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Forest%20Management%20in%20the%20PNW

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Forest Management in the PNW Post-1951 Timber companies overharvesting Federal lands becoming more and more accessible, open to logging Political and institutional ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Forest%20Management%20in%20the%20PNW


1
Forest Management in the PNW

2
A Simple Set of Periods
  • Pre-European Era
  • Early Exploration and Settlement
  • Early Logging Activities
  • The Onset of Industrialization
  • World War II and the Korean War
  • Recent History (post 1973)

3
Pre-European Era
  • Significant native American use of forests began
    after 10,000 years b.c.e. Or lt 25,000 years
    b.c.e.
  • During ice age Siberian land bridge open but N.A.
    continent closed.
  • At end of ice age bridge closed but continent
    opened ice-free corridor
  • Or hopping between ice free areas, coastal
    navigation, etc.

4
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ImageBeringia_land_b
ridge-noaagov.gif
5
Coastal Route
Mackenzie Corridor
6
Early Human Use of Forests
  • Various Forest Products (salal, mushrooms, game,
    etc.)
  • Extensive use of Cedar and related by-products in
    wet temperate forests
  • Canoes
  • Shelter
  • Baskets
  • Forest supported many species of importance (e.g.
    salmon) and vice versa

7
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20People/1220Haida20Days20of20Christmad/Black
RedCedar20bsket.jpg
8
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9
Early Human Impacts on Forests
  • Fire (Boyd, 1986)
  • Clearing for Game (habitat, visual)
  • Assisting plants of interest (huckleberry, camas)
  • Reducing problem plants (blackberry)
  • Increasing safe area around habitations
    (Security)
  • Other similar uses
  • Most other impacts relatively limited

10
Early European Exploration
  • Juan Josef Perez Hernandez 1774 (Juan de Fuca)
  • James Cook 1778
  • George Vancouver 1792 takes possession of PNW for
    England
  • 1804 05 Lewis and Clark
  • David Douglas (1826 28)

11
Early European Settlement
  • Willamette Valley an important draw (early
    1840s), settled before forested areas
  • Puget Trough also settled before forested areas
  • Valley bottoms of forested areas settled (often
    current in holdings in federal lands)
  • Forest cleared for agriculture
  • Initial European migrants were fur traders and
    explorers settlements were trading focused
  • Impact(s) on forests limited (although beaver are
    considered a keystone species)

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09z/figures/ft5z09p09z_00006.gif
14
Early Logging Activities
  • Limited, local
  • High grading (cedar, old growth Douglas fir)
  • A major product was cedar shake shingles

15
Limits to Early Forest Harvesting
  • Access to markets (transport)
  • Access to forest interior
  • Distance to markets (most people on east coast)

16
Impact of the California Gold Rush
  • Sudden nearby demand for timber, lumber, and
    other materials (food, etc.) that required
    lumber.
  • PNW Geography lowland forests near water (sound,
    rivers, etc.) provided access, transport, ease of
    entry.
  • By 1850 sawmills were opening throughout the
    Puget Sound Region.
  • Shipped to CA from ports

17
Early forest harvesting techniques
  • Mule and/or oxen teams
  • Corduroy roads
  • River dams/floods
  • Hand saws and incuts (still visible)
  • Unpatented lands made access limited to time and
    material

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ures/Vashon20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG
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21
The Onset of Industrialization
  • Railroads granted land for capital
  • Often timber companies accessed land (e.g. Hill
    Traded to Weyerhaeuser) from RRs.
  • Lands started to be claimed (Homestead Act of
    1862)
  • 160 320 acres per claim
  • Timber companies used stand-ins to claim
    extensive tracts
  • Mostly claimed lowland, old growth areas

22
Harvesting Techniques Mechanized
  • Steam Power and Steam logging (donkey engine)
  • Skidders to pull logs uphill
  • Cable systems and spars
  • Access railroad logging

23
Problems Solved(?)
  • Nearby Market California
  • Access to East Coast Northern Rail Routes
  • Access to Interior Railroad Logging
  • Other techniques Use of Rivers and Streams
    (flooding)

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30
Federal and State Lands
  • Contract logging, but considered less valuable
  • Many US forest lands on wasteage as designated
    in 1880s 1890s
  • State Lands remains from those not bought from
    state (section 6 and 16) lesser quality of
    forest lands, more difficult access.

31
Federal Bureaucracy Developing
  • Forest Reserve Act 1891 (General Land Office,
    USDI)
  • US Forest Service 1905 (USDA)
  • 1907 US Forest Reserves renamed US National
    Forests.
  • Gifford Pinchot, Theodore Roosevelt key players
  • Wise Use

32
Business as Usual
  • Frequently the connected few gained much from
    federal largess
  • Demand for Spruce during WWI led to logging in
    the Olympic National Monument
  • Attempts to set aside areas as preserves were
    fought by timber interests
  • 1930s Depression reduced timber demand overall

33
WWII and Korean War
  • War increased demand for all resources
  • Post War Increased consumerism
  • Increased demand for wood products (GI Bill and
    home loans)
  • New technologies for logging, especially road
    building, use of trucks, and yarding of logs to
    landings at roads
  • More areas opened up, especially public lands

34
Post-1951
  • Timber companies overharvesting
  • Federal lands becoming more and more accessible,
    open to logging
  • Political and institutional issues (e.g.
    revolving door) affect forest management policies
  • Get out the cut an important political tool

35
MUSY Act of 1960
  • Multiple Use Sustained Yield
  • Addressed other forest uses
  • Fiber production and removal still primary
  • Considered an environmental law, fought by timber
    industry (but used by them later)

36
Management Approach
  • Dispersed cuts of 40 acres (10 ha)
  • Supposed to provide more edge ? more ecotones ?
    more diversity
  • Really provides more forage for game
  • Drastically altered patterns and related
    processes in forest ecosystems

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38
Wilderness Act of 1964
  • Set aside roadless areas
  • Initially rock and ice
  • Restrictive, especially due to size of area
    (decreased with amendments)
  • RARE (Roadless Area Review and Evaluation) I and
    RARE II indicative of reluctance of bureaucracy
    to accept wilderness (remnant of G. Pinchot)
  • Both reviews challenged by Sierra Club

39
Recent History Important Laws
  • National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA,
    with EIA and EIS)
  • Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA)
  • National Forest Management Act of 1976 (NFMA)

40
Early 1980s
  • Reagan Administration appoints industry executive
    to run timber management portion of the US Forest
    Service
  • Changes in regulations regarding cuts increase
    timber volume removed from forests significantly
  • Related to several factors
  • Closing out of private old growth holdings
  • Mills outdated, mostly able to handle and mill
    large logs
  • Public forests seen as an enormous untapped
    resource to keep mills running until retooling
    occurs

41
Late 1980s
  • Spotted Owl becomes an issue
  • 1988 Forest Service releases guidelines for
    logging in spotted owl habitat
  • Sued by Seattle Audubon Society and other
    environmental groups
  • NEPA, ESA, NFMA laws that applied
  • Initial responses included adaptive management

42
Northern Spotted Owl Strix occidentalis caurina
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ImageNorthern_Spotte
d_owl.JPG
43
Interagency Science Committee
  • Jack Ward Thomas, head biologist at USFS led 17
    member committee
  • ISC recommended large habitat conservation areas
  • USFS stated it would operate in a manner not
    inconsistent with ISC without following normal
    rule making procedures
  • Audubon sued again, won in Dwyer court

44
The God Squad
  • USFWS lists Spotted Owl threatened
  • USDI/BLM asks for exemption for 44 timber sales
    based on ruling by Dwyer on their activities
    based on exemption from section 7 of ESA (Fed
    agencies must consult with FWS)
  • God squad advises exemption for some sales in
    exchange for a comprehensive plan to address
    habitat needs of the spotted owl

45
The Gang of Four
  • Scientific Panel on Late-Successional Forest
    Ecosystems
  • Conclusion No alternative to conservation to
    follow laws (NEPA, ESA, NFMA)
  • Larger areas of conservation for NSO needed than
    ISC report indicated
  • Forest Service ignored the report, Audubon sued

46
1992 Dwyer Decision
  • Sued again, the US Forest Service and BLM (USDI)
    lost in a staggering decision by Judge Dwyer
  • All timber sales on federal lands cancelled until
    guidelines, regulations, plans and rules
    regarding NEPA, ESA, and NFMA adopted and enacted

47
FEMAT
  • Clinton campaign promise
  • Forestry conference of 1993
  • Designation of Forest Ecosystem Management
    Assessment Team
  • Plan in 60 days (extended to 90 days)
  • Emphasis shifted from a PLAN to options the
    president would select
  • 10 Options presented along a continuum, 9
    recommended and selected
  • Sued by both sides of debate

48
Ecosystem Management
  • Developed here in the PNW first?
  • FEMAT looked at very broad spatial and temporal
    scales (100 years, Watershed and greater)
  • Incorporated disturbance, other processes into
    planning
  • As best as possible, attempted to reconcile
    resource use with habitat conservation
  • 50 100 year planning outlook
  • First hand experience with lack of data, modeling
    into the future, and making decisions based on
    these situations

49
FEMAT Matrix Approach
  • Concepts of landscape ecology and island
    biogeography
  • Within the matrix of forest resources, large
    patches of conserved, used, roaded, unroaded
    areas.
  • Connectivity, contagion important concepts.
  • Time scale and the 150 year-old cohort (Late
    Successional Reserves).

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52
Healthy Forests Initiative
  • Bush plan to address fire-prone landscape
  • Seen by environmentalists as a means to road and
    log unsuitable/closed areas
  • Donato controversy (Biscuit Fire Regen Study)
  • Recent timber sale planning of old growth by BLM
    on O and C lands in Oregon (2.2 million acres)

53
Salmon.. ICBEMP
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