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Social Development and Urban: World Bank Experience in Brazil

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Title: Social Development and Urban: World Bank Experience in Brazil


1
Social Development and Urban World Bank
Experience in Brazil
Ivo Imparato Senior Urban Specialist, LCSUW
Social Development Sector Days, 23 February
2009
2
LAC presents complex urban challenges
  • High and Rapid Urbanization in LAC
  • From 65 urbanization rate in 1980 to 78 in
    2006 estimated to be 82 by 2025
  • From rural-urban migration to urban-urban
    migration recent cases of more complex mobility
    patterns sprawl, spatial segregation, and
    metropolitan regions
  • Many problems associated with high and rapid
    urbanization
  • Lower poverty rates in urban areas but larger
    share (almost 60 of poor are in urban areas in
    2000) if unchanged, 2/3 of poor will be in
    cities by 2015
  • City growth patterns result in congestion (e.g.
    Central city slum of Santo Domingo - 11 of city
    population in 1.6 of city territory) and limited
    access to basic services
  • Informal tenure accounts for 1/3 of families
    only half of poor have formal titles
  • 1/3 or more of working population is
    self-employed (proxy for informality), 3 times
    more than OECD countries (rise in informal
    employment associated with poverty)
  • Widespread violence in Latin American
    barrios/slums (worldwide homicide rate is 5.1 per
    100,000 inhabitants 27.5 per 100,000 in LAC in
    2000)
  • 20 largest cities in Latin America are in areas
    with steep terrain, swamps, flood-prone land, or
    seismic activity LAC plagued by 90 disasters
    over the past three decades 7,500
    fatalities/year
  • Rapid population growth leading to larger and
    denser human settlements, combined with
    environmental degradation poor people live in
    more hazardous locations and in low quality
    dwellings

3
Complex urban problems need comprehensive
interventions
  • Typical urban development looks at sectors in
    isolation, but complex settings require a
    comprehensive approach i.e. need to combine
    urban infrastructure services with environment
    and social development activities
  • Comprehensive interventions require sophisticated
    technical, institutional and financial
    arrangements
  • Technical challenges various interventions in a
    single package - e.g. road construction,
    drainage/flood control, water supply and
    sanitation, complex water resource management
    solutions, pollution control, slum upgrading,
    resettlement housing
  • Financial complexity High cost programs combine
    financing sources
  • Institutional arrangements many sectoral players
    that often dont interact

SOCIAL
4
How does the World Bank engage?
  • Not just a provider of financial assistance
  • World Bank as a convener, catalyzing specific
    arrangements to deal with complex urban
    situations
  • World Bank as technical resource and honest
    broker, dealing with several technical and
    institutional constituencies and forging a
    consensus
  • World Bank as amalgamator of a set of projects
    that are more sectoral in nature
  • Long term engagement, and a program approach

5
Case Example Guarapiranga, São Paulo (Brazil)
UNAUTHORIZED LAND USE
PERMITTED LAND USE
6
Case Example Guarapiranga, São Paulo (Brazil)
Guarapiranga River Basin Environmental Sanitation
Project
  • Guarapiranga River Basin is an important
    metropolitan resource (water source
    recreational area)
  • Threatened by environmental degradation due to
    unauthorized land uses stemming from urban
    poverty
  • irregular land subdivisions (140,000 residents)
    and squatter settlements (110,000 residents)
  • World Bank-financed program services for the
    poor, recovery of water quality basin
    management
  • Strategies
  • Implementation of trunk infrastructure for
    wastewater collection and treatment
  • Upgrading slums and irregular subdivisions
    extending basic service coverage for the poor,
    with direct quality of life, public health and
    water quality benefits
  • Emphasis on slums alongside reservoirs direct or
    indirect tributaries
  • Establishment of institutional framework for
    basin management
  • Financing
  • World Bank (119 M)
  • Local Counterparts (218 M) state,
    municipality, water utility, state housing company

7
Case Example Guarapiranga, São Paulo (Brazil)
Guarapiranga River Basin Environmental Sanitation
Project
The City of São Paulo
Guarapiranga Basin
8
Case Example Guarapiranga, São Paulo (Brazil)
Component Amount Specific Activities
Water Supply Sanitation 94.3 M Expansion of the wastewater collection system Increased number of domestic connections Building of interceptors and main collectors Construction of pumping stations Construction of wastewater treatment plants.
Solid Waste Collection 5.7 M Expansion of solid waste collection in the cities of Embu, Itapecerica da Serra and Embu-Guaçu Recovery and improvements to refuse disposal areas in the cities of Embu and Itapecerica da Serra
Slum Upgrading 187.1 M Provision of urban infrastructure in informal areas Improvements in trunk infrastructure Construction of housing units for resettled families.
Environmental Protection 27.7 M Implementation of parks and protected areas, support for inspection procedures and environmental studies.
River Basin Management 22.4 M Installation of the Basin Management Committee Studies to support basin management and provide it with the most effective instruments.
9
Case Example Guarapiranga, São Paulo (Brazil)
Guarapiranga River Basin Environmental Sanitation
Project
10
Case Example Guarapiranga, São Paulo (Brazil)
Guarapiranga River Basin Environmental Sanitation
Project
BEFORE INTERVENTION
AFTER INTERVENTION
  • Results
  • 340 areas with improved basic services and public
    spaces and new housing units (250,000
    beneficiaries)
  • Improved water supply, sewerage and wastewater
    treatment facilities for the whole basin

11
Case Example Guarapiranga, São Paulo (Brazil)
Guarapiranga River Basin Environmental Sanitation
Project
  • Key Lessons
  • A program approach, with long-term engagement
  • A comprehensive approach, with innovative
    technical solutions appropriate to local needs
  • Institutional integration among the various
    sectors and levels of government - a new culture
    in the public sector
  • Actions based on consensus among various
    participants - government, local communities,
    civil society organizations
  • Participation of the residents in all stages of
    the process

12
Other Significant World Bank-financedUrban
Programs in Brazil
Project/Board Date Amount Features
Integrated Municipal Project Betim Municipality (Jul 2004) 49.1 M Resettlement, physical improvements in poor communities, urban environmental infrastructure for river basin 
Brasilia Environmentally Sustainable Proj. (Aug 2005) 159 M Poverty reduction social inclusion, water resource pollution loads, environmental rehabilitation, solid waste disposal
Bahia Poor Urban Areas Integrated Devt (Dec 2005) 82.2 M Upgrading of informal settlements (drainage, roads, water supply sewage, solid waste mgmt., housing), social services delivery
Recife Urban Upgrading Project (Jul 2006) 84 M Slum upgrading, water sanitation systems, parks, urban mobility, job generation, environment sanitary education
Uberaba Água Viva Project (Mar 2007) 28.8 M Waste water treatment, drainage, water supply, public recreational facilities, municipal planning and management  
Integrated Water Mgmt in Sao Paulo (Jul 2007) 281.8 M Slum upgrading, resettlement, housing, recovery of natural habitats, integrated water sanitation
Rio Grande do Sul Integrated Municipal Devt (Jan 2008) 31.5 M Strengthen municipal capacity, LED investments, improve quality of jobs, territorial improvements
Teresina Enhancing Municipal Governance and Quality of Life (Mar 2008) 44.5 M Water supply, wastewater treatment, urban upgrading, rehabilitation of leisure spaces, road improvements, resettlement housing improvements, social services
Sao Luis Enhancing Municipal Governance Quality of Life (Jul 2008) 59.4 M LED, sanitation water improvement, solid waste management, upgrading, resettlement, dam rehabilitation, environment mgmt.
Municipality of Cubatão - Guará Vermelho Project 24.4 M Competitiveness, addressing urban informality, resettlement, environmental management (mangrove habitat)
Santos Municipality Project 80.4 M Municipal infrastructure modernization, resettlement, housing
13
Social Development and UrbanFinding Common
Ground
  • This years theme is From Principles to Practice
    Operationalizing Social Development
  • Social Development shaping Bank operations more
    than in the past
  • Needs and Scope in Urban are huge

14
Social Development and UrbanFinding Common
Ground
  • Social Development in tune with operational
    requirements
  • Nexus between Social Development and social
    safeguards compliance
  • Opportunity to move beyond compliance
  • Experience in LAC may help show the way

15
Social Development and UrbanFinding Common
Ground
  • Large scale slum upgrading in Brazil search for
    operational answers
  • Need to organize participation and consultation
    within a project framework
  • Bank-financed projects have provided the venue
    Guarapiranga in São Paulo, Alagados in Salvador

16
Social Development and UrbanThe Experience in
Brazil
  • Projects provide resources and an organizing
    framework for participation to produce results
  • Need to organize participatory processes has
    generated a market for professional entities at
    first organized as NGOs, now mostly as
    consultancy firms with planning, engineering and
    social staff

17
Social Development and UrbanThe Experience in
Brazil
  • Experience of consultancy firms provides an
    illuminating example
  • Engineers and planners involved in slum upgrading
    came to appreciate the key role of social
    scientists and professionals in organizing the
    interaction between projects and local residents
  • Beginning in mid-1980s, a paradigm shift

18
Social Development and UrbanThe Experience in
Brazil
  • From mid-1990s, a critical mass of professionals
    with operational capabilities in supporting
    participatory urban development
  • Articulated by projects with varying levels of
    consultation and participation
  • Approach is very operational and hands-on

19
Social Development and UrbanThe Experience in
Brazil
  • Analogy to the work of the Bank these firms and
    their teams work for governments
  • We too work with governments, and the point of
    view of TTLs and Bank teams is shaped by that
  • Some clashes with social scientists who would
    rather work with NGOs and CBOs

20
Social Development and UrbanThe Experience in
Brazil
  • Not all governments are crazy about participation
  • Sometimes the most a Bank team can do is ensure
    safeguards compliance
  • There is often an opportunity to go much beyond
    that
  • Example of Alagados direct support to local
    organizations and their work

21
Social Development and UrbanThe Experience in
Brazil
  • Some governments are very good at promoting
    participatory development, but many lack the
    political will or the skill set
  • Bank can work with client governments to help
    them deal with participation in a constructive
    way
  • Safeguards compliance an opportunity, not just
    one more hurdle

22
Social Development and UrbanThe Experience in
Brazil
  • To comply with safeguard policies, governments
    need to build capacity, hire specialists, promote
    consultations
  • Safeguards compliance may open the door to a new
    way of doing business
  • Case of Alagados a clear example
  • Successful cases are real, but there are many
    obstacles

23
Social Development and UrbanThe Experience in
Brazil and in LAC
  • Plenty of pitfalls along the way many
    participatory processes are manipulated, or fall
    prey to political capture
  • Issue of representation is always at core cases
    of Peoples Participation Law in Bolivia,
    participatory budgeting in Mexico and Brazil
  • Who speaks for the stakeholders? Are vulnerable
    groups represented?

24
Social Development and UrbanThe Experience in
Brazil and in LAC
  • Crucial role of social development professionals,
    helping TTLs and teams understand motivations and
    incentives of local stakeholders shape projects
  • Projects must be built around an understanding of
    local dynamics, which teams often ignore at their
    peril
  • Payoff is huge in impact and sustainability

25
Social Development and UrbanFinding Common
Ground
  • How do we mainstream Social Development in Bank
    operations?
  • A two-way street TTLs need to understand the
    importance of social dev., and social dev.
    professionals need to understand requirements of
    working with governments to prepare and supervise
    operations

26
Social Development and UrbanFinding Common
Ground
  • This is about all of us finding common ground, in
    an imperfect world
  • My experience in Brazil, in a consultancy firm,
    showed me that it can be done
  • This was confirmed by my experience as a Bank TTL
    in Urban
  • There is still a long road ahead, but each
    successful project takes us further along

27
  • Thank you
  • Ivo Imparato
  • Sr. Urban Specialist, LCSUW
  • The World Bank
  • (202) 458-2587
  • iimparato_at_worldbank.org
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