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General Psychology


General Psychology Moving Quick Today ... More Parts of the Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System The Autonomic Nervous System: The sympathetic NS arouses ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: General Psychology

General Psychology
Moving Quick Today
  • Matthew 54
  • Blessed are those who mourn, for they will be
  • They that mourn - Either for their own sins, or
    for others, and are steadily and habitually
    serious. They shall be comforted - More solidly
    and deeply even in this world, and eternally in

  • Say the colors as fast as you can. It is not as
    easy as you might think!
  • Can you do it faster with practice?
  • This is called the stroop effect
  • Words may process faster than colors.
    Interconnection of Culture and Brain Processing

Searching for the self by studying the
body Phrenology
Phrenology (developed by Franz Gall in the early
1800s) the study of bumps on the skull and
their relationship to mental abilities and
character traits
  • Phrenology yielded one big idea--that the brain
    might have different areas that do different
    things (localization of function).

Todays search for the biology of the self
biological psychology
  • Biological psychology includes neuroscience,
    behavior genetics, neuropsychology.
  • All of these subspecialties explore different
    aspects of how the nature of mind and behavior
    is rooted in our biology.
  • Our study of the biology of the mind begins with
    the atoms of the mind neurons.

Neurons and Neuronal Communication The Structure
of a Neuron
There are billions of neurons (nerve cells)
throughout the body.
Action potential a neural impulse that travels
down an axon like a wave
  • Just as the wave can flow to the right in a
    stadium even though the people only move up and
    down, a wave moves down an axon although it is
    only made up of ion exchanges moving in and out.

Parts of a Neuron
  • Cell Body Life support center of the neuron.
  • Dendrites Branching extensions at the cell body.
    Receive messages from other neurons.
  • Axon Long single extension of a neuron, covered
    with myelin MY-uh-lin sheath to insulate and
    speed up messages through neurons.
  • Terminal Branches of axon Branched endings of an
    axon that transmit messages to other neurons.

When does the cell send the action potential?...
when it reaches a threshold
How neurons communicate (with each other)
The neuron receives signals from other neurons
some are telling it to fire and some are telling
it not to fire.
  • When the threshold is reached, the action
    potential starts moving.
  • Like a gun, it either fires or it doesnt more
    stimulation does nothing.
  • This is known as the all-or-none response.

The action potential travels down the axon from
the cell body to the terminal branches.
The signal is transmitted to another cell.
However, the message must find a way to cross a
gap between cells. This gap is also called the
The threshold is reached when excitatory
(Fire!) signals outweigh the inhibitory
(Dont fire!) signals by a certain amount.
  • Threshold Each neuron receives excitatory and
    inhibitory signals from many neurons. When the
    excitatory signals minus the inhibitory signals
    exceed a minimum intensity (threshold) the neuron
    fires an action potential.

Action Potential Properties
  • All-or-None Response A strong stimulus can
    trigger more neurons to fire, and to fire more
    often, but it does not affect the action
    potentials strength or speed.
  • Intensity of an action potential remains the same
    throughout the length of the axon.

Refractory Period Pumps
  • Refractory Period After a neuron has fired an
    action potential it pauses for a short period to
    recharge itself to fire again. Negative Ions
  • Sodium-Potassium Pumps Sodium-potassium pumps
    pump positive ions out from the inside of the
    neuron, making them ready for another action

  • Need 10 volunteers
  • You need to be willing to have your toe touched
    and to touch a toe.
  • Action Potentials have to travel.

The Synapse
The synapse is a junction between the axon tip of
the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body
of the receiving neuron.
The synapse is also known as the synaptic
junction or synaptic gap.
  • Neurotransmitters are chemicals used to send a
    signal across the synaptic gap.

Reuptake Recycling Neurotransmitters NTs
  • Reuptake
  • After the neurotransmitters stimulate the
    receptors on the receiving neuron, the chemicals
    are taken back up into the sending neuron to be
    used again.

Seeing all the Steps Together
Neural Communication
Neural Communication
  • Acetylcholine ah-seat-el-KO-leen
  • a neurotransmitter that, among its functions,
    triggers muscle contraction
  • Endorphins en-DOR-fins
  • morphine within
  • natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters
  • linked to pain control and to pleasure

Roles of Different Neurotransmitters
Some Neurotransmitters and Their Functions Some Neurotransmitters and Their Functions Some Neurotransmitters and Their Functions
Neurotransmitter Function Problems Caused by Imbalances
Serotonin Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal Undersupply linked to depression some antidepressant drugs raise serotonin levels
Dopamine Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion Oversupply linked to schizophrenia undersupply linked to tremors and decreased mobility in Parkinsons disease and ADHD
Acetylcholine (ACh) Enables muscle action, learning, and memory ACh-producing neurons deteriorate as Alzheimers disease progresses
Norepinephrine Helps control alertness and arousal Undersupply can depress mood and cause ADHD-like attention problems
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid A major inhibitory neurotransmitter Undersupply linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia
Glutamate A major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in memory Oversupply can overstimulate the brain, producing migraines or seizures this is why some people avoid MSG (monosodium glutamate) in food
Serotonin pathways
Dopamine pathways
Networks of neurons that communicate with
dopamine are involved in focusing attention and
controlling movement.
  • Networks of neurons that communicate with
    serotonin help regulate mood.

Hearing the message How Neurotransmitters
Activate Receptors
  • When the key fits, the site is opened.

Keys that almost fit Agonist and Antagonist
  • An antagonist molecule fills the lock so that the
    neurotransmitter cannot get in and activate the
    receptor site.

An agonist molecule fills the receptor site and
activates it, acting like the neurotransmitter.
The Inner and Outer Parts of the Nervous System
  • The peripheral nervous system PNS consists of
    the rest of the nervous system.
  • The PNS gathers and sends information to and
    from the rest of the body.
  • The central nervous system CNS consists of the
    brain and spinal cord.
  • The CNS makes decisions for the body.

Types of Neurons
Sensory neurons carry messages IN from the bodys
tissues and sensory receptors to the CNS for
Motor neurons carry instructions OUT from the CNS
out to the bodys tissues.
  • Interneurons (in the brain and spinal cord)
    process information between the sensory input and
    motor output.

The Nerves are not the same as neurons.
  • Nerves consist of neural cables containing many

Nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system
and connect muscles, glands, and sense organs to
the central nervous system.
More Parts of the Nervous System
The Peripheral Nervous System
The Autonomic Nervous System
The sympathetic NS arouses (fight-or-flight) The
parasympathetic NS calms (rest and digest)
The Central Nervous System
  • The brain is a web of neural networks.
  • The spinal cord is full of interneurons that
    sometimes have a mind of their own.

Neural Networks
  • These complex webs of interconnected neurons form
    with experience.
  • Remember
  • Neurons that fire together, wire together.

Interneurons in the Spine
  • Your spines interneurons trigger your hand to
    pull away from a fire before you can say OUCH!

This is an example of a reflex action.
Pupil to Pupil
  • Turn to a partner and have them close their eyes
    for five seconds and then open them.
  • What happens to their pupil?
  • Why?

How Fast are You?
  • Hold the ruler near the end (highest number) and
    let it hang down. Have another person put his or
    her hand at the bottom of the ruler and have them
    ready to grab the ruler (however, they should not
    be touching the ruler). Tell the other person
    that you will drop the ruler sometime within the
    next 5 seconds and that they are supposed to
    catch the ruler as fast as they can after it is
    dropped. Record the level (inches or centimeters)
    at which they catch the ruler. Test the same
    person 3 to 5 times (vary the time of dropping
    the ruler within the 5 second "drop-zone" so the
    other person cannot guess when you will drop the