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Understanding Cancer: Current Scientific Research on Causes, Treatments, and Prevention

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Title: Understanding Cancer: Current Scientific Research on Causes, Treatments, and Prevention


1
Understanding Cancer Current Scientific Research
on Causes, Treatments, and Prevention
www.ctoam.com
2
  • Our mission is to educate you and provide you
    with the most current research on the prevention
    and treatment of cancer so that you can make the
    most informed choice possible and ensure that you
    are doing all you can to have a life that is
    cancer free.

www.ctoam.com
3
In this presentation well cover
  • How cancer develops and the role of genes and
    stem cells in its development.
  • Current treatments, their effectiveness and
    limitations.

www.ctoam.com
4
In this presentation well cover
  • Diagnostic and imaging options that have been
    proven to enhance treatment effectiveness.
  • The benefits and misconceptions of clinical
    trials.

www.ctoam.com
5
In this presentation well cover
  • The importance of using nutraceuticals as part of
    your cancer treatment and prevention protocol.

www.ctoam.com
6
This presentation consists of two key sections
  • 1. Cancer 101 - Understanding Current
  • Issues In Cancer
  • 2. Ensuring That You Are Making Informed
  • Choices

www.ctoam.com
7
Cancer 101
  • It is now widely accepted that all cancers
  • are caused by adult stem cells (or cells with
  • stem-cell like properties).

www.ctoam.com
8
What is an adult stem cell?
  • The progenitor (originator) of a group of cells
    of a specific type
  • Occur in roughly 1 out of 6 million body cells.
  • Used to repair and replace body cells.

www.ctoam.com
9
What is an adult stem cell?
  • Exist in regions referred to as stem cell niches,
    where they remain in a dormant state (quiescence)
    until activated.
  • Each type of tissue contains its own stem cell
    niche.

www.ctoam.com
10
What is an adult stem cell?
  • All stem cells have unique features that allow
    them to avoid destruction during treatment.
  • However, it is their ability to exist in a
    dormant state (quiescence) until activated, that
    is currently inhibiting standard treatments.

www.ctoam.com
11
The 2 stages of stem cell activation
  • There are two key stages of stem cell
  • activation
  • Proliferation.
  • 2. Differentiation.

www.ctoam.com
12
The 2 stages of stem cell activation
  • In The Proliferation Stage
  • The stem cell makes multiple copies of itself.
  • In The Differentiation Stage
  • The multiple copies are converted into the
  • required cell type and given a Hayflick
  • number.

www.ctoam.com
13
The 2 stages of stem cell activation
  • The Hayflick number is the number of times a
    normal cell will divide before it stops and dies.
  • The important point here is that once a cell
    has differentiated, it has a finite lifespan.

www.ctoam.com
14
Stem cell life cycle
Progenitor cell (proliferation)
Mature cell (differentiation)
Stem cell (dormant)
(Activation)
Self renewal
www.ctoam.com
15
Stem cell life cycle
  • There are two imports points here
  • A stem cell makes an exact copy of itself, which
    remains dormant in the stem cell niche.
  • A stem cell also produces a large amount of
    progenitor cells, which then differentiate into
    the required type of cells.

www.ctoam.com
16
Stem cells and cancer
  • The problem with stem cells is that sometimes,
    due to mutations, a stem cell is not provided
    with the cues for differentiation and it gets
    stuck in a never ending cycle of proliferation,
    making many copies of itself.
  • This is what we call cancer.

www.ctoam.com
17
Genes and cancer
  • There are two key types of genes involved
  • in cancer
  • 1. Oncogenes.
  • 2. Tumor suppressors.

www.ctoam.com
18
Genes and cancer
  • Oncogenes (tumor causing genes)
  • Cause proliferation.
  • 2. Are turned on (expressed) or over-expressed
  • in cancers.
  • 3. Are mutated in such a way that causes them
  • to stay on.

www.ctoam.com
19
Genes and cancer
  • Tumor suppressors (cancer preventing genes)
  • Initiate differentiation.
  • Are inhibited or under-expressed in cancers.
  • There are common mutations and deletions of
  • tumor suppressors that occur in specific
    forms
  • of cancer.

www.ctoam.com
20
Normal stem cell life cycle
Progenitor cell (proliferation)
Mature cell (differentiation)
Stem cell (dormant)
(Activation)
(Oncogenes)
(Tumor supressor genes)
Self renewal
www.ctoam.com
21
Cancer stem cell life cycle
Stem cell (dormant)
Progenitor cell (proliferation)
Mature cell (differentiation)
(Oncogenes)
(Tumor suppressor genes)
(Activation)
Self renewal
Tumor cells
www.ctoam.com
22
Why is this important?
  • There are hundreds of documented oncogenes and
    tumor suppressor genes in your body.
  • Only four of these genes need to be altered or
    mutated for cancer to develop.

www.ctoam.com
23
Why is this important?
  • Therefore, there are many 1000s of possible
    combinations of gene alterations that can lead to
    cancer in each individual case. It is not the
    same for every person.
  • This is why success rates for treatment can vary
    so greatly from one person to another.

www.ctoam.com
24
Development of cancer
  • Now lets explore how cancer develops once the
    unregulated proliferation of stem cells has
    begun.

www.ctoam.com
25
Metastasis
  • When a cancer cell is stuck in proliferation
  • and hasnt differentiated, it can live almost
  • anywhere in the body (metastasize)
  • But, how is it that cancer cells travel
    throughout
  • the body?

www.ctoam.com
26
Angiogenesis and metastasis
  • Cancer cells are constantly growing and
    therefore, need to consume a lot of resources. In
    other words, they require their own blood supply.
  • Angiogenesis is a process that cancers use to
    recruit their own blood vessels in order to
    enable their continued growth.

www.ctoam.com
27
Angiogenesis and metastasis
  • The process of angiogenesis is controlled by
    oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.
  • Oncogenes are responsible for the development of
    angiogenesis while tumor suppressor genes inhibit
    it.

www.ctoam.com
28
Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)
  • Epithelial cancer stem cells interact with a type
    of cell derived from bone marrow called
    mesenchymal stem cells in a process called
    epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

www.ctoam.com
29
Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)
  • In the EMT process, cancer stem cells send out
    signals that attract the mesenchymal stem cells
    from the bone marrow into the tumor where these
    cells interact and stimulate the growth of cancer
    stem cells.
  • Also provides the primary tumor cells
    (epithelial) to metastasize to bone.

www.ctoam.com
30
Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)
  • The process of EMT is controlled by oncogenes and
    tumor suppressor genes.
  • Oncogenes are responsible for the development of
    EMT while tumor suppressor genes inhibit it.

www.ctoam.com
31
Summary
  • Stem cells remain dormant until activated.
  • Cancer is a disease of the stem cells caused by
    reduced differentiation and increased
    proliferation.

www.ctoam.com
32
Summary
  • The recruitment of blood vessels (angiogenesis)
    allows the tumor to grow and to metastasize.
  • EMT allows the primary tumor cells to metastasize
    to bone.
  • Proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and
    EMT are all controlled by genes.

www.ctoam.com
33
Standard treatment methods
  • The standardized approach to cancer treatment
  • utilizes the following three techniques
  • Surgery Removes diseased tissues.
  • 2. Radiation Creates DNA mutations in rapidly
    dividing cells.
  • 3. Chemotherapy Chemical interference of
    rapidly dividing cells.

www.ctoam.com
34
Limitations of surgery
  • Surgery is localized
  • Limited to treatment of localized disease.
  • Potential to miss stem cells, cells that are in
    pre-cancerous stages, or cells that have already
    metastasized.

www.ctoam.com
35
Limitations of radiation
  • Radiation is localized
  • Non-selective, affects all rapidly dividing cells
    and is very toxic.
  • Only affects active cells during course of
    treatment (not dormant cancer causing stem
    cells).

www.ctoam.com
36
Limitations of radiation
  • Radiation is localized
  • Angiogenesis (cancer cell recruitment of blood
    vessels) occurs directly after treatment.
  • Radiation can create new DNA mutations that may
    lead to new cancers.

www.ctoam.com
37
Limitations of chemotherapy
  • Chemotherapy (generalized)
  • Non-selective, affects all rapidly dividing cells
    and is very toxic.
  • Only affects active cells during course of
    treatment (not dormant cancer causing stem
    cells).

www.ctoam.com
38
Limitations of chemotherapy
  • Chemotherapy (generalized)
  • Angiogenesis occurs directly after treatment.
  • Chemotherapy can create new DNA mutations that
    may lead to new cancers.

www.ctoam.com
39
Radiation and chemotherapy
  • The main difference between radiation and
    chemotherapy is that radiation is used locally
    and limited to specific regions of the body,
    while chemotherapy affects all of the cells in
    the body.

www.ctoam.com
40
Additional concerns Surgery Radiation
  • In order for surgery and radiation to be
    effective, the following concerns need to be
    addressed
  • Doctors need to target the stem cell niche as
    well as the malignant tissue (tumor).
  • Doctors need to ensure they have accurate imaging
    prior to surgery and treatment to differentiate
    between normal and tumor tissues.

www.ctoam.com
41
Making informed choices Imaging
  • PET/CT
  • Combines CT imaging with positron emission
    tomography.
  • Shows biological activity within organs and
    detects cancer in the earliest stages.
  • Uses a cancer-specific glucose solution and a
    radioactive tracer agent that lights up cancerous
    hot spots.

www.ctoam.com
42
Making informed choices Imaging
Imaging PET-CT According to the BC Cancer
Agency In 87 of cases in which a patient has
had a PET-CT scan, the results of the test lead
to changes in the initial decisions made by
oncologists for planned cancer treatment.
www.ctoam.com
43
Making informed choices Imaging
Imaging PET-CT In other words, without a
PET-CT scan, current detection methods are only
accurate 13 of the time! PET-CT not only
ensures proper targeting of the tumor during
surgery and radiation treatments, it helps avoid
over-treatment or under-treatment.
www.ctoam.com
44
  • Imaging Normal CT scan

www.ctoam.com
45
  • CT Alone PET/CT

www.ctoam.com
46
Additional concerns Chemotherapy
  • Issues
  • In order for chemotherapy to be effective, we
    need to accurately determine the dosage and
    combination of drugs that provides maximal
    benefits with minimal side effects.
  • Need to affect stem cell niche as well as
    malignant tissue.

www.ctoam.com
47
Making informed choices Diagnostics
  • Chemotherapy Sensitivity Tests
  • Performed on a patients tumor sample to identify
    personalized dose and drug combinations
    (optimized chemotherapy).
  • Allows for lower doses, less side effects, and
    faster recovery times

www.ctoam.com
48
Clinical trials
  • Clinical trials represent leading-edge medical
    science. However, less than 5 of adults
    diagnosed with cancer each year are enrolled in
    clinical trails.
  • While there are a number of various treatment
    approaches being offered through clinical trials,
    8 out of 10 patients are not aware that this is a
    viable option for them.

www.ctoam.com
49
Benefits of clinical trials
  • In order to be offered to the human population,
    each clinical trial must show that the approach
    being tested is superior to standard treatment.
  • Patients are also provided with superior imaging
    and diagnostics not typically offered in public
    medical facilities.

www.ctoam.com
50
Benefits of clinical trials
  • They do not replace standard treatment, they are
    a form of adjunct therapy, and as such are
    offered as an additional treatment to standard
    treatment.
  • In most clinical trials the standard treatment is
    typically used in place of the placebo (control
    group).

www.ctoam.com
51
Benefits of clinical trials
  • Clinical trials are typically FREE.
  • But best of all, their success depends
  • on your survival!

www.ctoam.com
52
Nutraceuticals
  • A nutraceutical is a naturally occurring
    component of a food group that has scientifically
    proven cancer fighting activity.

www.ctoam.com
53
Nutraceuticals
  • Nutraceuticals can be used to regulate
    cancer-specific pathways and genes during and
    between treatment regimes.

www.ctoam.com
54
Nutraceuticals
  • Nutraceuticals have the ability to continually
    regulate cancer causing stem cells, unlike toxic
    drug based approaches.
  • Nutraceuticals can also enhance cancer cell
    sensitivity to standard chemotherapy and
    radiation therapy, improving treatment outcomes.

www.ctoam.com
55
Nutraceuticals
  • Nutraceuticals are inexpensive and non-toxic.
  • Nutraceutical combinations can be used to create
    a personalized diet based on the unique genetic
    signature of your cancer.
  • You can start today.

www.ctoam.com
56
Nutraceutical based gene targeting PTEN
  • PTEN is a tumour suppressor gene that normally
    initiates stem cell differentiation.
  • PTEN is down-regulated (diminished) or mutated
    in a variety of cancers.

www.ctoam.com
57
Nutraceutical based gene targeting PTEN
  • Subtle variations in PTEN levels have been
    proven to determine cancer susceptibility.
  • In other words, the amount of PTEN in a cell can
    determine susceptibility to certain cancers.

www.ctoam.com
58
Nutraceutical based gene targeting PTEN
PTEN LEVEL CANCER RISK
100 - 75 - 50 - 25 - 0 -
Normal
- This level found in 40 of Breast cancers
PTEN Level
- This level found in 57 of Breast cancers
- This level found in 75 of Breast cancers
www.ctoam.com
59

Nutraceutical based gene targeting PTEN
  • Even a small decrease in PTEN levels can create
    a greater chance of cancer.
  • More importantly, even a small increase in PTEN
    levels can reduce your susceptibility to certain
    cancers!

www.ctoam.com
60

Nutraceutical based gene targeting PTEN
  • There are a variety of easily accessible
    Nutraceuticals that can reactivate PTEN
  • Sulforaphane (broccoli).
  • Genestein (soy).
  • Resveratrol (red wine).
  • EGCG (green tea).
  • Curcumin (tumeric).

www.ctoam.com
61

Nutraceutical based gene targeting Concerns
  • One of the largest hurdles in the therapeutic
  • use of nutraceuticals is their low
    bioavailability.
  • The bioavailability of a nutraceutical refers to
  • its ability to remain in the body at a
  • concentration that has cancer fighting activity.

www.ctoam.com
62
Bioavailability Example Curcumin Absorbance
A component of pepper named piperine greatly
increases the oral bioavailability of
curcumin. Piperine increases the absorbance of
curcumin by 2000 .
www.ctoam.com
63
Nutraceutical Issues
  • Factors affecting the outcome of nutraceutical
  • clinical trials
  • Variations in the amount of the nutraceutical
    used in the different clinical trials.
  • The amount and form of the nutraceutical differs
    between the strain and type of plant that it was
    obtained from.

www.ctoam.com
64
EGCG of Various Green Teas
EGCG CONTENT () TYPE OF GREEN TEA
6 - 5 - 4 - 3 - 2 - 1
-
Sencha Uchiyama
Gyokuro 1
Sencha 1
Sencha 2, Gyokuro 2
Pilo Chun Emperor, Gyokuro 3, Gyokuro 4
Matcha
Yunnan, Yuzan, Paimutan
Meng Ding, Lung Chin
Dong Ding
Pou Chong, Tikuan Yin
65
Nutraceuticals Issues
  • Longer steeping times increase amount of EGCG
    released.
  • Drinking 1 cup of Sencha-Uchiyama steeped for 10
    mins results in an equivalent amount of EGCG
    (1.35mg) as drinking 60 cups of Pou Chong or
    Tikuan Yin green tea steeped for 2 mins!

www.ctoam.com
66
Further Reading
  • For more information on the issues covered in
  • this presentation, please visit our web site
  • Educational Articles
  • New Advanced Treatments

67
How we can help you
  • Remember, when you hire CTOAM, you are hiring
    your own personal team of experienced cancer
    researchers to advocate for you and assist you in
    your treatment and recovery.
  • We will ensure you are maximizing the potential
    in every aspect of your treatment.

www.ctoam.com
68
Thank you
  • Please visit us at
  • URL www.CTOAM.com
  • E-mail Contact_at_CTOAM.com
  • Phone (778) 999-5463
  • FAX (866) 264-1619
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