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MR. LIPMAN

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MR. LIPMAN S APUS POWERPOINT CHAPTER 23 Political Issues of the Gilded Age 1860s to 1890s The Birth of Jim Crow Blacks (& poor whites) forced into sharecropping ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MR. LIPMAN


1
MR. LIPMANS APUS POWERPOINT CHAPTER 23
  • Political Issues of the Gilded Age 1860s to 1890s

2
KEYS TO THE CHAPTER
  • Population Growth and Urbanization
  • Political Corruption and Machine Party Politics
  • Economic Boom and Bust (Panic) Periods
  • Reconstruction Ends with 1876 election compromise
    and Democratic Party regains national prominence
  • The birth and growth of Jim Crow Era
  • Labors growth and clash with business

3
KEYS TO THE CHAPTER
  • Ethnic and Class clashes and distinctions
  • Political Patronage and Civil Service
  • Tariffs as revenue and growing federal budgets
  • The Populist Movement
  • The Gold and Silver Issue

4
THE PRESIDENTS
  • Grant (1868 and 1872) - Republican
  • Hayes (1876) Republican
  • Garfield (1880) and Arthur (1881) Rep.
  • Cleveland (1884) Democrat
  • Harrison (1888) Republican
  • Cleveland (1892) Democrat
  • McKinley (1896) Republican but 3rd party
    populist movement shows strength

5
Postwar United States
  • The Gilded Age
  • Used by Mark Twain to describe the 30 years after
    the Civil War
  • shiny and prosperous on the outside, but rotten
    on the inside (Twain)

6
POPULATION GROWTH
  • Population increase makes US 3rd largest nation
    in western world
  • Massive immigration in 1880s and 1890s includes
    large Chinese immigration bringing laws to
    exclude
  • Immigrants flood cities leading to the power of
    political machines and corruption at all levels
    of government

7
  • The election of 1868 Ulysses S. Grant
  • Popular war hero but limited knowledge with
    anything else
  • Republicans get support by waving the bloody
    shirt reviving memories of Civil War and
    Democratic rebellion
  • Grant wins because of Freemans Vote

8
  • Millionaires Jim Fisk and Jay Gould seek to
    corner the gold market (1869)
  • Plan would only work if federal treasury did not
    sell any gold to the public
  • They bribe Grants brother-in-law, to stop Grant
    from releasing gold (paying Corbin 25K)
  • September 24, 1869 Black Friday
  • Gold finally released by US Treasury to end the
    scheme (supposedly contrary to Grants personal
    assurances to the schemers)

9
GRANT ADMINISTRATION KNOWN FOR CORRUPTION
  • Crédit Mobilier scandal
  • Union Pacific R.R. insiders from the company,
    hired themselves to build the line (at inflated
    prices) at Govt expense
  • Distributed shares of stock to important
    congressmen to prevent investigation
  • Investigation reveals V.P. some Congressman
    were in on the deal to stop investigation

10
  • Whiskey Ring
  • 1874 1875 group of distillers bribed federal
    agents to avoid paying millions in whiskey taxes
  • Grants private secretary, Orville Babcock took
    money from the group
  • Grant refuses to fire him
  • Grants testimony helps assure his acquittal

11
  • Indian land bribes
  • 1876 secretary of war William E. Belknap took
    bribes from suppliers to Indian reservations
  • Belknap impeached and resigned
  • Grant stayed loyal to his friend until the end

12
Grant Wins Re-Election But
  • Republicans fixed problems that Liberal
    Republicans and Democrats brought out, to stop
    voter rebellion in future elections
  • 1872 general amnesty act passed removed
    political disabilities from all but 500
    Confederate leaders
  • High tariffs (from the war) reduced
  • Mild civil-service reform enacted to get rid of
    worst people from Grants administration

13
  • Panic of 1873
  • Caused by over-expansion of railroads, mines,
    factories, farms fueled by bad loans made by
    banks
  • When profits didnt come in, bank loans not paid,
    and economy collapsed leading to bank runs
  • Led to depression that lasted for 4 years

14
  • Greenbacks
  • 450 million in greenbacks issued during C. W.
  • They depreciated since not backed by gold
  • Debtors called for more greenbacks to be issued
    to inflate (increase) money supply
  • More money meant cheaper money (and rising
    prices), making debts easier to pay off

15
  • Creditors and banks did not want to be paid back
    in money worth less than the money they had
    originally loaned (depreciated money)
  • 1874 convinced Grant to veto a bill to print
    more paper money
  • 1875 Resumption Act of 1875 passed
  • Government would withdraw greenbacks from
    circulation
  • Repayment of all paper money in gold at face
    value by 1879

16
  • Silver
  • Early 1870s treasury kept silver pegged at 16
    ounces to 1 ounce of gold
  • Silver on open market worth more than what
    treasury paying, so mines stopped selling to
    treasury
  • 1873 federal treasury stopped coining silver
    dollars

17
  • Silver discoveries made in late 1870s increased
    production and lowered prices
  • Western silver mining states joined with debtors
    who wanted inflation (through coinage of silver)
    to return to coining silver

18
  • Deflation
  • Supporters of hard money got Treasury to buy up
    gold (to redeem greenbacks)
  • 1870 1880 amount of money per capita in
    circulation decreased
  • Made depression worse, but improved governments
    credit rating and got greenbacks up to full value
    of gold

19
The Hayes-Tilden Standoff
  • The election of 1876 the results
  • Tilden won more popular votes than Hayes
  • Tilden had 184 (of needed 185) electoral votes
    for victory
  • 4 states (Oregon, South Carolina, Louisiana,
    Florida) had disputed electoral returns

20
  • Compromise of 1877
  • Democrats agree that Hayes can become president
  • Hayes promises that federal troops will be
    removed from final southern states (Louisiana and
    South Carolina)
  • Republicans promised to use federal aid for
    southern railroad through South to Pacific (not
    fulfilled)
  • Finally settled only 3 days before Hayes
    inauguration

21
  • Throughout 1870s Reconstruction ends and
    Republicans abandoned blacks in South
  • Civil Rights Act of 1875
  • Guaranteed equal accommodations in public places
  • Passed without enforcement measures
  • Civil Rights Cases (1883)
  • Supreme Court declared Act unconstitutional
  • 14th Amendment prohibited governmental
    discrimination, private discrimination
  • With Compromise of 1877, Republicans abandoned
    blacks in South to fend for themselves

22
The Birth of Jim Crow
  • Blacks ( poor whites) forced into sharecropping
  • Land owners (former masters) let ex-slaves and
    whites farm on their land in exchange for part of
    the harvest
  • crop-lien system storekeepers gave goods to
    sharecroppers on credit in return had a lien
    (control over property in exchange for payment of
    debt) on their harvests

23
  • Separation between races evolved (by 1890s) to
    formal system of segregation
  • Law of segregation called Jim Crow laws
  • Literacy tests, poll taxes, voter-registration
    laws used to prevent blacks from voting
  • Upheld by Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson
    case (1896) and known as Separate but Equal
    doctrine.
  • Known as DeJure Segregation

24
Educational Spending in the South 1890 - 1910
25
Segregation Was the Law Until the 1960s
26
Lynching and violence used to deny rights
27
  • 1877 the Great Railroad Strike
  • 4 largest RRs cut wages by 10 so workers strike
  • Hayes called out federal troops to put down the
    strike
  • Workers in other fields joined strikers,
    conducting work stoppages across industrial east
  • Strike lasted several weeks over 100 people died
  • Failure showed weaknesses of labor, divided over
    race

28
Workers Attack During the Strike
29
  • Conflict with Chinese over jobs
  • Chinese were mostly poor, uneducated, single
    males about 75,000 in 1880 in US
  • Came to work in gold fields or on railroads
  • 1882 Chinese exclusion act will stay if effect
    until 1943

30
  • Election of 1880 Hayes did not run for
    re-election
  • Garfield waved the bloody shirt and won
  • Electoral vote was 214 to 1
  • Republicans immediately split over patronage
  • Secretary of State James G. Blaine (Half-Breed)
    and Senator Roscoe Conkling (Stalwart)

31
Political Parties Used Patronage
  • Republican divisions over patronage
  • Stalwarts
  • Led by Roscoe Conkling, US senator from New York
    believed in using patronage for political
    advantage
  • Half-Breeds
  • Led by James G. Blaine, congressman from Maine
    favored civil-service reform but really wanted to
    take power from Stalwarts to control who gave out
    the jobs
  • Neither side was ever successful in gaining
    control

32
  • Garfields assassination
  • Charles J. Guiteau shot Garfield in back at a
    railroad station in Washington
  • Disappointed office-seeker, and insane, who
    shouted I am a Stalwart. Arthur is now
    President
  • Garfield lived for 11 weeks before dying
    (September 19, 1881) and Chester Arthur becomes
    President
  • 1883 Pendleton Act passed
  • Banned compulsory political contributions from
    federal employees
  • Set up Civil Service Commission to give jobs to
    people on basis of competitive examinations
  • Only covered 10 of federal jobs at first, but
    was expanded

33
  • Unintended consequence of civil service reform
  • Politicians couldnt use patronage to get
    immigrant and lower class voters support anymore
    so needing money they turn to corporations for
    support, leading to huge amounts of influence for
    business leaders
  • Trusts will begin to develop lobbying efforts

34
  • The election of 1884
  • Probably the dirtiest campaign in US history
  • Republicans publicized fact that Cleveland had
    fathered an illegitimate child 8 years before and
    was paying for the childs care
  • Cleveland wins election in a very tight race
  • First Democrat to win Presidency since 1856 and
    last until Woodrow Wilson in 1912.

35
  • Cleveland firmly pro-business believed
    government should keep its hands off business
    affairs (laissez-faire)
  • Though the people support the government, the
    government should not support the people.
    (Cleveland)
  • He would veto many Civil War pension bills

36
  • Tariff issue
  • During C. W., tariffs increased to pay for war
  • After war businesses got Republicans to keep
    tariffs high, as protection
  • Treasury ran a surplus because of tariffs
  • Republicans spent money from surplus on larger
    pensions or pork-barrel (wasteful) projects to
    gain electoral support
  • Cleveland wants to lower tariffs and angers
    businesses who oppose his re-election
  • He will lose race for Presidency to Harrison in
    1888

37
  • McKinley Tariff Act of 1890
  • Passed to help pay for Republican spending on C.
    W. veteran pensions
  • Increased tariff rates to highest peacetime level
    ever (average of 48)
  • Hurt farmers, who had to buy higher-priced
    American manufactured goods, but sold their
    agriculture at competitive world market rates

38
Civil War Pensions and Pensioners, 18661917
39
Bad Times bring Discontent
  • 1892 Peoples Party (Populists) emerged
  • Grew out of Farmers Alliance and they want
  • unlimited coinage of silver (16 to 1 ratio)
    inflation
  • Graduated income tax (progressive tax)
  • Govt ownership of railroads, telegraph and
    telephone
  • Direct election of US senators
  • 1-term limit for president
  • Adoption of initiative and referendum procedures
  • Shorter workday
  • Immigration restriction

40
  • July 1892 Homestead Strike
  • 300 Pinkerton detectives try to put down
    steelworkers strike at Andrew Carnegies plant
    and strikers defeated them
  • US troops then called out and broke the strike
    and destroyed the union
  • July 1892 strike of silver miners crushed by
    federal troops in Coeur dAlene, Idaho

41
Populist Support in the West Election of 1892
42
  • Why Populists failed to do better
  • Industrial east did not vote for Populists
    because pro-business
  • The South did not vote for Populist party because
    Populist leaders reached out to blacks for votes
    who were unhappy with Republicans, responded to
    Populist appeals
  • Elite Southerners used racial hatred to get poor
    whites to vote for Democratic Party instead of
    Populists

43
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44
  • Southern blacks ended up worse after Populist
    campaign
  • Whites in South took away the few voting rights
    that blacks still had
  • More aggressive use of poll taxes and literacy
    tests
  • grandfather clause that exempted anyone whose
    ancestors (father / grandfather) had voted before
    1860
  • More severe Jim Crow laws to enforce segregation,
    backed up by lynching and violence
  • Populist party itself turned into party of racism

45
  • Depression of 1893 (Panic)
  • Lasted for 4 years
  • Worst of 1800s Causes included
  • Overbuilding and speculation
  • Problems with workers and strikes
  • Agricultural depression
  • Effect of depression was collapse of businesses
    and failure of banks
  • GOVT BELIEVED IN LAZZIE FAIRE SO WOULD NOT
    INTERFERE OR HELP BUSINESS

46
The Gold Issue
  • Gold reserve drained
  • Sherman Sliver Purchase Act (1890) required US to
    buy silver and issue paper for the silver it
    bought (populist idea)
  • Owners of the paper then exchanged the paper
    currency for gold (because silver prices had gone
    down, making gold more valuable)
  • By law, government had to carry out this exchange
  • Gold reserves reduced from 192 million to below
    100 million (seen as minimum US had to have on
    reserve to support 350 million in currency)

47
  • Cleveland asks Congress to repeal the Sherman
    Silver Purchase Act
  • Some Democrats, led by William Jennings Bryan
    (Nebraska) argued against repeal but Cleveland
    wins and act repealed.
  • However, gold reserves are low and fear is that
    America will go off the gold standard making
    paper money worthless
  • America turns to J.P.Morgan and his fellow
    investors and borrows 65 Million in gold paying
    7M comm.

48
J. P. Morgan Worlds Leading Banker
49
  • The income tax
  • Passed to restore Govt financial strength but it
    is Struck down by Supreme Court (1895)
  • Violation of direct tax clause of Constitution
    (article 1, sec.9)
  • Populists and poor Americans saw this as proof
    big business and the rich controlled the courts
  • CONCLUSION FORGETTABLE PRESIDENTS OF HAYES TO
    CLEVELAND UNABLE TO SHAKE AMERICA FREE FROM
    LAIZZE FAIRE POLICIES
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