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Historical Archaeology:

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Chapter 16 Historical ... Georgian Order A worldview ... The Georgian order is informed by the rise of scientific thought and by the order in Renaissance architecture ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Historical Archaeology:


1
Chapter 16
  • Historical Archaeology
  • Insights on American History

2
Outline
  • Historical Archaeology Just a Handmaiden to
    History?
  • Hidden History The Archaeology of
    African-Americans
  • Correcting Inaccuracies
  • Re-Examining Americas History
  • Conclusion Historical Archaeologys Future

3
Historical Archaeology
  • Looks at material remains from past societies
    that also left behind written documentation about
    themselves.
  • The first historical archaeology in America took
    place about 150 years ago.
  • James Hall, a civil engineer, and direct
    descendant of Miles Standish, located the
    foundations of the Standish homestead in Duxbury,
    Massachusetts and, in 1853, he conducted detailed
    excavations there.

4
Historical Archaeology
  • During the first half of the 20th century,
    historical archaeologists labored mostly to
    supplement historical records.
  • This perspective is evident in public
    interpretive projects, such as Plymouth
    Plantation, Colonial Williamsburg, and the Little
    Bighorn battlefield.
  • Such projects concentrated on a very few selected
    sites, particularly houses of the rich and
    famous, forts, and military sites.

5
Historical Archaeology Comes of Age
  • Mainstream historical archaeology began to look
    at the larger social context, rather than at
    historical significance.
  • In the 1960s, historical archaeology began to
    focus on historically disenfranchised groups,
    seeking to uncover the history of African-
    Americans, Asian-Americans, Native Americans
    during the historic period, and
    Hispanic-Americans.

6
Characteristics of Historical Archaeology
  • Modern historical archaeology often has a
    strongly postprocessual flavor.
  • Deal with time periods that are considerably
    shorter than those of prehistoric archaeology.
  • Historical archaeology is often very close to
    ustemporally and emotionally.

7
Themes in Historical Archaeology
  • The study of historically disenfranchised groups.
  • Questions about the recent past that history
    books answer unsatisfactorily.
  • The nature of European colonialism (the
    developing capitalism of that time) and its
    effects on indigenous peoples.

8
Map of Monticello
9
New York Citys African Burial Ground
  • In 1991, the bones of 427 enslaved Africans,
    interred by their community and forgotten for
    centuries, were discovered beneath a parking lot
    in downtown New York City.
  • In 1626, the Dutch West India Company unloaded
    its first shipment of enslaved Africans in New
    Amsterdam (todays New York City) 11 young men.

10
New York Citys African Burial Ground
  • The Dutch were experiencing a labor shortage in
    their colonies, and found slave labor to be the
    answer to building and maintaining the colony.
  • 18th century New York law prohibited the burial
    of Africans in Manhattans churchyards.
  • New Yorks African population established a
    cemetery outside of the city and from 1712 to
    1790, the community buried between 10,000 and
    20,000 people.

11
New York Citys African Burial Ground
  • Dr. Michael L. Blakeys analysis of some 400
    individuals from the burial ground found that
    half the population died before age 12.
  • Some were clearly worked to death
  • Enlarged muscle attachments demonstrated
    continual demands on their physical labor.
  • Bones showed cranial and spinal fractures from
    excessive loads on the head and shoulders.

12
Fort Mose Colonial Americas Black Fortress of
Freedom
  • Fort Mose, 50 miles south of the Georgia-Florida
    border was the first legally sanctioned, free
    African-American community in the country.
  • Beginning with the founding of Charles Towne by
    the British in 1670, Spain employed free Africans
    to further its colonial objectives by having them
    populate and hold territories vulnerable to
    foreign encroachment.

13
Fort Mose Colonial Americas Black Fortress of
Freedom
  • Both free and slave Africans were used in
    military operations, a black militia having been
    established in St. Augustine.
  • By 1673, the Spanish crown declared that all
    escaped fugitives from British plantations were
    to be granted sanctuary and, eventually, freedom
    in Spanish Florida so that by their example and
    by my liberality, others will do the same.

14
Medieval Mind-set
  • The culture of the early (pre-AD 1660) British
    colonies that emphasized the group rather than
    the individual and in which the line between
    culture and nature was blurred people were seen
    as conforming to nature.

15
Georgian Order
  • A worldview (ca. 1660/16801820) arising in the
    European Age of Reason and implying that the
    world has a single, basic immutable order.
  • Using the powers of reason, people can discover
    what that order is and control the environment as
    they wish.
  • The Georgian order is informed by the rise of
    scientific thought and by the order in
    Renaissance architecture and art.

16
Future of Historical Archaeology
  • Historical archaeology is today one of the most
    rapidly expanding and exciting directions in
    Americanist archaeology.
  • Challenges to existing histories and the recovery
    of the history of disenfranchised groupswill
    generate debates and dialog for years.

17
Quick Quiz
18
  • 1. _____ _____ looks at material remains from
    past societies that also left behind written
    documentation about themselves.

19
Answer historical archaeology
  • Historical archaeology looks at material remains
    from past societies that also left behind written
    documentation about themselves.

20
  • 2. In the 1960s, historical archaeology began to
    focus on
  • Elite colonial settlements.
  • Diary entries of colonial women.
  • Historically disenfranchised groups.
  • All of the above.

21
Answer C
  • In the 1960s, historical archaeology began to
    focus on historically disenfranchised groups.

22
  • 3. Fort Mose is important because it is
    considered
  • The first legally sanctioned, free
    African-American community in the country.
  • The burial site of hundreds of former slaves.
  • The only former fort that preserved historic
    documents such as diaries and civil records.
  • All of the above.

23
Answer A
  • Fort Mose is important because it is considered
    the first legally sanctioned, free
    African-American community in the country.
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