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Climate change adaptation in Latin America and the Caribbean: CGIAR research

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Climate change adaptation in Latin America and the Caribbean: CGIAR research Rodomiro Ortiz (CIMMYT, on behalf of CGIAR) Regional Consultation Meeting on the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Climate change adaptation in Latin America and the Caribbean: CGIAR research


1
Climate change adaptation in Latin America and
the Caribbean CGIAR research
  • Rodomiro Ortiz (CIMMYT, on behalf of CGIAR)
  • Regional Consultation Meeting on the Development
    of the Global Climate Change Network in Latin
    America and the Caribbean
  • UNEP, 18-19 May 2009, Mexico City, Mexico

2
The Centers of the Consultative Group on
International Agricultural Research
3
Some approaches in CGIAR climate change agenda
  • Better forecasts, policy options provide local
    and regional information that combines
    forecasting knowledge with expertise in farming
    systems
  • Developing climate-ready crops capable of
    withstanding increased temperatures, drought, and
    flooding
  • More efficient use of resources improving
    farmers ability to use water efficiently and to
    better manage fragile soils essential to adapt to
    the shocks of climate change

4
Impact of Climate Change
  • At least US 7 billion per year in additional
    funding is required to finance the research,
    rural infrastructure, and irrigation investments
    needed to offset the negative effects of climate
    change on human well-being
  • The mix of investments differs by region
    Sub-Saharan Africa requires the greatest overall
    investment and a greater share of investments in
    roads, Latin America in agricultural research,
    and Asia in irrigation efficiency
  • Source Nelson, G.C. et al. 2009. Climate Change
    Impact on Agriculture and Costs of Adaptation.
    IFPRI, Washington D.C. http//www.ifpri.org/sites/
    default/files/publications/pr21.pdf

5
Daily per capita availability
Source Nelson, G.C. et al. 2009. Climate Change
Impact on Agriculture and Costs of Adaptation.
IFPRI, Washington D.C. http//www.ifpri.org/sites
/default/files/publications/pr21.pdf
6
Sector analysis Colombia
  • 50-60 farmers (about 70 of the agricultural
    work) are smallholders
  • Agriculture accounts 50 of national GHG
    emissions (Colombia accounts 0.37 of global GHG
    emissions)
  • 28.6 of agricultural products from above 1200 m
  • Permanent crops (66.4 GDP) will be severely
    affected
  • Source Andrew Jarvis, CIAT, personal
    communication

7
Evaluating technology options cassava
improvement
Grey areas would get no benefit from drought or
flood tolerance.
Blue areas benefit from drought tolerance
improvement Purple areas benefit from flood
tolerance improvement
8
An international SGRP initiative hosted by
Bioversity International Goal
To enhance the sustainable management and use of
agrobiodiversity for meeting human needs by
improving our knowledge of all its different
aspects
9
A new project undertaken by the Platform for
Agrobiodiversity Research and partners
  • Improve the information available to researchers
    and others on use of agrobiodiversity to help
    cope with climate change
  • Identify some key characteristics of production
    systems around the world where agrobiodiversity
    is likely to be particularly important for coping
    with climate change
  • Explore ways of improving access to, and
    availability of, new crop diversity from ex situ
    genebanks to rural communities and indigenous
    peoples
  • Example Working with indigenous peoples in
    Bolivia and Sarawak together with PROINPA and the
    Sarawak Biodiversity Centre
  • Source Toby Hodgkin, Bioversity International,
    personal communication

10
Genetic dissection of drought tolerance at CIMMYT
10 segregating populations F2/3, F3/4 and RIL
families / hybrids Mexico, Zimbabwe, Kenya 30
stress environments About 350 morphological
traits About 70 physiological parameters About
3,000 QTL data points
Source M. Bänziger et al., CIMMYT
11
CIMMYT heat-tolerance screening (leaf chlorophyll
content - LCC) for 2,225 wheat landraces
(Reynolds et al. 1999)
12
Cropping systems ID hot spots
  • Passport data analysis of accessions from
    heat-stress prone areas (GIS tools)
  • Characterization data available from
    thermo-screening
  • Multi-site testing temperature data and crop
    performance or any other assessment
  • Modeling heat impacts on crops in target
    population of environments

13
Germplasm enhancement by design
  • Guided- crop physiology H0 testing (leading to
    defining ideotypes for crop breeding)
  • Temperature component fine-tuning in crop models
  • Instrumentation from remote sensing to trait
    recording in the experimental fields or
    greenhouses
  • Molecular trait analysis reverse genetics
  • Allele discovery, comparative biology (synteny)
  • Cross-breeding targeting hot spots
  • MAIN OUTPUT Genetically-enhanced seed-embedded
    technology (GESET) to beat the heat and water
    stresses

14
Conservation agriculture saving resources and
money
  • Conservation agriculture includes minimal soil
    disturbance, retaining an adequate cover of crop
    residues, and use of economically viable crop
    rotations
  • Conservation tillage leads to net savings of
    diesel use per hectare, greatly reduces water
    use, and lower CO2 emissions
  • Resource conserving technology practices provide
    a better soil cover, moderate soil temperatures,
    and reduce the evaporation of irrigation water

15
Reducing emissions of nitrous oxide
  • N2O a potent greenhouse gas generated through use
    of manure or N fertilizer
  • Reduced emissions (50 less) possible in
    intensive irrigated wheat systems by proper
    amounts and timing of N applications.
  • Use of infrared sensor to measure yield potential
    as plants grow
  • Normalized Differential Vegetative Index (NVDI)

Source I. Ortiz-Monasterio, CIMMYT
16
Climate change in the Semi-Arid Tropics
Source D. Hoisington, ICRISAT, personal
communication
17
The innovation paradigm in agriculture
  • Impacts
  • Info, Knowledge, Technology ? Agro-Ecosystems ?
  • Management ? Policy ? Institutions ? People
  • ? indicates multiplicative interactions

18
The CGIAR Challenge Program on Climate Change,
Food Security and Agriculture
  • A CGIAR-Earth System Science Partnership joint
    undertaking with other partners

19
Further information
  • CGIAR Climate Change Challenge Program Bruce
    Campbell, Director, CGIAR Challenge Program on
    Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security,
    b.campbell_at_cgiar.org
  • Agro-biodiversity Marleni Ramírez, Director for
    Latin America and the Caribbean, Bioversity
    International, m.ramirez_at_cgiar.org
  • Agro-forestry Tony Simons, Deputy-Director
    General, World Agroforestry Center,
    t.simons_at_cgiar.org
  • Arid Zones Marteen van Ginkel, Deputy-Director
    General of Research, ICARDA m.vanginkel_at_cgiar.org
  • Fishery Patrick Dugan, Deputy-Director General,
    WorldFish Center, p.dugan_at_cgiar.org
  • Food Policy Mark Rosegrant, Director for
    Environment and Production Technology, IFPRI,
    m.rosegrant_at_cgiar.org
  • Forestry Robert Nasi, Program Director, CIFOR,
    r.nasi_at_cgiar.org
  • Livestock John McDermott, Deputy Director
    General, ILRI, j.mcdermott_at_cgiar.org
  • Maize, wheat (incl. conservation agriculture in
    respective cropping systems) Marianne Bänziger,
    Deputy-Director General for Research
    Partnerships, CIMMYT, m.banziger_at_cgiar.org
  • Potato, sweetpotato, Andes Charles Crissman,
    Deputy-Director General, CIP, cip-ddg_at_cgiar.org
  • Semi-Arid Tropics David Hoisington,
    Deputy-Director General of Research, ICRISAT
    d.hoisington_at_cgiar.org
  • Tropical agriculture (including bean-, cassava-,
    forage-, fruit- and rice- cropping systems)
    Andrew Jarvis, Program Leader on Decision and
    Policy Analysis, CIAT, a.jarvis_at_cgiar.org
  • Water David Molden, Deputy-Director General,
    IWMI, d.molden_at_cgiar.org
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