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Topic: Terrorism (Individual

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Aim: For what reasons has terrorism increased? Do Now: Describe in detail the mental image you have when you hear the terms terrorist and terrorism – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Topic: Terrorism (Individual


1
Topic Terrorism (Individual State Sponsored)
  • Aim For what reasons has terrorism increased?
  • Do Now Describe in detail the mental image you
    have when you hear the terms terrorist and
    terrorism
  • Textbook Key Issue 4 pages 260-266

2
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vNf_PzCfpPug In
what ways does globalization change the nature of
terrorism? How does the NYPD use geographic
concepts and technology to confront terrorism?
3
Terrorism Discussion Questions
  1. Whether individual or state sponsored, what are
    the aims of terrorists or terrorist
    organizations?
  2. In what ways does topic relate to other topics
    such as religion, politics (boundaries,
    supranational organizations, etc), ethnicity,
    development, and/or gender?
  3. If terrorism is state sponsored, what reaction
    should other states take if they are attacked?
  4. In what ways is classifying someone as a
    terrorism a matter of perspective?
  5. Are terrorist actions ever justified in your
    opinion - if so describe the circumstances

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  • Terrorism systematic use of violence by a group
    to intimidate a population or coerce a government
    into granting its demands (spreads fear and
    anxiety)
  • Bombing
  • Kidnapping
  • Hijacking
  • Taking hostages
  • Assassination

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Attack by CIA-funded Mujahideen terrorists in
Afghanistan in 1985. Ronald Reagan praised Afghan
Mujahideen as "freedom fighters".
The scene after the Taliban attack near the U.S.
Consulate in Peshawar, Pakistan. The militants
struck with suicide bombs, grenades and gunfire.
(Anjum Naveed / Associated Press)
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What do all of these men have in common?
14
American Presidential Assassinations
Garfield, 1881
Kennedy, 1963
Lincoln, 1865
McKinley, 1901
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http//www.youtube.com/watch?vcwAPubfJ0r8
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The Victims
Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie
17
I. Terrorism by Individuals and Organizations
  • Attacks on America Americans
  • Oklahoma City bombing
  • Timothy McVeigh
  • 168 people killed
  • Unabomber
  • Ted Kaczynski
  • 3 killed and 23 injured
  • World Trade Center (1993)
  • a. 6 killed and 1,000 injured
  • Pan Am Flight 103 over Scotland
  • 259 killed who were on board and 11 killed on the
    ground

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I. Terrorism by Individuals and Organizations
  • September 11, 2001 Attacks
  • 2 planes crashed into World Trade Center, another
    into the Pentagon, and another crashed in
    Pennsylvania
  • Nearly 3,000 fatalities

20
I. Terrorism by Individuals and Organizations
  • Al-Qaeda
  • Responsible or implicated in most anti-U.S.
    terrorism
  • Terrorist network founded by Osama bin Laden
  • Created to unite jihad fighters in Afghanistan
  • Membership is estimated at 20,000 and dispersed
    in as many as 34 countries
  • Uses religion to justify their attacks

21
II. State Support for Terrorism
  • Afghanistan
  • U.S. attacked Afghanistan in 2001 when the
    Taliban sheltered bin Laden and other al-Qaeda
    terrorists
  • Removal of Taliban has unleashed a new struggle
    for control of Afghanistan among the countrys
    many ethnic groups - Taliban are continuing
    insurgency in Afghanistan and northern Pakistan

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Libya
  1. Sponsored 1986 bombing of nightclub in Berlin
    which killed 3 U.S. citizens
  2. Libyan agents planted bombs on Pan Am Flight 103
    in 1988 UTA Flight 772 in 1989
  3. Renounced terrorism in 2003, UN sanctions were
    removed

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Saddam Hussein
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II. State Support for Terrorism
  • Iraq
  • U.S. claims of state sponsored terrorism proved
    controversial because of unproven claims that
    Iraq had weapons of mass destruction
  • International community also challenged U.S.
    beliefs that Husseins government had close links
    with al-Qaeda
  • U.S. then argued that Iraq needed a regime
    change despite removal of Hussein, U.S. still
    involved in complex and violent struggle among
    religious sects
  • Sunni Muslims oppose U.S. because they had
    considerable power under Hussein who was also a
    Sunni
  • Shiites feel tensions toward U.S. because of
    close ties with Shiite-controlled Iran

27
  • Iran
  • Hostility between U.S. and Iran dates back to
    1979 Iranian Revolution when the pro-western Shah
    Reza Pahlavi was overthrown by Islamic
    fundamentalist Ayatollah Khomeini
  • Militant supporters of Ayatollah seized the U.S.
    embassy in Iran on November 4, 1979 and held 62
    Americans hostage until January 20, 1981
  • Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s (U.S. supported Iraq)
  • Since September 11, U.S. has accused Iran of
    harboring al-Qaeda members
  • Also evidence that Iran has been developing a
    nuclear weapons program led to negotiations with
    Iran

28
Summary Mideast Land Conflict Now Includes
Street Signs (New York Times, April 2010)
  • A street in Ramallah is named after the most
    cunning Hamas bomb maker of the 1990s.
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