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THE NEW NATION

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Title: THE NEW NATION


1
UNIT II
  • THE NEW NATION

2
Coming of Independence
  • New England Confederation league of friendship
    to defend against native attacks (dissolves in
    1684).
  • The Albany Plan of Union Franklins idea of
    common military, regulation of trade duties.
    (Ahead of its timeturned down by colonies)

3
Resistance.
  • Stamp Act Congress resistance to the new Stamp
    Act, resulted in Boycotts and the Boston Massacre.

4
First Continental Congress
  • Met in Phil., every colony but Ga., in reaction
    to the Intolerable Acts.to discuss ways to
    make the crown stop punitive action.

5
Second Continental Congress
  • Declaration of Independence (1776)
  • Determined how they would self govern fight the
    war.
  • Was the de facto government for the first
    several years.

it's too late......
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vuZfRaWAtBVg
6
Declaration Facts
  • 24 of the 56 signers of The Declaration of
    Independence had been educated and employed in
    law included 2 future presidents. 11 were
    merchants and 9 were large plantation owners.
  • 9 died during the Revolutionary War.
  • Twelve had their homes ransacked or destroyed
    during the war.
  • Signer John Hart had his home looted during the
    war his wife died as a result. He invited over
    12,000 soldiers to camp on his yard in 1778 in
    the middle of growing season as they prepared for
    battle.
  • Thomas Nelson's home served as headquarters for
    General Cornwallis during the siege of Yorktown
    Legend has it that he advised Washington to fire
    on it. The home was destroyed.
  • Several leading figures of the Continental
    Congress, including its first signer, John
    Hancock, had special rewards placed on them for
    their capture.

7
Articles of Confederation 1781-1789
  • Were too weakno executive or judicial branch!!!
  • There was no way to raise money (taxes).
  • States began to distrust each other were
    undercutting each other via commerce.

8
CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION
  • Plans offered
  • Virginia Plan (Big State Plan) population to
    determine representation in Legislature.
    (Bi-cameral).
  • New Jersey (Small State Plan) One house
    (unicameral). States representation equalall
    states had the same power.

BIG big states get more power.
Small small states get equal power.
9
1789 Facts
  • New Constitution replaced The Articles
  • Population doubling every 20 yrs.
  • 90 rural - 5 w. of the Appalachians.
  • America heavily in debt paper money worthless
  • Monarchs watched to see if the U.S. would fail.

10
Washingtons Pro-federalist Regime
  • George Washington an imposing figure unanimously
    drafted as president by the Electoral College in
    1789.
  • Cheering crowds attend his oath.
  • Washingtons diverse cabinet (good idea?)
  • Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson
  • Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton
  • Secretary of War Henry Knox

11
The Bill of Rights
  • Needed to get constitution approval - adopted
    (1791)

12
Amendment I Freedom of religion, speech or
press, assembly, and petition.
13
Amendment II Right to bear arms (for militia).
14
Amendment III Soldiers cant be housed in
civilian homes during peacetime.
15
Amendment IV No unreasonable searches all
searches require warrants.
16
Amendment V Right to refuse to speak during a
civil trial Double Jeopardy.
17
Amendment VI Right to a speedy and public trial.
18
Amendment VII Right to trial by jury when the
sum exceeds 20.
19
Amendment VIII No excessive bails and/or fines.
20
Amendment IX Other rights not enumerated are
also in effect.
21
Amendment X Non-federal powers belong to the
state.
22
Judiciary Act o f 1789 - created federal courts.
  • John Jay 1st. Chief Justice of US

23
Hamilton
  • British West Indies origin causes loyalty to the
    U.S. to be questioned.
  • Urged the govt. to pay off 54 million in
    debts, PLUS interest, as well as assume the debts
    of the 21.5 million states. (75 million total)
  • Mass. huge debt, Virginia small debt states
    Haggle.
  • Unfair if govt. pays off big state debts.
  • Virginia gets District of Columbia built on its
    land (therefore gaining prestige) in return for
    letting the government assume all the states
    debts.
  • The Funding at Par (face interest) the
    support of the rich to the fed. Govt., not the
    states.
  •  

24
Customs Duties Excise Taxes.
  • Hamilton debt asset the more people the
    government owed to, the more people would try
    to make US work.
  • In 1789 - proposed a low 8 custom duties (tariff
    ).
  • Also protect infant industries.

25
Financial Issues (cont.)
  • 1791 - Hamilton secured an excise tax (notably
    whiskey -7 cents per gallon).
  • Hamilton Jefferson battle over Bank.
  • Hamilton wanted a national treasury (a private
    institution like the Bank of England)
  • Federal government as a major stockholder
  • Would circulate cash to stimulate businesses,
    store excess money, print money of worth.
  • Jefferson opposed it.

26
Hamiltons Views
  • What was not forbidden in the Constitution was
    permitted.
  • A bank was necessary and proper
  • He evolved the Elastic Clause.

27
Jeffersons Views
  • What was not permitted was forbidden.
  • bank should be a state controlled item (10th
    Amendment).
  • The Constitution should be interpreted literally
    and strictly.
  • End result Hamilton won - Washington reluctantly
    signed the bank measure into law.

28
Bank of the United States (1791)
  • chartered for 20 yrs. was to have a capital of
    10 million.
  • Stock was thrown open to public sale,
    oversubscribed in two hours.

29
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30
Mutinous Moonshiners
  • (1794) W. PA. - Whiskey Rebellion
  • Farmers revolted against Hamiltons excise tax.
  • Washington sent an army (13,000 troops) but the
    soldiers found nothing upon arrival the rebels
    had scattered.
  • Washingtons new presidency respected but
    anti-federalists said government used a giant
    to crush a gnat.

31
THE BIRTH OF THE TWO PARTY SYSTEM
  • Hamiltons policies (national bank, excise tax,
    etc.) fewer states rights.
  • Hamilton Jeffersons rivalry evolved into two
    political parties.
  • The Founding Fathers - had been groups, not
    parties.
  • Post1825 - two-party system has resulted in
  • stronger U.S. government (ie., balance of
    power)

32
The Impact of the French Revolution
  • In 1793 - 2 parties evolved
  • Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans
  • Hamiltonian Federalists.

JeffersonFirst president
AdamsFirst president
33
French Revolution
  • At first, people were overjoyed (reminiscent of
    Americas dethroning of Britain).
  • Only a few ultraconservative Federalists were
    upset at this mobocracy and revolt.
  • After the revolution turned
  • bloody the Federalists became nervous.
  • Jeffersonians felt that no revolution could be
    carried out without a little bloodshed.

34
Still, neither group completely approved.
  • America was sucked into the revolution when
    France declared war on Great Britain and the
    battle for North American land beganagain.

35
Washingtons Neutrality Proclamation
  • Jeffersonian DRs wanted to enter on the side of
    Fr.
  • Washington knew that war disaster
  • ( weaken us lead to politically disunity.)

36
Neutrality Proclamation
  • U.S.- official neutrality warning Americans to
    stay out of the issue and be impartial.
  • JDRs angry,
  • controversial statement
  • annoyed both sides.

37
Genet Incident
  • NextCitizen Edmond Genêt (Fr. Rep. to the U.S.
    is cheered on his way to Phil. by JDRsleads
    him to believe hell win US support.
  • He equipped privateers to plunder British ships
    invade Spanish Florida and British Canada.
  • His threats to go over Washingtons head get him
    kicked out of the USA.

38
Problems with Britain
  • Britain supplied the Indians with weapons on
    frontier
  • Treaty of Greenville (1795) - Indians ceded vast
    tract of Ohio country to Americans after General
    Mad Anthony Wayne crushed them at the Battle of
    Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794.

39
PROBLEMS CONTINUE
  • 300 American merchant ships seized
    impressments many of seamen into their army.
  • Many JDRs cried for war with Britain, or embargo
    Washington refused knowing Hamiltons financial
    system would be destroyed.

40
Jays Treaty Washingtons Farewell
  • Washington sent John Jay to England to negotiate.
  • Hamilton sabotages the deal by giving the Brits
    the details of Americas bargaining strategy.

41
RESULTS
  • Britain would repay MOST RECENT loses but
    nothing said about future seizures, impressments,
    and Indians arms supplying.hmmm!
  • America would have to pay off its
    pre-Revolutionary War debts to Britain.
  • JDRs from the South were incensed- southern
    farmers would have to pay, northern merchants
    would be paid.

42
SPAIN
  • Pinckney Treaty of 1795 - Americans free
    navigation of the Mississippi the disputed
    territory north of Florida.
  • WASHINGTON LEAVES
  • Created a strong two-term precedent
  • Farewell Address warned against binding,
    permanent alliances.

43
Adams Becomes President
  • Hamilton (logical choice for Pres.) unpopular due
    to his unpopular financial plan
  • Foreign born, but loophole would allow his
    presidency.

44
  • John Adams (great statesmen) beat Jefferson (VP)
    71 to 68.
  • Problems
  • Hamilton, who plotted with Adams cabinet against
    the president.
  • Does not get along with VP Jefferson.
  • Situation with France that could explode into war.

45
Unofficial Fighting with France
  • France angry over Jays Treaty (violation of
    Franco-American treaty) began seizing American
    merchant ships.

46
XYZ Affair
  • John Adams sent 3 (including Marshall) to France.
  • X, Y Z demanded 32 million florins 250,000
    bribe just for talking to Talleyrand.
  • Bribes were routine, however this was too much
    just to talk and there was no guarantee of an
    agreement.
  • Envoys returned to US, Americans irate call for
    war.
  • Adams, knew war could spell disaster remained
    neutral.

47
RESULTS
  • Undeclared war for 21/2 years - American ships
    captured over 80 armed French ships.
  • In 1800 a treaty signed in Paris.
  • Keeping the U.S. at peace, cost Adams his
    popularity his 2nd. term

48
The Federalist Witch Hunt Alien Sedition Acts
  • Federalists (elitists)- changed requirements for
    citizenship from 5 to 14 years (against
    traditional American open-door policy speedy
    assimilation.
  • President could deport dangerous aliens during
    peacetime and jail them during times of war.

49
  • The Sedition Act said anyone who defamed its
    officials, including the president, would be
    fined imprisoned (aimed at newspaper editors
    and the JDRs).
  • Although unconstitutional, Federalist passed it
    the court upheld it because of the Federalists
    majority.
  • Set (conveniently) to expire in 1801 to prevent
    use of it against them.

50
RESULTS
  • The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson)
    Resolutions
  • Jefferson Madison (1778-79) wrote a series of
    legislation stressing the compact theory, (13
    states created the government, thus individual
    states were the final judges of the laws passed
    in Congress.

51
  • Their legislation nullified (1st time) the
    Sedition and Alien Laws.(only Ky. Va.)
  • Federalists said people, not the states set up
    govt., its up to the Supreme Court to nullify
    legislation, (procedure adopted in 1803).
  • Neither Madison nor Jefferson wanted secession,
    they did want an end to Federalist abuses.
  •  

52
Federalists versus Democratic-Republicans
                         
53
Federalists (Hamilton lead)
  • Wanted a strong government
  • Educated aristocratic rule.
  • Most were the merchants, manufacturers, and
    shippers along the Atlantic seaboard.
  • Mostly pro-British and recognized that foreign
    trade was key in the U.S.

54
Dem.-Rep. (Jefferson lead)
  • Mostly agrarians,
  • insisted no special privileges for the upper
    class.
  • Farming (ennobling) kept people out of wicked
    cities, in the sun, close to God.
  • Advocated rule of the People (as long as they
  • werent ignorant).
  • Pro French

55
TJ A MAN OF CONTRADICTIONS
  • Jefferson (bad speaker - great leader).
  • Sought weaker central government that would
    preserve the sovereignty of the states yet
    becomes the head of the central government.
  • Was rich - owned slaves however he sympathized
    with the common people.

56
JUDICIAL REVIEW..
Marbury v. Madison (1803) Supreme Court case that
expanded the courts powers to include the
authority to determine whether a statute
violated the Constitution and, if it did, to
declare such a law invalid. A law may be
unconstitutional because it violates rights
guaranteed to the people by the Constitution, or
because Article I did not authorize Congress to
pass that kind of legislation.
57
THE PLAYERS...
Adams Tried to keep his party (Federalists) in
power by placing them in the Federal
Courts. Jefferson New President who refused
to deliver the WRITS (legal documents). Madison
Sec. of State who was sued for not delivering
the writs. Marbury the guy who sued to get
his job.
58
THE RESULTS...
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Marshall,
said that the law (Judiciary Act of 1789) was
UNCONSTITUTIONAL. BIG DEAL.. JUDICIAL
REVIEW The power of the Supreme Court to look
at laws and determine if they are
constitutional. If the answer is no, then the
law gets overturned.
59
(No Transcript)
60
Lewis and Clarkand others
  • Spring, 1803gtLewis picks Clark to join him in the
    journey.
  • July 4, 1803gt Announcement of Louisiana Purchase
  • Summer,1803gt keel boat constructed
  • begins
  • December 17, 1804 The men record the temperature
    at 45 degrees below zero, "colder than they
    ever knew it to be in the States."
  • December 24, 1804 The men finish building Fort
    Mandan, their winter quarters in present-day
    North Dakota.

61
  • Meriwether Lewis, Captain Assistant to Thomas
    Jefferson, avid student, expedition leader
  • William Clark, Captain Lewiss former commanding
    officer, expedition coleader
  • York Slave and lifelong companion of Clark
  • Sacagawea (wife of a French trapper)
  • Each member (apx. 45) would eat about 9 lbs. of
    meat.
  • They travel on a 55ft. keel boat.
  • The American tax collectors financed the
    expedition.
  • The total cost was 38,000
  • They traveled a total of 8,000 miles
  • It lasted a total of 2 years, 4 months, and 10
    days

62
The Corp of Discovery
  • September 23, 1806 Having found an easier route
    across the country, the men reach St. Louis
    nearly two and a half years after their journey
    began and are acclaimed as national heroes.
  • April 7, 1805 Lewis and Clark send a shipment of
    artifacts and specimens to President Jefferson.
  • August 31, 1805 The expedition sets out for the
    Bitterroot Mountains with many horses and a mule
    acquired from the Shoshone.
  • After a winter of only 12 days without rain, the
    men present their fort to the Clatsop Indians and
    set out for home

63
The Journey
64
CAUSES OF IMPENDING WAR
1. Napoleonic Wars
  • 1806 ? Berlin Decrees Continental
    System
  • 1807 ? Milan Decrees
  • No trading with Britain
  • 1808-1811 ? Britain impressed over
    6,000 American
    sailors.

65
2. Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
  • June 21, 1807.
  • Br. Captain fired on the USS Chesapeake.
  • 3 dead, 18 wounded.
  • Br. Foreign Office said it was a mistake.
  • Jeffersons Response
  • Forbade Br. ships to dock in American ports.
  • Ordered state governors to call up as much as
    100,000 militiamen.

66
3. The Embargo Act (1807)
Hurts EVERYONE!!!!
67
Presidential Election of 1808
68
James Madison Becomes President
69
Dolly Madison The Presidents Greatest Asset
70
4. The Non-Intercourse Act (1809)
  • Replaced the Embargo Act.
  • Remained U. S. policy until 1812.
  • Unexpected Consequences
  • N. Eng. was forced to become self-sufficient
    again old factories reopened.
  • Laid the groundwork for US industrial power.
  • Jefferson, a critic of an industrial America,
    ironically contributed to Hamiltons view of the
    US!!!

71
5. Br. Instigation of Indians
British General Brock Meets with Tecumseh
72
Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811
General William Henry Harrison ? governor of the
Indiana Territory. Invited Native Indian chiefs
to Ft. Wayne, IN to sign away 3 mil. acres of
land to the US government. Tecumseh organized a
confederacy of Indian tribes to fight for their
homelands. Tecumsehs brother fought against
Harrison and was defeated at Tippecanoe. This
made Harrison a national hero! 1840 election ?
Tippecanoe Tyler, too!
73
War Hawks
John C. Calhoun SC
Henry Clay KY
74
Presidential Election of 1812
75
Mr. Madisons War!
76
American Problems
  • The US was unprepared militarily
  • Had a 12-ship navy vs. Britains 800 ships.
  • Americans disliked a draft ? preferred to enlist
    in the disorganized state militias.
  • Financially unprepared
  • Flood of paper .
  • Revenue from import tariffs declined.
  • Regional disagreements.
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