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Civil Rights and Changing times


SS8H11 Students will evaluate the role of Georgia in the modern civil rights movement. Describe major developments in civil right CIVIL RIGHTS AND CHANGING TIMES – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Civil Rights and Changing times

Civil Rights and Changing times
  • SS8H11 Students will evaluate the role of Georgia
    in the modern civil rights movement.
  • Describe major developments in civil right

  • Between 1940 and 1970 many changes occurred in GA
    and across the country
  • Soldiers returned home and started families (baby
  • New inventions like TV changed the way we spent
    our free time and see the world around us.
  • Many highways and new buildings are built the
    economy grows substantially.
  • Cold War tensions grip our country.
  • African-Americans were becoming more visible.
  • The youth of the nation learned to protest.

WWII Tuskegee Airmen
U.S. grows by leaps and bounds
  • Returning soldiers attend college on the GI bill.
  • Average family income reaches 4,421.
  • Rock and Roll dominates the music industry.
  • Auto industry soars.
  • Polio vaccine is developed.
  • Diners Club introduces the first credit card.

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Important Federal Changes
  • 1946 - National School Lunch Act 1946 - provided
    low cost or free lunches to children
  • 1954 - Brown v. Board of Education 1954,
    overturned Plessy v Ferguson of 1896 it becomes
    illegal to segregate schools or other public

Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • 1955 - Rosa Parks is arrested for refusing to
    give up her seat to a white man.
  • On Sunday, December 4, 1955, a group of African
    American ministers gathered to discuss her
  • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was asked to be their
  • The community boycotts the buses until their
    demands were met in December of 1956.

The Bus boycott Demands granted
  • All passengers would be treated with courtesy.
  • African American drivers would be assigned to
    primarily routes with their race.
  • Seating would be on a first come, first serve
  • Bus revenue during the boycott was reduced by 65.

  • Little Rock Nine 1957- When nine African American
    students enrolled in Little Rock Central HS, the
    uproar over desegregation required the President
    to send in the 101st Airborne Division to escort
    the students safely to class.

Georgia Sibley Commission
  • 1960-The Georgia General Assembly organized a
    14-member commission to study the problem of
    integration of Georgia Public Schools.
  • Chairman of the committee was John Sibley
  • Held hearings all over the state
  • Results found by a 32 margin that the public
    would rather close the schools than integrate

The Young Become Louder
  • SNCC- Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
  • An organization that started in April 1960, it
    became one of the largest during the Modern Civil
    Rights Movement.
  • Major involvement in nonviolent protests like the
    sit-ins at the lunch counters and the March on
    Washington in 1963

Freedom Riders
  • May 1961- 7 black and 6 white volunteers set out
    from Washington D.C. to New Orleans on a
    Greyhound Bus testing the Interstate Commerce
    Commissions laws which desegregated bus and
    train stations waiting rooms.
  • When they reached the deep South, they
    encountered violent reactions.
  • This brought national attention to the disregard
    of the law in the south.

SNCC and CORE were two Civil Rights
organizations that helped sponsor this protest
Outside Anniston, Alabama, one of their busses
was burned
Albany Movement
  • Albany, Georgia November 1961- July 1962
  • Inspired by the Freedom Riders
  • Protested segregation and other Civil Rights
    violations, emphasizing the integration of bus
    waiting rooms
  • Dr. King became involved and hundreds were
    arrested in December of 1961.
  • With him (MLK)came the assistance of NAACP, SNCC
    and SCLC .
  • This event demonstrates how the Civil Rights
    Movement was not just national but was also a
    local movement with deep roots in southern

Birmingham Childrens March
  • In May 1963, James Bevel, a prominent leader in
    the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
    (SCLC), helped organize the Childrens Crusade
  • Thousands of children were arrested in
    Birmingham, AL, for parading without a license
  • Due to the press coverage, President Kennedys
    Administration got involved and as a result he
    begins creation of the Civil Rights Act

President John F. Kennedy poses August 28, 1963
at the White House with a group of leaders of
theMarch on Washington.
March on Washington
  • August 1963
  • Organized by SNCC for jobs and freedom
  • MLK gave his famous I have a Dream speech
  • participants varied from 200,000 to over 300,000
  • Helped to get the Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed

The Church is Bombed!
  • The 16th Street Baptist Church, in Montgomery,
    Alabama is bombed on a quiet Sunday morning in
    September 1963
  • Four young girls getting into their choir robes
    are murdered, Addie Mae Collins, Carole
    Robertson, Cynthia Wesley and Denise McNair, and
    22 others are injured.
  • This bombing was racially motivated by the Ku
    Klux Klan

Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • In June of 1963 President Kennedy started the
    bill which would later be signed by President
    L.B. Johnson in 1964
  • Gives greater emphasis to the equal protection
    clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, made
    segregation of all public facilities illegal and
    prohibited discrimination in businesses and labor

Freedom Summer
  • June 1964, Civil Rights Activists attempt to
    register black voters in Mississippi
  • SNCC, CORE, NAACP, and SCLC organized 1,000s of
    volunteers, mostly from the north (90 were white
    and many were Jewish) to work with local
    organizations to coach them on the voter
    registration process
  • Expensive poll taxes, difficult literacy tests
    including incidents of arson, battery, and
    lynching had kept most African Americans from
    voting for many years.

Freedom Summer Murders
  • June 21, 1964, three CORE members involved in
    Freedom Summer go missing in Mississippi
  • They were ambushed by members of the KKK who
    brutally murdered them and buried them in a local
    earthen dam
  • Their disappearance sparked national media
    attention and FBI intervention
  • Initiated the creation of the Voting Rights Act
    of 1965

Three Civil Rights workers who were Murdered
  • Andrew Goodman James Chaney Michael

Not a Peaceful March Selma to Montgomery March.
  • March 7, 1965 - Selma, Alabama Bloody Sunday
  • Inspired by the voting rights protests and the
    death of Jimmie Lee Jackson, 600 marchers set out
    from Selma to the state capital in Montgomery.
  • The marchers were violently driven back by
    Alabama State Troopers on the Edmund Pettus
    Bridge over the Alabama River.
  • The state and county officers beat and gassed the
    unarmed marchers. Media coverage of the event
    shocked the nation and led to the passage of the
    Voting Rights Act of 1965.
  • Due to this violence President Johnson sent in
    the FBI and National Guard to protect the next

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Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • This act provided federal oversight for
    elections, protecting the voting rights of
  • Created in response to the national attention
    brought about from the protests and violence that
    swept through the south during the early 1960s

Other Noteworthy Georgians
  • Governor Herman Talmadge passes the Minimum
    Foundation for Education Act which extends the
    school year to 9 months and sets standards for
    school curriculum
  • Charlayne Hunter-Gault and Hamilton Holmes are
    the first two African Americans admitted to the
    University of Georgia on January 6, 1961
  • Lester Maddox becomes Governor in 1967 by a
    legislative vote and despite his segregationist
    views is noted for appointing more African
    Americans to state boards and commissions than
    any prior governor
  • Maynard Jackson becomes the first African
    American Mayor of Atlanta, in 1974

  • Benjamin Mays-former
  • Morehouse College president
  • 1940-1967, mentored Dr. King
  • Ivan Allen Jr.- Mayor of Atlanta (1962)that
    brought professional sports to the city of
    Atlanta, also known for removing the whites
    only signs from City Hall