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MUSIC IN THE MIDDLE AGES

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... the picture to see artwork and music from the Middle Ages MUSIC NOTATION The first system of learning music was developed in the 11th century by Guido d ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MUSIC IN THE MIDDLE AGES


1
MUSIC IN THE MIDDLE AGES

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  • rt and music were critical
    aspects of medieval religious life and, towards
    the end of the Middle Ages, secular life as well.
    Singing without instrumental accompaniment was an
    essential part of church services. Monks and
    priests chanted the divine offices and the mass
    daily. Some churches had instruments such as
    organs and bells. Two people were required to
    play this stringed instrument--one to turn the
    crank and the other to play the keys.
  • Medieval drama grew out of the church
    service, beginning in about the eleventh century.
    Some of the topics were from the Old Testament
    (Noah and the flood, Jonah and the whale, Daniel
    in the lion's den) and others were stories about
    the birth and death of Christ. These dramas were
    performed with costumes and musical instruments
    and at first took place directly outside the
    church. Later they were staged in marketplaces,
    where they were produced by local guilds.

3
Art and Music of the Middle Ages
  • Click the picture to see artwork and music from
    the Middle Ages

4
MUSIC NOTATION
  • The first system of learning music was developed
    in the 11th century by Guido dArezzo (Father
    Guido). He assigned each note a name and designed
    the system of placing the notes on horizontal
    lines to notate pitches. This is now known as the
    staff.
  • The Guidonian hand is another of his inventions,
    it is a system of assigning each part of the hand
    a certain note by pointing to a part of his hand.
    A group of singers would know which note was
    pointed out and sing the matching note.

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POPE GREGORY
  • Plainsong or chants (monophonic melodies
    performed in unison with free rhythm and
    unaccompanied) were also called Gregorian Chants
    named after Pope Gregory
  • A system of writing down reminders of chant
    melodies was probably devised by monks around 800
    to aid in unifying the church service throughout
    the empire.
  • The idea spread that the chant used in Rome came
    directly from Pope Gregory,
  • He is the patron saint of musicians, singers,
    students, and teachers.

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9
Music of the Middle Ages in the Church
  • Click the picture to see a short scene of music
    in the church.

10
WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW!
  • Middle Ages or Medieval Era
  • Plainsong or chant
  • Pope Gregory
  • Polyphony
  • Gregorian Chants
  • Latin

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The Renaissance
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What is the Renaissance?
  • The Renaissance (which also means
    re-birth) was a time of great exploration in
    science, music, art, literature and civilization
    discoveries.
  • A major change in the Christian religion
    occurred at this time. Various Christian groups
    left the Catholic church and formed some of the
    present-day Protestant denominations.
  • Although the Church began to lose its
    influence in the lives of the people, music was
    still sacred. Secular music also flourished
    during this period.
  • The center of musical activity gradually
    began to shift from the churches to castles and
    towns.

13
  • Music that was written for the church was still
    the most composed, secular music was becoming
    more common. In comparison with medieval music,
    Renaissance harmony (two or more melody lines
    singing at the same time) also known as
    polyphony, was more free and more expressive.
  • Masses and motets were the main forms of
    spiritual vocal polyphony. Secular vocal forms
    included madrigals (mostly accompanied by the
    lute or a small orchestra). The main instrumental
    works were short polyphonies or music for
    dancing.
  • The canzona (a song or composition that is light
    and fast moving) is a typical example of the
    popular type of songs.
  • Palestrina was one such composer along with
    William Byrd, Orlando Gibbons, and Andrea and
    Giovanni Gabrielli.

14
The Renaissance was a period of great creative
and intellectual activity, during which artists
broke away from the restrictions of Midieval
artists. The same can be said for musicians!
Leonardo da Vinci
Michelangelo
Sandro Botticelli
15
IMPORTANT WORLD EVENTS
Queen Isabella commissions Columbus to sail for
America
Gutenburg invents the printing press
Shakespeare a famous playwright from England
wrote 2 plays which became famous operas Hamlet
and Romeo Juliet
16
The Impact of the Printing Press
  • The composers of the Renaissance, unlike the
    medieval composers emphasized individuality and
    they were recognized more often during their
    lifetimes.. The technology of the printing press
    permitted a much wider distribution of their
    works and enabled a larger public to the study
    music.

17
Music Outside the Church
  • Outside the church, traveling musicians called
    minstrels sang songs about life and love in the
    language of their people.
  • Their songs were often accompanied by instruments
    such as the lute (a type of guitar), recorder or
    hand drum.

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Polyphonic Notation In polyphonic notation, many
voices can share a staff
Then
Now
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WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW!
  • Printing Press
  • Church or spiritual music
  • Secular music
  • Palestrina Gabrielli
  • Motets, madrigals
  • Renaissance polyphony
  • Minstrels language of their songs and meaning
  • Instruments of the minstrels
  • Shakespeare
  • Columbus

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