Contemporary Theories of Motivation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Contemporary Theories of Motivation PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7dd260-N2Y3O



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Contemporary Theories of Motivation

Description:

Contemporary Theories of Motivation Gonzalo Campuzano Enrique Flores OUTLINE Introduction Early Theories of Motivation (Overview) Goal Setting Theory MBO Programs ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:44
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 18
Provided by: Enrique157
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Contemporary Theories of Motivation


1
Contemporary Theories of Motivation
  • Gonzalo Campuzano
  • Enrique Flores

2
OUTLINE
  • Introduction
  • Early Theories of Motivation (Overview)
  • Goal Setting Theory
  • MBO Programs
  • Equity Theory
  • Expectancy Theory
  • Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation
  • References
  • Questions Answers

3
  • 55 of U.S. employees have
  • no enthusiasm for their job.
  • As cited in D. Jones, Firms spend Billions to
    Fire Up Workers With Little Luck, USA Today,
    May 10, 2001

4
INTRODUCTION
  • Motivation is the result of the interaction of
    the individual and the situation.
  • Individuals differ in their basic motivational
    drive.
  • i.e. Texbook Vs. Novel
  • The level of motivation varies both between
    individuals and within individuals at different
    times.
  • Motivation The process that account for an
    individuals intensity, direction, and
    persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
    1

5
EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  • 1950s
  • Hierarchy of needs theory
  • Theories X and Y
  • The two-factor theory.
  • They represent a foundation from which
    contemporary theories have grown.
  • Practicing managers still regularly use this
    theories and their terminology in explaining
    employee motivation.
  • Contemporary way of thinking

6
GOAL-SETTING THEORY
  • Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and
    how much effort will need to be expended.
  • In order to increase performance
  • Set specific goals.
  • Difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher
    performance than does easy goals.
  • Provide feedback.
  • An individual is committed to the goal when he
    believes he can achieve the goal, and wants to
    achieve it.

7
MBO PROGRAMSPutting Goal-Setting T. Into
Practice
  • Converting overall organizational objectives into
    specific objectives for organizational units and
    individual members.
  • Four ingredients common to MBO programs
  • Goal specification.
  • Participation in decision making.
  • An explicit time period.
  • Performance feedback.
  • Failures may come from
  • Unrealistic expectations regarding results.
  • Lack of commitment by top management.
  • Cultural incompatibilities.
  • Fujitsu

8
EQUITY THEORY
  • Employees make comparison of their job inputs and
    outcomes relative to those of others
  • When employees perceive inequity, the can
  • Change their inputs.
  • Change their outcomes.
  • Distort perceptions of self.
  • Distort perception of others.
  • Choose a different referent
  • Leave the field

9
EQUITY THEORY
  • Given payment by time
  • Overrewarded employees will produce more than
    will equitably paid employees.
  • Underrewarded employees will produce less or
    poorer quality of output.
  • Given payment by quantity of production
  • Overrewarded employees will produce fewer, but
    higher-quality, units than will equitably paid
    employees.
  • Underrewarded employees will produce a large
    number of low-quality units in comparison with
    equitably paid employees.

10
EQUITY THEORYConclusions
  • Motivation is influenced significantly by others
    rewards as well as by ones own rewards.
  • Inequities created by overpayment do not seem to
    have a very significant impact on behaviour.
  • Most research has focused on pay, but employees
    seem to look for equity in the distribution of
    other rewards.
  • Historically, equity theory focused on
    distributive justice. But increasingly equity is
    thought of from the standpoint of organizational
    justice.
  • Managers should consider openly sharing
    information on how allocation decisions are made,
    following consistent and unbiased procedures.

11
EXPECTANCY THEORY
  • The strength of a tendency to act in a certain
    way depends on the strength of an expectation
    that the act will be followed by a given outcome
    and on the attractiveness of that the outcome to
    the individual.
  • The theory focuses on three relationships
  • 1. Effort-performance.
  • 2. Performance-reward.
  • 3. Rewards-personal goals.

12
EXPECTANCY THEORY
  • Giving maximum effort not always means being
    recognized.
  • Good performance appraisal not always leads to
    organizational rewards.
  • Rewards are not always found attractive by
    employees
  • Managers limited in the rewards they can
    distribute.
  • Managers incorrectly assume that all employees
    want the same.

13
EXPECTANCY THEORYConclusions
  • The key is the understanding of an individuals
    goal and the linkage between the three
    relationships.
  • There is no universal principle for explaining
    everyones motivations.

14
INTEGRATING CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  • Many theories are complementary.
  • Its basic foundation is the expectancy model.

15
(No Transcript)
16
REFERENCES
  • Robbins and Judge, Organizational Behavior,
    12th Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007.
  • D. Jones, Firms spend Billions to Fire Up
    Workers With Little Luck, USA Today, May 10,
    2001
  • 1 T.R. Mitchell, Matching Motivational
    Strategies with Organizational Contexts,
    Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 19, pp
    60-62
  • P.C. Early, P. Wojnaroski, and W. Prest, Task
    Planning and Energy Expended Explorations of How
    Goals Influence Performance, Journal of Applied
    Psychology, Feb 1987.
  • J. Greenberg and S. Ornstein, High Status Job
    Title as Compensation for Underpayment A Test of
    Equity Theory, Journal of Applied Psychology,
    May 1983.

17
Questions Answers
About PowerShow.com