Civil Rights
  • Are the positive acts of government, designed to
    prevent discrimination and provide equality
    before the law
  • The Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment
    prevents the states from discriminating against
    citizens.

123
Civil Rights Movement
  • 13th Amendment abolished slavery
  • 14th Amendment defined citizenship and provided
    due process and equal protection
  • 15th Amendment provided that all males 21 and
    older could vote
  • 24th Amendment outlawed the poll tax in federal
    elections

124
Civil Rights Movement
  • Black codes state laws passed to keep freed
    slaves out of politics (literacy test, poll tax,
    registration tests)

125
Civil Rights Movement
  • Jim Crow Laws created segregation in schools,
    public transportation, and hotels
  • Plessy v. Ferguson separate but equal facilities
    are constitutional

126
Civil Rights Movement
  • Brown v. Board of Education overturned Plessy v.
    Ferguson, separate but equal is unconstitutional

127
Civil Rights Movement
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited
    discrimination in employment and in places of
    public accommodations
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed
    discriminatory tests in voter registration

128
The Womens Movement
  • 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote
  • Equal Pay Act of 1963 made it illegal to base a
    persons pay on their gender, race, religion, or
    national origin

129
People with Disabilities
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
    forbids employers from discriminating against
    people with disabilities

130
Affirmative Action
  • A policy designed to correct the effects of past
    discrimination.
  • University of California v. Bakke (1978) the
    court ruled that affirmative action was
    constitutional but that Bakke had been denied
    equal protection because the university used race
    as the sole criteria for admissions
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