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DRIFTING TOWARD DISUNION 1854-1861

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drifting toward disunion 1854-1861 chapter 19 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DRIFTING TOWARD DISUNION 1854-1861


1
DRIFTING TOWARD DISUNION 1854-1861
  • Chapter 19

2
HarrietBeecherStowe 1811 - 1896
So this is the lady who started the Civil War.
-- Abraham Lincoln
3
Consequences of Uncle Toms Cabin
  • Profound influence on public opinion
  • Moved northerners on the fence into anti-slavery
    camp.
  • Made many willing to go to war to end Slavery.
  • Made European public unsympathetic to South
  • Sold several Million copies translated into 20
    languages

4
Kansas in Flames
  • Popular Sovereignty was working poorly in Kansas.
    Why?
  • Nature of Kansas settlers.
  • Bogus Election, Bogus Laws
  • Lawrence Burned

5
Bleeding Kansas
Border Ruffians(pro-slavery Missourians)
6
John Browns Massacre
7
Madman or Martyr?
8
Lecompton Constitution
  • 1857 KS applies for statehood.
  • Issue of slavery in Kansas squarely in the
    cross-hairs.
  • Pro-slavery forces determined to make the Kansas
    a slave state.
  • Lecompton Constitution.
  • Anti-Slave forces think the Constitution is a
    sham. Why?
  • What do Free-soil forces do?
  • Now issue lands in the lap of Congress.

9
The Crime Against Kansas
  • Sumner "Hirelings picked from the drunken spew
    and vomit of an uneasy civilization."
  • Brooks beats him with his cane.
  • North is outraged and the Crime Against Kansas
    speech is printed and sold by the thousands.
  • The Sumner-Brooks clash revealed how dangerously
    inflamed passions were becoming between North and
    South.

Sen. Charles Sumner(R-MA)
Congr. Preston Brooks(D-SC)
10
Election of 1856
  • Democrats Nominate James Buchanan.
  • Reject weak Pierce and Dynamic Douglas.
  • Experienced, but weak.
  • Platform is for popular sovereignty

11
Election of 1856
  • Rise of the Republicans
  • John C. Fremont.
  • Platform
  • Know-Nothings (American Party ) chose Millard
    Fillmore.
  • What is basic position of this party?
  • What does south threaten to do if Fremont is
    elected?
  • Impact on election?

12
1856Election Results
13
Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857
  • On March 6, 1857, The Dred Scott case hits the
    nation by storm.
  • One of the opening blasts of the Civil War.
  • What did the Court rule?
  • Why did it inflame the passions of the North?

14
Financial Crash Of 1857
  • 1857 economic panic
  • Causes?
  • Hits North harder than South. Why?
  • Consequences?
  • North demands a homestead act.
  • South strongly opposes.
  • Why?
  • 1860 Congress passed the Homestead Act.

15
Abe Lincoln
Approaching Fury
  • After Kansas-Nebraska Act and Dred Scott, emerged
    as leading voice against both in Illinois and in
    new Republican Party.
  • Picked to run against Douglas for Ill. Senate.
  • Little political experience, but forceful orator.
  • Background on Lincoln.

16
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858
A House divided against itself, cannot stand.
17
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
  • 7 debates between August and October 1858.
  • Most famous debate in Freeport, Illinois.
  • Freeport Doctrine.
  • Douglas wins election even though Lincoln
    probably had more votes. Why?
  • Debates make Lincoln a national figure and gets
    him the presidential nomination in 1860.

18
John Brown Strikes Again
  • Brown scheme to attack the federal arsenal at
    Harpers Ferry, Va.
  • What is his logic?
  • Attacked Oct. 1859 killed 7 innocent people
    including a free black
  • Reaction of slaves
  • Robert E. Lee.
  • Convicted of murder and treason.
  • Executed, and became a martyr for radical
    abolitionists.
  • Reaction in South and consequences?

19
Disruption Of The Democrats
  • Election of 1860 was the most fateful in American
    history peace or civil war was on the line.
  • Democrats (deeply divided)
  • Douglas leading candidate of the northern Dems.
  • South regarded him as a traitor. Why?
  • Buchanan not re-nominated.

20
Republicans Smell Victory
  • Republicans smell victory with Dems divided.
  • Seward most prominent and popular Republican.
    Why doesnt he get the nomination?
  • Nominate Lincoln as second choice on strength of
    past performance against Douglas.

21
Republican Party Platform in 1860
  • The Republican Platform had a little bit of
    something for everyone.
  • To win Republicans must broaden their base and
    appeal on issues beyond Slavery.
  • Non-extension of slavery (for the core of the
    party).
  • Protective tariff (for the Northern
    Industrialists).
  • No abridgment of rights for immigrants (for
    immigrants).
  • Government aid to build a Pacific RR (for the
    Northwest).
  • Internal improvements at federal expense. (West)
  • Free homesteads for the public domain (for
    farmers).

22
1860 Election Results
Lincoln gets only 40 of the vote, and virtually
all of it came from free states. In ten southern
states he wasnt even allowed on the ballot.
23
Presidential Election of 1860 (showing popular
vote by county)
  • Lincoln did not win any states below the Ohio
    river, but decisively won those above the Ohio
  • These maps dramatically show the demographic
    split in the nation. Also show that the middle
    border states are less clearly secessionist

24
Electoral Upheaval Of 1860
  • Southern fire-eaters elated. Why?
  • Nature of the vote in the South.
  • Despite Lincoln victory, the South not that bad
    off. Why?
  • Still control the Supreme Court and
  • Still control 30 votes in the senate.

25
Secession
  • Four days after the election South Carolinas
    legislature voted to call a special convention on
    Secession, which voted unanimously to secede.
  • Six other states quickly follow suit.

26
Confederacy Born
  • Feb. 1861 create Confederate States of America
  • Jefferson Davis becomes President.
  • West-Point graduate,
  • Former Senator from Mississippi,
  • former Secretary of War.
  • Has lots of governmental experience and is an
    able politician, but not good at delegating and
    chronic-ill health.

27
Crittenden Compromise
  • Secession led to desperate search for one more
    compromise.
  • Senator James Henry Crittenden
  • Crittenden Compromise
  • Terms?
  • Why rejected by Lincoln?

28
Farewell To Union
  • Why did the Southern States secede? They had a
    majority of the Supreme Court and could block any
    attempt to amend the Constitution to prohibit
    slavery.
  • Discuss

29
Fort Sumter April 12, 1861
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