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Essentials of Marketing Research William G. Zikmund

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Essentials of Marketing Research William G. Zikmund Chapter 8: Observation Scientific Observation Is Systematic What Can Be Observed? Physical actions Verbal behavior ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Essentials of Marketing Research William G. Zikmund


1
Essentials of Marketing Research William G.
Zikmund
  • Chapter 8
  • Observation

2
Scientific Observation Is Systematic
YOU SEE, BUT YOU DO NOT OBSERVE.
Sherlock Holmes
3
What Can Be Observed?
  • Physical actions
  • Verbal behavior
  • Expressive behavior
  • Spatial relations and locations
  • Temporal patterns
  • Verbal and pictorial records

4
What Can Be Observed
Phenomena Example
Human behavior or physical Shoppers
movement action pattern in a store Verbal
behavior Statements made by airline
travelers who wait in line Expressive
behavior Facial expressions, tone of voice,
and other form of body language
5
What Can Be Observed
Phenomena Example
Spatial relations How close visitors at an and
locations art museum stand to
paintings Temporal patterns How long fast-food
customers wait for their order to be
served Physical objects What brand name items
are stored in consumers pantries Verbal
and Pictorial Bar codes on product
packages Records
6
Categories of Observation
  • Human versus mechanical
  • Visible versus hidden
  • Direct
  • Contrived

7
Observation of Human Behavior Benefits
  • Communication with respondent is not necessary
  • Data without distortions due to self-report
    (e.g. without social desirability) Bias
  • No need to rely on respondents memory
  • Nonverbal behavior data may be obtained

8
Observation of Human Behavior Benefits
  • Certain data may be obtained more quickly
  • Environmental conditions may be recorded
  • May be combined with survey to provide
    supplemental evidence

9
Observation of Human Behavior Limitations
  • Cognitive phenomena cannot be observed
  • Interpretation of data may be a problem
  • Not all activity can be recorded
  • Only short periods can be observed
  • Observer bias possible
  • Possible invasion of privacy

10
Observation of Physical Objects
  • Physical-trace evidence
  • Wear and tear of a book indicates how often it
    has been read

11
Scientifically Contrived Observation
  • The creation of an artificial environment to test
    a hypothesis

12
Response Latency
  • Recording the decision time necessary to make a
    choice between two alternatives
  • It is presumed to indicate the strength of
    preference between alternatives.

13
Content Analysis
  • Obtains data by observing and analyzing the
    content of advertisements, letters, articles,
    etc.
  • Deals with the study of the message itself
  • Measures the extent of emphasis or omission

14
Mechanical Observation
  • Traffic Counters
  • Web Traffic
  • Scanners
  • Peoplemeter
  • Physiological Measures

15
Monitoring Web Site Traffic
  • Hits and page views
  • Jupiter Media Metrics
  • Nielsen//NetRatings

16
Physiological Reactions
  • Eye tracking
  • Pupilometer
  • Psychogalvanometer
  • Voice pitch

17
Eye Tracking Monitors
  • Record how the subject actually reads or views an
    advertisement
  • Measure unconscious eye movements

18
Pupilometer
  • This device observes and records changes in the
    diameter of the subjects pupils.

19
Psychogalvanometer
  • Measures galvanic skin response
  • Involuntary changes in the electrical resistance
    of the skin
  • Assumption physiological changes accompany
    emotional reactions

20
Voice Pitch Analysis
  • Measures emotional reactions through
    physiological changes in a persons voice
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