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The Stormy Sixties 1960-1968

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Title: The Stormy Sixties 1960-1968


1
The Stormy Sixties 1960-1968
2
The Election of 1960
  • The election of 1960 ushered in a new era in
    American politics
  • Television found its place revolutionized
    politics
  • The mood of the country was restless in 1960
  • Sputnik, Communism in Cuba, a perceived missile
    gap had Americans questioning whether the U.S.
    was losing the Cold War
  • The Democrats nominate Massachusetts senator John
    Fitzgerald Kennedy the Republicans nominate
    Vice-President Richard Nixon
  • Many voters questioned whether Kennedy at 43 was
    too inexperienced were worried about having a
    Roman Catholic in the White House
  • Afraid that his faith would bring the Pope into
    American politics
  • Instead of dodging the issue Kennedy openly
    addressed it by doing so he made it not an
    issue
  • On Sept. 26, 1960 Kennedy Nixon squared off in
    the first ever televised presidential debate

3
The Debate
  • 70 million viewers tuned in with
  • millions more listening on radio
  • Nixon an expert on foreign policy had hoped to
    expose Kennedys inexperience
  • Kennedy had been coached by television producers,
    wore make-up, was tan and seemed more confident
    than did Nixon who had just gotten over the flu
    wore no make-up
  • In post-debate polls radio listeners said that
    Nixon won the debate but when television viewers
    were polled they said that Kennedy had won the
  • debate

4
Kennedy and Civil Rights
  • The second major event of the campaign took place
    in October
  • Police in Atlanta, Georgia arrested civil rights
    leader Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 33
    other African-American demonstrators for sitting
    at a segregated lunch counter
  • The demonstrators were released but King was
    sentenced to months of hard labor supposedly for
    a minor traffic violation
  • Pres. Eisenhower refused to intervene so VP
    Nixon took no public stance on the issue
  • Senator John Kennedy telephoned Kings wife
    Coretta Scott King to express his sympathy while
    JFKs brother Robert Kennedy persuaded the judge
    to release King on bail
  • This news traveled fast in the African-American
    community secured many votes for Kennedy that
    would be crucial in the tight election

Martin Luther King Jr.
Coretta Scott King
5
The Election
  • The election of Nov. 1960 was the closest since
    1884
  • Senator Kennedy won by fewer than 119,000 votes
  • There were many close states debatable results
  • Many believe that Mayor Daley of Chicago used his
    mafia connections to fix the elections in that
    city swung the state of Illinois in favor of
    Kennedy, sealing the election
  • Despite these mysterious events Vice-President
    Nixon choose not to drag it out by asking for a
    recount
  • Senator Kennedy became the President of the
    United States

6
(No Transcript)
7
John Fitzgerald Kennedy
8
John Fitzgerald Kennedy
  • JFK becomes the youngest man ever
  • elected to the White House
  • Born into a wealthy Irish-Catholic family
  • Dad was a well known businessman
  • Educated at Harvard
  • Served in the Navy in WWII
  • Married with 2 kids
  • Kennedy challenged Americans to face the future
    with confidence
  • In his inaugural address he set the tone for his
    policies
  • Domestically ask not what your country can do
    for you but what you can do for your country
  • Foreign Policy We will pay any price, bear any
    burden, meet any hardship, support any friend,
    oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival
    and success of liberty

Left JFK with Jackie Below a young JFK aboard
PT 109 during World War II
9
The New Frontier 1961-1963
  • JFKs policies and programs were called the New
    Frontier
  • Kennedy surrounds himself with the best and the
    brightest
  • Advisors from Ivy League schools (Harvard, Yale,
    Princeton, MIT) who became known as the Wiz
    Kids because most were young
  • Robert McNamara (Sec. of Defense) President of
    Ford Motor Co.
  • Dean Rusk (Sec. of State) President of the
    Rockefeller foundation
  • Robert Kennedy (Attorney General)
  • McGeorge Bundy (National Security Advisor) a
    Harvard dean
  • One of JFKs first programs was the Peace Corps
  • Young eager volunteers sent overseas to poor
    nations to help
  • They attempted to win the hearts and minds of
    poor nations away from the communists
  • Most of Kennedys presidency however was defined
    by Foreign Policy and the Cold War

Sec. of Defense Robert McNamara
Attorney General Robert Kennedy
10
The Camelot Years 1961-1963
Pres. Kennedy with son John Jr.
President Kennedy with his daughter Caroline
11
Camelot
  • The Kennedy family fascinated the public more
    than any other first family
  • They were young energetic with a young family
    unlike many prior presidents
  • Kennedy was one of the first presidents to appear
    regularly on television
  • The Kennedys entertained many famous guests from
    Hollywood, sports, etc
  • Newspapers and magazines filled with stories
    pictures of President Kennedys daughter Caroline
    infant son John
  • Jackie became the national fashion queen women
    tried to imitate her style
  • Jackie spent much of her time renovating
    decorating the White House
  • With JFKs glamour young advisors it reminded
    people of a modern day version of Camelot, the
    mythical court of King Arthur

12
Kennedys transgressions
  • Despite the public image of Camelot, in the
    Kennedy household all was not well
  • Pres. Kennedy who had been injured in WWII had
    a notoriously bad back, took an assortment of
    drugs, steroids pain killers to cope
  • The Kennedy family had many connections including
    many Hollywood celebrities such as Frank Sinatra,
    Peter Lawford (Kennedys brother-in-law), etc
  • John F. Kennedy whose sex drive was believed to
    be heightened by the steroids drugs he was
    taking often used these connections to meet many
    actresses
  • Kennedy had many one night stands a few affairs
    during his marriage to Jackie
  • The most famous of these affairs was with famous
    actress model Marilynn Monroe

13
Marilyn Monroe
  • Marilyn Monroe became the blonde American
    bombshell of the 50s 60s
  • She married one of her producers but was most
    famous for her later marriage to retired baseball
    legend and American icon Joe DiMaggio
  • After a very brief marriage Monroe DiMaggio
    divorced
  • After being introduced to
  • John Kennedy she and JFK
  • had a brief affair before
  • Kennedy called it off to
  • avoid a public scandal

14
J. Edgar Hoover the FBI
  • J. Edgar Hoover was the head of the Federal
    Bureau of
  • Investigation carried a great deal of power
    with that
  • position
  • Hoover despised the Kennedys especially JFKs
    brother Robert
  • who as the Attorney General dealt a great deal
    with Hoover
  • Hoover had been accustomed to having a great deal
    of influence
  • over Attorney Generals
  • RFKs relationship with his brother forced Hoover
    to lose power
  • Robert Kennedy also was involved in the vigorous
    campaign against organized crime that reached all
    the way to Jimmy Hoffa the leader of the
    Teamsters Union
  • Hoover the FBI had fostered a relationship with
    some of organized crime in order to fight other
    crimes
  • Hoover did wield some power over the Kennedys
  • His FBI files included embarrassing information
    about Kennedys transgressions
  • This information caused Kennedy to give in to
    Hoovers pressure allowed the FBI to put
    illegal wire taps on Martin Luther Kings phones

J. Edgar Hoover
15
Flexible Response
  • During his presidential campaign JFK had attacked
    the Eisenhower administration for not doing
    enough about the Soviet threat
  • The Soviets were gaining loyalties with
    less-developed third world countries in Asia,
    Africa, Latin America
  • The U.S. policy under Eisenhower was known as
    Massive Retaliation
  • This policy called for the U.S. to use the threat
    of nuclear weapons to deter communist aggression
  • President Kennedy changed the U.S. policy to
    that of Flexible Response
  • Flexible Response called for the U.S. to respond
    to communist aggression based upon the level of
    the aggression
  • Allowed the U.S. to use conventional forces to
    avoid nuclear war
  • Kennedy then increased defense spending in order
    to boost conventional military forces (troops,
    ships, artillery, air force) created the
    Special Forces (Green Berets)
  • Kennedy also tripled the nuclear capabilities of
    the U.S.

16
The Berlin Wall
  • In 1961 Berlin was in great turmoil
  • In the 11 years since the Berlin Airlift 3
    million East Germans
  • (20 of their population) had fled to West
    Berlin to free
  • themselves of Communism
  • These defections were publicly humiliating to the
    communists
  • was also seriously hurting their economy
  • The Soviets wanted Berlin all to themselves but
    realized that the U.S. would not give it up so
    Khrushchev threatened to once again close off all
    access roads to West Berlin
  • President Kennedy refused to give up U.S. access
    prompting Khrushchev to angrily declare that I
    want peace. But, if you want war, that is your
    problem
  • Pres. Kennedy returned to the U.S. made a
    public speech declaring that Berlin was the
    great testing place of Western courage will he
    pledged We cannot and will not permit the
    Communists to drive us out of Berlin
  • Kennedy also in his speech hinted that the U.S.
    would permit a wall to be built by the Soviets
  • Better a wall than a war

17
The Berlin Wall
18
The Berlin Wall
  • Kennedys determination Americas superior
    nuclear power prevented Khrushchev from closing
    air land routes
  • Khrushchev instead began constructing a wall just
    after midnight on August 13, 1961
  • East German troops began unloading concrete posts
    rolls of barbed wire separating East Berlin
    from West Berlin
  • Over the years the wall became more elaborate
    in many places concrete replaced barbed wire
  • Armed sentries patrolled the fence to prevent
    people from defecting
  • The Wall severely limited the number of East
    Germans defecting to the West
  • It became a symbol of communist oppression

19
Brandenburg Gate
20
Ich bin ein Berliner
  • In an attempt to solidify relations with West
    Germany prove that the U.S. had no intention of
    abandoning them President Kennedy made a trip to
    West Berlin
  • He his wife Jackie were extremely well received
    on this Europe wide tour
  • In a famous address JFK announced to a jubilant
    crowd that Ich bin ein Berliner meaning I am a
    Berliner

21
Cuba
  • President Eisenhower had cut off diplomatic
    relations with Cuba in late 1960 because their
    new leader Fidel Castro was a self proclaimed
    communist welcomed aid from the Soviet Union
  • Eisenhower also began to assemble Cuban Exiles
    for a possible overthrow of Castros regime
  • In March of 1960 Pres.
  • Eisenhower gave the CIA
  • permission to secretly train
  • these exiles for an invasion
  • of Cuba

22
The Bay of Pigs
  • President Kennedy learned of this plan only 9
    days after his election
  • Reluctantly Kennedy approved this plan
  • On April 17, 1961 approximately 1,300-1,500
    Cuban exiles landed on the islands southern coast
    at Bahia de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs)
  • The attack went poorly from the beginning
  • An air strike failed to knock out the Cuban air
    force, a small diversionary force failed to land
  • When the main force landed it faced 25,000 Cuban
    troops backed by Soviet tanks jet aircrafts
  • Thousands of Cuban nationalists were slaughtered
    the rest imprisoned
  • Cubans sensationalized the defeat of the North
    American mercenaries
  • One United States commentator observed that
  • Americans look like fools to our friends,
    rascals to
  • our enemies, and incompetents to every one else
  • President Kennedy publicly accepted blame for the
  • event but privately blamed the CIA and the
    Pentagon
  • Kennedy negotiated the release of the surviving
  • commandos and paid a ransom of 53 million in
  • food and medical supplies

23
The Cuban Missile Crisis
  • By 1962 Castro had firmly allied himself with
    Moscow Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev
  • The Soviet Union began sending nuclear weapons to
    defend Cuba
  • On October 14 of 1962
  • the U.S. became aware of
  • this when a U2 spy plane
  • photographed missile sites
  • in Cuba
  • From Cuba these missiles
  • could reach Wash. D.C. in
  • 10 minutes

24
The Cuban Missile Crisis
25
The Cuban Missile Crisis
  • On Oct. 22, 1962 President Kennedy announced to
  • the nation the existence of Soviet missile sites
    in Cuba
  • He made it clear that any missile attack from
    Cuba
  • would trigger an all out attack on the Soviet
    Union
  • For the next 6 days the world would be at the
    brink
  • of nuclear war
  • Kennedy had to make a decision on how the U.S.
  • should react to this event without starting WW 3
  • The U.S. couldnt allow the weapons to stay in
    Cuba
  • had a limited amount of time to get them out
    before they could become operational
  • U.S. could launch a full scale invasion of Cuba
    prompt the Soviet Union to invade Berlin starting
    WWIII
  • The U.S. could try to negotiate with the U.S.S.R.
    for a removal but the Soviets would only stall
    till the missiles were operational
  • U.S. could launch air strikes destroy the
    sights they knew about risking leaving unknown
    sites risking nuclear war the Soviets could
    install more sites

26
Possible Invasion
27
Quarantine
  • While the U.S. figured out this dilemma they
    instituted a quarantine of Cuba
  • This was basically a blockade of Cuba but under
    international law a blockade of another nation
    was an act of war so they simply called it
    something else to sound better in world opinion
  • Soviet ships carrying more missiles to Cuba were
    stopped 500 miles away from Cuba
  • In Florida the U.S. began to assemble an invasion
    fleet of 100,000 troops
  • The first Soviet ships were steaming towards the
    quarantine line with no indication of stopping
  • In a high seas game of chicken the Soviet ship
    was protected by a Soviet submarine heading
    toward the line
  • The U.S. fired a warning shot over the ship at
    the last second the ship suddenly stopped
    turned around, avoiding a conflict at sea
  • Sec. of State Dean Rusk said We are eyeball to
    eyeball, and the other fellow just blinked

28
The United Nations
  • Throughout the Crisis the U.S. had been pleading
    their case in the UN
  • As U.S. Ambassador Adlai Stevenson lobbied, the
    Soviet Ambassador ignored the charges
  • Finally Stevenson pressed the Soviets forced
    them to deny the charges that such missile sites
    existed
  • Stevenson then produced evidence of the missiles
    sights to the world the amazement of the
    bewildered Soviet ambassador
  • Public opinion favors the U.S.

Above Below UN Rep Adlai Stevenson producing
visual evidence of the existence of the missile
sites
29
Back channel dealings
  • As Pres. Kennedy agonized over what to do a local
  • reporter approached Kennedy when one of his
    sources
  • had contacted him with a proposed deal from
    Premier
  • Khrushchev
  • In this deal Premier Khrushchev offered to remove
  • the missiles in return for an American pledge
    not to
  • invade Cuba and the removal of missiles from
    Turkey
  • Pres. Kennedy his staff had to figure out if
    these back
  • channel negotiations were legitimate
  • A day later an official telegram from Moscow
    offered a
  • similar proposal but with harsher demands in
    Turkey
  • Pres. Kennedys dilemma lied in the fact that if
    he publicly
  • agreed to these demands removed the missiles
    from Turkey
  • he would be seen as abandoning his allies in
    exchange for U.S. security
  • The Joint Chiefs of Staff (Army, Navy, Marines,
    Air Force) pushed for full scale military effort
    against Cuba
  • During this time the U.S. made low level flights
    over Cuba to get a better idea as to the state of
    readiness of the missiles
  • These flights were dangerous b/c the Soviets were
    trying to shoot them down any incident could
    insight WW3
  • During the last of these flights an American was
    shot down killed

Low level flight photo of the missile site taken
by Commander Ecker
30
The Brink
  • Finally President Kennedy decided to
  • accept the Soviets first offer ignore the
  • second offer
  • He sent his brother Attorney General
  • Robert Kennedy to meet with the Soviet
  • Ambassador to try to reach an agreement
  • The U.S. agreed to the pledge not to invade Cuba
    again promised to remove the missiles (which
    were out of date anyway) from Turkey at a later
    date
  • the second part of this agreement was to be kept
    secret any mention of the agreement by the
    Soviets would negate the deal
  • The Soviets reluctantly agreed

Attorney General Robert Kennedy
31
The Aftermath
  • The Crisis severely damaged Khrushchevs prestige
    in the Soviet Union the world
  • Pres. Kennedy received heat as well
  • Opinion varied over the event the crisis coupled
    with the fiasco of the Bay of Pigs, some people
    doubted Kennedys ability in foreign policy yet
    others pointed to this as an example of success
    in foreign policy
  • Some were upset that Kennedy didnt use this
    opportunity to drive communism out of Cuba
  • Regardless of public opinion the world had been
    to the brink of nuclear war not fell over the
    edge
  • Any mistake by the thousands of humans that made
    decisions during the two weeks of this crisis
    could have set in motion a nuclear war

32
Cuban Missile Crisis
33
Hot Line
  • After the seriousness of the Cuban Missile Crisis
    both Kennedy Khrushchev understood that only
    split-second decisions separated the world from
    nuclear disaster
  • In 1963 the two world leaders decided to
    establish a hot line between the White House
    the Kremlin to allow the two countries to
    communicate directly with each other in case of
    another such crisis
  • Also in 1963 the U.S. the U.S.S.R. agreed to a
    Limited Test Ban Treaty that barred nuclear
    testing in the atmosphere
  • To prevent nuclear fallout from traveling around
    the globe

Above Below Kennedy w/ Khrushchev
Above Kennedy meeting w/ Soviet ambassador
34
The New Frontier
  • With Kennedys youth vigor he inspired hope
    energy into the country
  • In his inauguration he stated that We stand
    today at the edge of a New Frontier he called
    Americans to be new pioneers and to explore
    uncharted areas of science and space,
    unconquered pockets of ignorance and prejudice,
    unanswered questions of poverty and surplus
  • Despite these ideals Pres. Kennedy struggled to
    get new program proposals through a conservative
    Republican Southern Democratic congress
    (medical care for the aged, aid education, etc)
  • Kennedy forever the politician tried to play it
    safe politically but was able to get funding for
    defense, the space program, international aid
  • As part of his deficit spending package Kennedy
    was also able to increase the minimum wage to
    1.25 an hour extend unemployment insurance

35
The Peace Corps
  • In 1961 Pres. Kennedy fulfilled his first
    campaign promise when he established the Peace
    Corps, an organization to provide volunteers to
    help in impoverished nations of Asia, Africa,
    Latin America to win the hearts minds of
    those people as to prevent the communist
    influence there
  • Most volunteers for the Peace Corps were just out
    of college worked as teachers, agricultural
    advisors, health aides in these countries
  • By 1968 over 35,000 volunteers had served in 60
    nations
  • The Alliance for Progress offered economic
    technical assistance to Latin American countries
  • From 1961 to 1969 the U.S. invested 12 billion
    in L. America to prevent another Cuba from
    invading the Western hemisphere

36
Race to the Moon
  • On April 12, 1961 Soviet cosmonaut
  • Yuri A. Gagarin became the first human
  • in space
  • Less than a month later the U.S. duplicated
  • the feat
  • Next the U.S. launched a communications
  • satellite called Telstar that could relay live
  • television pictures across the Atlantic ocean
  • The U.S. had begun construction on new
  • NASA facilities on Cape Canaveral, Florida
  • a mission control center in Houston, Texas
  • 7 years later the space program would pay off
    when on July 20, 1969 U.S. astronaut Neil
    Armstrong landed on the surface of the moon
  • The Space industry provided billions of dollars
    to American business industry
  • Research done by this industry also provided the
    American public with many new consumer goods

Pres. Kennedy with astronaut John Glenn
37
Poverty in America
  • While was spent on the space program on
    international aid many people lived in poverty
  • This problem was brought to the attention of
    America when Michael Harrington wrote the book
    The Other America which profiled the 50 million
    Americans that lived on less than 1,000 a person
  • Most Americans were shocked at the large number
    of people in poverty
  • Kennedy had spent much of the first two years of
    his presidency on foreign policy now with the
    election nearing he began to spend more time on
    domestic issues
  • Kennedy began a national assault on the causes
    of poverty had his brother Robert Kennedy
    (Attorney General) begin to investigate racial
    injustices in the South presented Congress with
    a new civil rights bill and a proposed 10
    billion dollar tax cut

Above JFK meeting with Martin Luther King
Jr. Below JFK giving his State of the Union
address
38
Civil Rights in America
39
Civil Rights in America
  • In the United States in the 1960s segregation
    was the law of the land
  • State sanctioned discrimination had perpetuated
    hate racial bigotry in the south since the end
    of reconstruction
  • Businesses, restaurants, water fountains, public
    transportation, movie theaters, schools were all
    segregated into black white
  • Jim Crow laws such as literacy tests, poll taxes,
    basic discrimination had prevented millions of
    African-Americans from not only voting but even
    registering to vote in the south
  • The years of discrimination repression of
    opportunities had forced the overwhelming number
    of African-Americans into a state of poverty
    despair
  • Being treated as inferior and having unequal
    education and being denied access to jobs
    resources had kept most A-A from advancing
    financially in the south

40
Civil Rights
  • As part of the non-violence movement in February
    of 1960 the SNCC (Student Non-Violence
    Coordinating Committee) organized
    African-American students from North Carolinas
    Agricultural and Technical College to stage a
    sit-in at a whites only lunch counter at a
    Woolworths store in Greensboro
  • These sit ins were covered on television
    suddenly the whole country was able to see the
    realities of racism in America
  • Day after day news reporters captured the scenes
    of beatings, verbal abuse, humiliation of food
    being
  • dumped on students who refused to fight back
  • As more people became aware of the issue
  • more sit-ins were organized even in the north
  • Stores removed counter seats, raised the price
  • of food, brought in the police but nothing
  • worked

Above Woolworth store Below Sit-in at the white
only lunch counter
41
Sit-Ins
42
Freedom Riders
  • In 1961 a groups of civil rights activists (white
    black) decided to draw attention to the
    failures of the Supreme Court decision that
    banned segregation on all interstate buses bus
    terminals
  • They planned a two bus trip that would test this
    law
  • The first bus ran into violence at the Alabama
    line when it was stopped by white racists
    carrying chains, brass knuckles, clubs
  • The riders were brutally beaten but carried on to
    Birmingham
  • The second bus ran into trouble in Anniston,
    Alabama when 200 angry whites attacked it
  • The mob followed the bus out of town and blew one
    of the tires out of the bus
  • They smashed the windows and tossed a fire
  • bomb into it
  • The freedom riders escaped just moments
  • before the bus exploded
  • The bus company refused to take the
  • freedom riders any farther
  • A group of SNCC volunteers in Nashville
  • decided to pick up were the others stopped
  • rode into Birmingham again

43
Freedom Riders
  • When this new band of Freedom Riders
  • entered Birmingham policemen pulled
  • them from the bus, beat them, drove
  • them back to Tennessee
  • The riders returned to their bus in
  • Birmingham but the driver refused to
  • transport them
  • The riders then occupied the whites only
  • waiting room for 18 hours until Attorney General
  • Robert Kennedy convinced the bus company to
    transport them
  • The Freedom Riders then continued on to
    Montgomery
  • Alabama officials promised RFK that the riders
    would be protected
  • However when they arrived they were greeted by a
    mob of angry whites only carrying bats lead
    pipes
  • John Doer a Justice Department official was with
    them in Montgomery witnessed the beatings,
    being beaten himself

Bloodied Freedom Riders
44
Freedom Riders
  • The violence provoked the response the freedom
    riders wanted
  • Newspapers around the nation and abroad denounced
    the beatings
  • President Kennedy arranged to give the freedom
    riders direct support
  • The Justice Department sent 400 U.S. marshals to
    protect the riders for the rest of their journey
    to Jackson, Mississippi
  • As a result of all this the Interstate Commerce
    Commission banned segregation in all interstate
    travel facilities, including waiting rooms,
    restrooms, and lunch counters

45
Civil Rights
  • In September of 1962 Air Force veteran James
    Meredith won a federal court case that allowed
    him to enroll in the all-white University of
    Mississippi (Ole Miss)
  • When Meredith arrived on campus, Mississippi Gov.
    Ross Barnett refused to allow him to register as
    a student
  • Pres. Kennedy ordered federal marshals to escort
    Meredith
  • Gov. Barnett made a radio address that called for
    every Mississippian to keep his faith and
    courage. We will never surrender.
  • White demonstrators showed up by the thousands
  • On Sept. 30 riots broke out on campus resulting
    in 2 deaths
  • It took thousands of soldiers 15 hours to stop
    the rioters
  • In the next several months federal officials
    accompanied Meredith to class protected his
    family whose house was shot at

Federal officials escorting James Meredith at Ole
Miss
46
Birmingham
  • In the 1960s Birmingham, Alabama was the most
    segregated city in America
  • Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth felt that it would be the
    perfect place to make a stand test non-violence
  • On April 12, 1963 Martin Luther King was
    arresting during a demonstration
  • While in jail king wrote a famous open letter
    titled Letter from a Birmingham Jail
  • I guess it is easy for those who have never felt
    the stinging
  • darts of segregation to say, Wait. But when
    you have
  • seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers
    at whim
  • when you have seen hate-filled policemen curse,
    kick,
  • brutalize and even kill your black brothers and
    sisters
  • when you see the vast majority of your twenty
    million
  • Negro brothers smothering in the air-tight cage
    of poverty
  • when you have to concoct an answer for a
    five-year-old
  • son askingDaddy, why do white people treat
    colored
  • people so mean?then you will understand why we
    find
  • it difficult to wait.

Above MLK with family
47
Birmingham
  • On April 20, King posted bail began planning
    more demonstrations
  • On May 2 more than a thousand African-American
    children marched in Birmingham
  • Police commissioner Eugene Bull Connor arrested
    959 of them
  • The next day a second demonstration came head to
    head with helmeted police force
  • Police swept marchers off their feet w/ high
    pressure fire hoses, set attack dogs on them,
    clubbed those who fell
  • TV cameras captured all of it
  • Continued protests, economic boycotts, and
  • negative media coverage finally convinced
  • Birmingham officials to end segregation
  • These actions finally convinced President Kennedy
  • that only a new civil rights act could end
    racial
  • violence

Above Attack dogs in Birmingham
Birmingham Police commissioner Bull Connor
stopping protesters
48
Kennedy takes a stand
  • On June 11, 1963 President Kennedy sent troops
  • to force Alabama Governor George Wallace to
  • honor a court order to desegregate the Univ. of
  • Alabama
  • That evening Kennedy address the nation asked
  • Are we to say to the world and much more
    importantly
  • to each other that this is the land of the
    free, except for the
  • Negroes?
  • Kennedy demanded that Congress pass a civil
    rights bill
  • In the hours just after Kennedys speech a sniper
    murdered
  • Medgar Evers, the NAACP field secretary and WWII
    veteran.
  • Police arrested white supremacist Byron de la
    Beckwith
  • Beckwith was released after two trials resulted
    in hung juries
  • This decision resulted in a new militancy
    movement in African Americans
  • Many began to demand Freedom Now!

49
The March on Washington
50
The March on Washington
  • On August 28, 1963 more than 250,000 people
    including 75,000 whites converged on the nations
    capital to persuade Congress to pass the current
    Civil Rights bill
  • They assembled on the grassy lawn of the
    Washington Monument marched to the Lincoln
    Memorial
  • A host of speakers demand the passage
  • of the bill
  • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. appeared
  • gave his famous I have a Dream speech which
    appealed for racial harmony peace

51
More Violence
  • Two weeks after the March on Washington four
    Birmingham girls were killed when a rider in a
    car hurled a bomb through a church window blew
    up the church
  • Two more African-Americans died in the civil
    unrest that followed
  • By the mid 1960s organizations such as the KKK
    and the White Citizens League became more
    violent and more active

Above KKK soliciting in downtown Atlanta Below
Freedom march in Seattle
52
Four Days in November
  • On November 22, 1963 Air Force One
  • landed in Dallas, Texas
  • President Mrs. Kennedy Vice President Johnson
    had come to Texas to smooth over Democrats there
    in preparation for the 1964 election
  • Pres. Kennedy made an appearance in
  • Fort Worth before going to Dallas
  • President Kennedy received a warm welcome upon
    arrival as crowds lined the streets of downtown
    Dallas to see him
  • Jacqueline JFK sat in the back of an open air
    limousine while Governor John Connally his wife
    sat in front

Above Pres. Kennedy speaking at Fort
Worth Below Pres. Mrs. Kennedy arriving in
Dallas
53
Dealey Plaza
54
Four Days in November
  • As the motorcade approached the state building
    known as the Texas School Book Depository Mrs.
    Connally turned to Pres. Kennedy
  • remarked You cant say that Dallas isnt
    friendly to you today.
  • A few seconds later shots rang out

Above Pres. Kennedys motorcade in Dallas Below
Crowd of school children lining the streets
55
Assassination
  • The first shot seemingly went over the motorcade
  • Next a bullet struck Kennedy in the neck
    prompting him to lurch forward grasping at his
    neck
  • Governor Connally hearing the shots looked back
    over his shoulder
  • Gov. Connally was struck by the same bullet that
    had just hit Pres. Kennedy in the neck
  • The next shot seemingly from in front of the
    motorcade hit Pres. Kennedy in the head, fatally
    wounding him
  • Jackie Kennedy then climbed onto the back of the
    Presidential limo either trying to retrieve some
    brain matter from JFK or trying to escape the
    shooting
  • The motorcade raced to the hospital but Kennedy
    was dead on arrival despite several attempts to
    revive him

Above Polaroid of Kennedy after the first hit in
the neck Below Presidential motorcade racing
away
56
The Aftermath
  • Bedlam ensued after the assassination police
    raced to find witnesses people were left in
    shock disbelief
  • Much of the commotion was directed at the grassy
    knoll that was directly beside the Presidential
    motorcade when President Kennedy was hit
  • Several famous photographs
  • were made of the assassination
  • Most notable of these was a home movie taken from
    behind the
  • grassy knoll by Abraham Zapruder

57
Assassination
58
The Aftermath
  • For the next four days television provided almost
    around the clock coverage of the assassination
    the investigation the apprehension of the
    murderer
  • Vice President Lyndon Johnson taking the oath of
    office aboard Air Force One with Jackie at his
    side was televised
  • The Presidents body was loaded aboard Air Force
    One sent with President Johnson back to
    Washington for an autopsy
  • Soon, audiences watched as Dallas police charged
    Lee Harvey Oswald with the murder of a local
    police officer the President

Above Pres. Johnson being sworn in aboard Air
Force 1 Below Pres. Kennedys casket being
loaded aboard AF1
59
Four Days in November
  • Dallas police rushed to find clues and witnesses
  • Police checked both the School Book Depository as
    well as the grassy knoll
  • Although there were no eyewitnesses of his direct
    involvement the investigation immediately
    surrounded around a man named Lee Harvey Oswald

Above Oswald being transfer between
floors Below Dealey Plaza in Dallas
Below Oswald at a press conference after he was
charged with the assassination of President
Kennedy
60
Lee Harvey Oswald
?Lee Harvey Oswald while in the Soviet Union
Lee Harvey Oswald while in New Orleans ?
  • Oswald was a 24 year old ex-Marine that had been
    dishonorable discharged
  • After his discharge Oswald lived for a brief time
    in the Soviet Union became a supporter of
    Castro
  • Some believe that Oswald was a U.S. CIA agent
    that was the reason for his Soviet ties
    pro-Castro activity
  • Oswalds palm print was found on the rifle in the
    School Book Depository building
  • Oswald himself was seen on the first floor of the
    building drinking a pop moments after the
    shooting
  • Some doubt that he could have stashed the gun
    across the room traveled down 7 flights of
    stairs in the time between the shots police
    officers entering the building
  • Oswald was apprehended in a Dallas movie theater
    hours after the assassination when he entered
    without paying
  • Oswald was charged with shooting Officer Tippet a
    Dallas Police officer later with the shooting
    of President Kennedy

61
Oswalds killed
62
Oswalds killed
63
Jack Ruby
  • On Sunday November 24 as millions watched on TV
    Oswald was to be transferred from Dallas city
    jail to a more secure location
  • Live on television a nightclub owner from New
    Orleans with Mafia ties broke through the crowd
    shot Oswald fatally wounding him
  • Ruby said that he just wanted to spare Jacqueline
    Kennedy from having to go through a trial
  • Many people dispute this
  • simplistic reason and ask
  • how Ruby was able to get
  • into the guarded secure
  • basement in the first place
  • Ruby would ask later to be
  • brought to Washington to
  • tell his story but was never
  • allowed to died of a disease
  • in prison

Above Ruby at his N.O. Nightclub Below Oswald
moments before his shot
Above Jack Ruby at a press conference before
Oswalds transfer
64
Conspiracy
  • The magnitude of the event left many people
    wondering why
  • The country was in shock
  • All work stopped for the televised funeral of
    President Kennedy as the nation mourned
  • Many eye witnesses claimed to have heard gunshots
    from a grassy knoll area in front of the
    motorcade believed that a second shooter was
    involved
  • The possibility of a second shooter sparked
    conspiracy theories
  • Many other bizarre events also fed fire to these
    thoughts
  • Oswalds questionable past
  • The unlikely hood of 3 shots being able to have
    done all the damage
  • Mysterious police actions
  • Suppression of some witnesses
  • The Zapruder film
  • Jack Ruby with mob ties shooting Oswald
  • In the turmoil filled 60s there were many groups
    to
  • suspect of conspiracy such as the Communists,
    Organized Crime (Mob), pro-Castro forces, some
    even suspected the
  • CIA the American govt, especially the
    military
  • establishment that did not like Kennedy,
    especially after
  • the Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedys planned
    withdraw
  • from Vietnam

Above Kennedys body in the capitol Below
Kennedys funeral procession
65
The Warren Commission
  • In 1963 the Warren Commission was created to
    investigate the Kennedy assassination
  • This was a congressional committee headed by
    Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren that also
    included such members as future President Gerald
    Ford
  • Many witnesses were not allowed to testify for
    the Warren Commission and not all of the
    available evidence was given
  • Much of the commissions time was spent on
    proving Oswald guilt alone no true
    investigation to a possibility of a conspiracy
    existed
  • The Magic Bullet theory arose when the commission
    concluded that only three shots were fired from
    the School Book Depository Building
  • They agreed that one of the shots missed, leaving
    only two to injure both Pres. Kennedy and
    Governor Connally and one for the fatal head
    wound
  • This magic bullet supposedly entered Pres.
    Kennedy in the back, exited hit Gov. Connally
    in the shoulder, exited, hit Connally on the
    wrist, then lodged itself in his leg changing
    directions several times
  • Another bullet supposedly from the head wound was
    found on the Presidents stretcher
  • The Warren Commission concluded that Oswald had
    been acting alone

Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren
Congressman Future President Gerald Ford
66
Magic Bullet
67
Weird Assassination Facts
  • Abraham Lincoln was elected to Congress in 1846.
    John F. Kennedy was elected to Congress in 1946.
  • Abraham Lincoln was elected President in 1860.
    John F. Kennedy was elected President in 1960.
  • Both were particularly concerned with civil
    rights. Both wives lost their children while
    living in the White House.
  • Both Presidents were shot on a Friday. Both
    Presidents were shot in the head.
  • Lincoln 's secretary was named Kennedy.
    Kennedy's Secretary was named Lincoln.
  • Both were assassinated by Southerners. Both were
    succeeded by Southerners named Johnson
  • Andrew Johnson, who succeeded Lincoln, was born
    in 1808. Lyndon Johnson, who succeeded Kennedy,
    was born in 1908.

68
Weird Assassination Facts
  • John Wilkes Booth, who assassinated Lincoln, was
    born in 1839. Lee Harvey Oswald, who
    assassinated Kennedy, was born in 1939.  
  • Both assassins were known by their three names.
    Both names are composed of fifteen letters.
  • Lincoln was shot at the theater named 'Ford.'
    Kennedy was shot in a car called ' Lincoln' made
    by 'Ford.'
  • Lincoln was shot in a theater and his assassin
    ran and hid in a warehouse. Kennedy was shot
    from a warehouse and his assassin ran and hid in
    a theater.
  • Booth and Oswald were assassinated before their
    trials.

69
Lyndon Baines Johnson
  • Born a fourth generation Texan to a low middle
    class family
  • Worked one year in a minority school in Cotulla,
    Texas to finance
  • his education from South West Texas State
    Teachers College
  • Became a public speaking debate teacher in 1930
    and taught in Sam Houston High School in Houston,
    Texas
  • At age 26 he began the state director of the
    National Youth Administration
  • LBJ entered politics in 1937 to fill a vacancy in
    the U.S. House of Representatives
  • In congress Johnson caught the eye of Pres.
    Roosevelt who helped him to secure key committee
    assignments
  • In 1948 Johnson won the Democratic primary for
    Senate by a margin of 87 votes out of 988,000 he
    went on to win the general election
  • Johnson proved to be a masterful politician and
    rose to the rank of Senate Majority leader in
    1955 ? youngest majority leader ever at 46
  • He was the driving force behind the Civil Rights
    Bill of 1957

70
The Great Society
  • Johnson began his presidency by
  • urging congress to pass the civil
  • rights tax-cut bills that Pres.
  • Kennedy had sent to Capitol hill
  • In February 1964 Congress passed a
  • tax reduction bill of 10 billion dollars
  • which spurred economic growth
  • In July, Johnson pushed the Civil Rights Act of
    1964 through congress
  • Johnson was able to use his influence to persuade
    Southern senators not to block the passage of
    this bill
  • Strom Thurmond was the leader of the southern
    senators in opposition to this bill
  • The bill prohibited discrimination based on race,
    religion, national origin, and sex

Senator Strom Thurmond from South Carolina
71
LBJs War on Poverty
  • Working with impoverished children before
    entering politics shaped Lyndon Johnsons
    political agenda
  • He was determined to end poverty in America had
    developed great ideas for how to do this
  • In 1964 LBJ announced a war on poverty in America
  • In August of 1964 Congress enacted the Economic
    Opportunity Act approving nearly 1 billion for
    youth programs, anti-poverty measures,
    small-business loans, and job training
  • Created the Job Corps Youth Training Program
  • VISTA (Volunteers In Service To America)
  • Project Head Start, an education program for
    underprivileged preschoolers
  • The Community Action Program, which encouraged
    poor people to participate in public works
    programs

72
Election of 1964
  • In 1964 Republicans nominated Barry
  • Goldwater of Arizona to opposed Johnson
  • Goldwater believed the federal govt had no
  • business trying to right social and economic
    wrongs such as poverty, discrimination, lack of
    opportunity
  • Goldwater also scared people by hinting that the
    U.S. should use nuclear weapons on Cuba North
    Vietnam
  • LBJ won in a landslide getting 61 of the popular
    vote 486 electoral votes to Goldwaters 52
  • Democrats also increased their majority in
    congress making reliance on Southern Democrats
    for votes unnecessary

73
The Great Society
  • Like his idol FDR, Pres. Johnson wanted to change
    America
  • He envisioned an America without poverty and
    social injustices and pushed 206 acts through
    Congress during his presidency to accomplish this
  • Johnsons plan did involve government even more
    in the lives of Americans increased the power
    of the Federal government
  • Greatest increase in govt legislation since FDR
    the New Deal
  • Education was a prime target of Johnsons Great
    Society programs
  • Johnson said that educations was the key which
    can unlock the door to the Great Society
  • The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of
    1965
  • Gave 1 billion in federal aid to help public and
    parochial schools to purchase textbooks and new
    library materials
  • 1st major federal aide package for education in
    the nations history

74
The Great Society
  • LBJ and Congress established Medicare and
    Medicaid in 1965
  • Medicare provided hospital insurance low-cost
    medical
  • insurance for almost every American 65 or over
  • Medicaid extended health insurance to welfare
    recipients
  • LBJ established the Department of Housing Urban
  • Development (HUD)
  • Johnson then appointed Robert Weaver to be the
    Secretary of HUD
  • Weaver became the first African-American cabinet
    member in U.S. history
  • LBJ also passed the Immigration Act of 1965 this
    reversed the previous immigration practices that
    discriminated strongly against people from
    outside western Europe
  • Immigration prior to the 1965 Act only allowed a
    of people based on the number of people from
    that country already in the U.S.
  • Since most people in the U.S. at that time were
    from Western Europe not Asia or Eastern Europe
    then these groups could not immigrate to the U.S.
  • Johnson passed the Water Quality Act of 1965 that
    required states to clean up rivers search out
    the worst chemical polluters to prevent them from
    using rivers to dump toxic waste
  • LBJ also convinced congress to pass laws that
    forced accurate labels on foods higher safety
    standards on automobiles

75
The Supreme Court
  • As the govt began to assume power with much
    legislation
  • reforms the Supreme Court under Chief Justice
    Earl Warren
  • began to take action
  • They banned prayer in public schools ironically
    increased
  • the support to freedom of speech, especially for
    anti-war
  • protests
  • In a landmark decision in Baker v. Carr 1962 the
    SC said that they had the right to tell states to
    reapportion their districts for federal
    representatives to be representative of the
    population of the states
  • States had left their districts the same despite
    an increased shift in the population to urban
    areas
  • Thus giving more power to the rural areas who had
    less people per representative than did the urban
    areas who often times had a large
    African-American minority
  • In Gideon v. Wainwright 1963 the SC ruled that
    criminal courts had to provide free legal counsel
    to those who couldnt afford it
  • In Escobedo v. Illinois 1964 they ruled that a
    person accused of a crime had the right to have a
    lawyer present during police questioning

Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren
76
The Warren Court
  • Miranda v. Arizona 1964
  • The Court ruled that citizens must be informed of
    their rights
  • prior to questioning
  • Any evidence or statement obtained prior to a
    suspect being read
  • his/her rights is inadmissible
  • Now known as the Miranda Rights
  • "You have the right to remain silent, anything
    you say can, and will be used
  • against you in a court of law. You have the
    right to an attorney. If you cannot
  • afford one, one will be appointed for you."
  • Engel v. Vitale 1962
  • New York State Board of Regents wrote and adopted
    a prayer which was supposed to be
    nondenominational
  • The school argued that the prayer was
    nondenominational and did not attempt to
    "establish or endorse" a religion and thus that
    it did not violate the establishment clause.
  • The court ruled Prayer in schools was to be
    considered unconstitutional

77
The Warren Court
  • The Supreme Court ruled in
  • Griswold v. Connecticut 1965 that the
  • Constitution protects an individuals
  • general right to privacy
  • The case involved a Connecticut law that
  • prohibited the use of contraceptives.
  • By a vote of 7-2, the Supreme Court invalidated
  • the law on the grounds that it violated the
    "right to marital privacy."
  • Said that the right to privacy was implied by the
    3rd, 4th and 5th Amendments
  • 3rd No quartering of troops in any house.
  • 4th Right of the people to be secure in their
    persons, houses, papers, and effects, against
    unreasonable searches and seizures.
  • 5th private property be taken for public use
  • The Supreme Court under Warren expanded the scope
    of individual rights
  • Criminal Rights, Right to Privacy, etc

The Warren Supreme Court
78
Legacy of the Great Society
  • Many people debate the effectiveness of the Great
    Society programs but there is little debate that
    it was the largest increase in the power
    influence of the federal government since FDR
  • The war on poverty helped many poor people
  • Unemployment dropped from 21 in
  • 1962 to 11 in 1973
  • Johnsons massive tax cut spurred the economy but
    left the country with a large budget deficit
  • Much of this was caused by the large cost of
  • the Vietnam war

Above LBJ throwing out the first pitch Below
LBJ working the phones pushing legislation
79
Fighting for Voting Rights
  • In 1964 the Congress Of Racial Equality (CORE)
    and SNCC workers in the South began registering
    as many African-Americans as they could to vote
  • The project became known as Freedom Summer
  • Activists knew that the more African-Americans
    that voted the more politicians were going to
    listen to their views the easier it would be
    for civil rights legislation to pass
  • These activists, white black faced extreme
    discrimination violence
  • In June of 1964 three civil rights workers and
    one summer volunteer disappeared in Neshoba
    County, Mississippi
  • Authorities later found that Klansmen local
    police had murdered three of the men (2 of whom
    were white)
  • Racial beatings, murders, church bombings, home
    bombings, cross burnings continued all throughout
    the summer

Above Civil Rights workers 1964 Below Voter
registration in the south
80
Mississippi Burning
81
Selma, Alabama
  • At the start of 1965 the SCLC conducted a major
    voting rights campaign
  • By the end of 1965 over 2,000 A-A had been
    arrested in SCLC demonstrations
  • Demonstrator Jimmy Lee Jackson was shot killed
  • After this death Martin Luther King, Jr.
    announced a 50 mile protest march from Selma to
    Montgomery (state capital)
  • On March 7, 1965 about 600 protesters set out for
    Montgomery
  • That night television cameras captured the
    mayhem that ensued
  • Police swung whips clubs, and shot cans of tear
    gas into the crowds
  • On March 21, 1965 3,000 marchers again set out
    for Montgomery, this time with federal protection
  • Soon the number of marchers grew to 25,000

Above Below MLK marching on Montgomery for
voting rights in 1965
82
Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • Two weeks after the Selma-Montgomery
  • March Congress passed the Voting
  • Rights Act of 1965
  • This act eliminated literacy tests that had
  • disqualified many voters
  • It also stated that federal examiners can grant
  • the right to vote to individuals if the states
    are
  • denying them suffrage
  • In Selma the proportion of A-A registered to
    vote raised from 10 in 64 to 60 in 68
  • The overall percentage of A-A voters in the South
    tripled

MLK at church speaking about the Voter Rights
Act of 1965
83
Northern Segregation
  • In the North segregation wasnt the law but de
    facto segregation which was segregation that
    exists by practice custom
  • De facto segregation is harder to end than de
    jure segregation (seg. by law) because if there
    are no laws to change then you have to change
    peoples attitudes
  • After World War II many AA moved into the inner
    cities whites moved out to the suburbs
  • With AA getting paid less than white suburbanites
    tax dollars from areas like the inner city were
    small so public transportation facilities,
    especially schools declined rapidly
  • When these schools became inadequate it prevented
    other AA from receiving the education needed to
    raise them out of the state of poverty
    perpetuated the condition
  • Housing in the inner city deteriorated to slums
    run by landlords who didnt comply with health
    housing ordinances
  • Unemployment in the inner city rose to
    disproportionately high rates
  • In many cities realtors would not sell homes in
    the suburbs to those African-American families
    that could afford it

84
March on Chicago
  • In 1966 MLK led a campaign in Chicago to end de
    facto segregation create an open city
  • On July 10 King led 30,000 AA in a march on City
    Hall
  • In late July King led demonstrators through a
    predominately white Chicago neighborhood while
    angry whites threw rocks bottles at him
  • On August 5 hostile whites stoned King as he led
    600 marchers
  • In all little was accomplished in Chicago
    compared to the marches in Birmingham other
    southern cities

MLK after being hit by a rock in a Chicago
neighborhood
85
J. Edgar Hoover vs. MLK
  • We must mark King now, if we have not before,
    as the most dangerous Negro in the future of this
    nation from the standpoint of communism, the
    Negro, and national security.
  • ..it may be unrealistic to limit our actions
    against King to legalistic proofs that would
    stand up in court or before Congressional
    Committees


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