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CHAPTER 18 AMERICA CLAIMS AN EMPIRE

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CHAPTER 18 AMERICA CLAIMS AN EMPIRE * FILIPINOS REBEL Filipinos reacted with rage to the American annexation Rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo vowed to fight for freedom ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CHAPTER 18 AMERICA CLAIMS AN EMPIRE


1
CHAPTER 18 AMERICA CLAIMS AN EMPIRE
2
Objectives1. The learner will understand how
individuals and events moved the United States
into the role of a world power and to recognize
the effects of economic policies on U.S.
diplomacy.2. The learner will explain the
economic and cultural factors that fueled the
growth of American imperialism.3. The learner
will describe how the United States acquired
Alaska.4. The learner will summarize how the
United States took over the Hawaiian islands.
  • State Standards
  • 7.4 Identify the causes of American involvement
    in World War I (i.e., security concerns, economic
    benefits, Wilsonian diplomacy, propaganda).
  • 8.3 Recognize the definitions of totalitarianism,
    fascism, communism, nationalism, and
    anti-Semitism.

3
One Americans Story
  • A PERSONAL VOICE QUEEN LILIUOKALANI
  • I, Liliuokalani, . . . do hereby solemnly
    protest against any and all acts done against
    myself and the constitutional government of the
    Hawaiian Kingdom. . . . Now, to avoid any
    collision of armed forces and perhaps the loss of
    life, I do under this protest . . . yield my
    authority until such time as the Government of
    the United States shall . . . undo the action of
    its representatives and reinstate me in the
    authority which I claim as the constitutional
    sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands.
  • quoted in Those Kings and Queens of Old Hawaii
  • In 1891, Queen Liliuokalani becomes Hawaiis
    queen and proposes a new constitution.
  • Queen Liliuokalani surrendered Hawaii to the
    United States in 1893.

4
IMPERIALISM AND AMERICA
  • Throughout the 19th century America expanded
    control of the continent to the Pacific Ocean
  • By 1880, many American leaders felt the U.S.
    should join European nations and establish
    colonies overseas
  • Thus began Americas foray into Imperialism - the
    policy in which stronger nations extend control
    over weaker nations
  • An anti-imperialist be quoted as saying, It is
    not necessary to own people to trade with them.

5
Imperialism the policy of extending a nations
authority over other countries by economic,
political, or military means.
NEXT
6
WHY IMPERIALISM?
  • 1) Desire for Military strength Admiral Alfred
    T. Mahan urges U.S. to build up navy to compete
  • U.S. builds modern battleships, becomes third
    largest naval power
  • 2) Thirst for new markets to spur economy
    trade
  • The rapid growth of industry in the United States
    helped fuel imperialism because the United States
    was producing too many goods for its own people
    to buy.
  • 3) Belief in Cultural Superiority a belief that
    Anglo-Saxons were superior
  • Thirst for new economic markets, desire for
    military strength, a belief in the cultural
    superiority of the Anglo-Saxon culture stimulated
    U.S. imperialism.
  • Japan, Spain, the United States were imperialist
    powers in the late 1800s.
  • In 1890, urged by such leaders as U.S. Navy
    admiral Alfred T. Mahan, the United States
    constructs many new battleships, transforming the
    nation into the worlds third largest naval power.

7
THE U.S. ACQUIRES ALASKA
  • In 1867, Secretary of State William Steward
    arranged for the United States to buy Alaska from
    the Russians for 7.2 million
  • Some thought it was a silly idea and called it
    Stewards Icebox
  • Time has shown how smart it was to buy Alaska for
    2 cents an acre
  • Alaska is rich in timber, minerals and oil

Alaska
8
U.S. TAKES HAWAII
  • Hawaii had been economically important to
    Americans for centuries
  • To avoid import taxes (tariffs), sugar growers
    pleaded for annexation
  • In 1890, The McKinley Tariff causes a crisis by
    threatening Hawaiian sugar growers with economic
    disaster.
  • In 1887, U.S. military and economic leaders
    pressure Hawaii to allow the United States to
    build a naval base at Pearl Harbor.
  • In 1887, white business leaders force King
    Kalakaua to change Hawaiis constitution to grant
    voting rights only to wealthy landowners.

9
U.S. TAKES HAWAII
  • Led by Sanford Dole, American annexed Hawaii in
    1898 and it formally became a state in 1959
  • In 1893, with aid of the U.S. ambassador, white
    business groups overthrow the Hawaiian government
    and establish a provisional government with
    Sanford B. Dole as President.
  • In 1894, President Grover Cleveland formally
    recognizes the Republic of Hawaii.
  • In 1897, William McKinley who favors the
    annexation of Hawaii takes over the presidency
    from Cleveland.
  • In 1898, Congress proclaims Hawaii an American
    territory.

10
Imperialism the policy of extending a nations
authority over other countries by economic,
political, or military means.
NEXT
11
Objectives1. The learner will understand how
individuals and events moved the United States
into the role of a world power and to recognize
the effects of economic policies on U.S.
diplomacy.2. The learner will contrast American
opinions regarding the Cuban revolt against
Spain.3. The learner will identify events that
escalated the conflict between the United States
and Spain.4. The learner will trace the course
of the Spanish-American War and it results.
  • State Standards
  • 7.2 Recognize European countries by their
    alliance systems and spheres of influence by
    using a map.

12
SECTION 2 THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
  • America had long held an interest in Cuba
  • When Cubans unsuccessfully rebelled against
    Spanish rule in the late 19th century, American
    sympathy went out to the Cuban people
  • After Spain abolished slavery in Cuba in 1886,
    Americans invested millions in Cuban sugar

Cuba is just 90 miles south of Florida
13
CUBAS SECOND WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE
  • Anti-Spain sentiment in Cuba soon erupted into a
    second war for independence
  • Led by poet Jose Marti, Cuba attempted a
    revolution in 1895
  • Jose Marti was a Cuban poet and journalist that
    launched a Cuban revolution in 1895.
  • Marti deliberately destroyed property, including
    American sugar plants, hoping to provoke American
    intervention
  • Jose Marti, a Cuban poet and journalist in exile
    in New York, organized a guerrilla campaign to
    destroy American-owned property in Cuba in order
    to provoke U.S. intervention in Cuba.

Marti
14
WAR FEVER ESCALATES
  • General Valeriano Weyler forced Cubans to
    relocated to reconcentration camps where
    thousands of them died.
  • Yellow journalism is a sensational style of
    writing that exaggerates the news to lure
    readers.
  • Newspaper publishers William Randolph Hearst (New
    York Journal) and Joseph Pulitzer (New York
    World) exaggerated Spanish atrocities and
    brutality in Headline Wars
  • William Randolph Hearst told the artist Frederic
    Remington, You furnish the pictures and Ill
    furnish the war.

Political cartoon Pulitzer (left) and Hearst
escalating and instigating war between the U.S.
and Spain
15
Yellow journalism the use of sensationalized
and exaggerated reporting by newspapers or
magazines to attract readers.
16
De Lome Letter
  • Headlines increase American sympathy for
    independent Cuba
  • McKinley wants to avoid war, tries diplomacy to
    resolve crisis
  • The De Lome letters criticism of the American
    president caused American resentment toward Spain
    to turn to outrage.
  • Private letter by Spanish minister Enrique Dupuy
    de Lôme published
  • calls McKinley weak, swayed by public
  • Criticisms of President McKinley was included in
    the de Lome letter.
  • Spain apologizes, de Lôme resigns American
    public angry

17
U.S.S MAINE EXPLODES
  • Early in 1888, President McKinley ordered the
    U.S.S. Maine to Cuba in order to bring home
    American citizens in danger
  • On February 15, 1898 the ship blew up in the
    harbor of Havana
  • More than 260 men were killed

Before
After
18
Yellow journalism the use of sensationalized
and exaggerated reporting by newspapers or
magazines to attract readers. U.S.S. Maine a
U.S. warship that mysteriously exploded and sank
in the harbor of Havana, Cuba, on February 15,
1898.
19
The Maine Explodes Unknown artist , 1898 Notice
the men flying dramatically through the air
20
WAR ERUPTS WITH SPAIN
  • There was no holding back those that wanted war
    with Spain
  • Newspapers blamed the Spanish for bombing the
    U.S.S. Maine (recent investigations have shown it
    was a fire inside the Maine)
  • The mysterious sinking of the U.S.S. Maine fueled
    the movement for war with Spain.
  • Remember the Maine! became a rallying cry for
    U.S. intervention in Cuba

21
THE WAR IN THE PHILIPPINES
  • U.S. forces surprised Spain by attacking the
    Spanish colony of the Philippines
  • 11,000 Americans joined forces with Filipino
    rebel leader Emilo Aguinaldo
  • By August, 1898 Spain had surrendered to the U.S.
    in Manila
  • George Dewey was the naval commander who led the
    American forces that steamed into Manila Bay and
    destroyed the Spanish fleet.

22
THE WAR IN THE CARIBBEAN
  • A naval blockade of Cuba was followed by a land
    invasion highlighted by Roosevelts Rough Rider
    victory at San Juan Hill
  • The Rough Riders were a volunteer cavalry unit
    who fought in a famous land battle near Santiago,
    Cuba.
  • Theodore Roosevelt was declared the hero of San
    Juan Hill, even though he and his units played
    only a minor role in its capture.
  • Next, the American Navy destroyed the Spanish
    fleet and paved the way for an invasion of Puerto
    Rico (Spanish colony)

23
Yellow journalism the use of sensationalized
and exaggerated reporting by newspapers or
magazines to attract readers. U.S.S. Maine a
U.S. warship that mysteriously exploded and sank
in the harbor of Havana, Cuba, on February 15,
1898. Rough Riders a volunteer cavalry
regiment, commanded by Leonard Wood and Theodore
Roosevelt, that served in the Spanish-American
War.
24
(No Transcript)
25
U.S. WINS SIGNS TREATY OF PARIS
  • The U.S. and Spain signed an armistice on August
    12, 1898, ending what Secretary of State John Hay
    called a splendid little war
  • The war lasted only 16 weeks
  • Spanish-American War ended with the Treaty of
    Paris of 1898.
  • The Treaty of Paris of 1898 guaranteed
    independence from Spain for Cuba.
  • Cuba was now independent
  • U.S. receives Guam, Puerto Rico, and bought the
    Philippines for 20 million
  • After the war, the United States paid 20 million
    dollars to Spain for the annexation of the
    Philippine Islands.
  • Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines came under
    some form of U.S. control as a result of the
    Spanish-American War.

Treaty of Paris, 1898
26
Yellow journalism the use of sensationalized
and exaggerated reporting by newspapers or
magazines to attract readers. U.S.S. Maine a
U.S. warship that mysteriously exploded and sank
in the harbor of Havana, Cuba, on February 15,
1898. Rough Riders a volunteer cavalry
regiment, commanded by Leonard Wood and Theodore
Roosevelt, that served in the Spanish-American
War. Treaty of Paris (1898) the treaty ending
the Spanish American War, in which Spain freed
Cuba, turned over the islands of Guam and Puerto
Rico to the United States, and sold the
Philippines to the United States for 20 million.
27
Yellow journalism the use of sensationalized
and exaggerated reporting by newspapers or
magazines to attract readers. U.S.S. Maine a
U.S. warship that mysteriously exploded and sank
in the harbor of Havana, Cuba, on February 15,
1898. Rough Riders a volunteer cavalry
regiment, commanded by Leonard Wood and Theodore
Roosevelt, that served in the Spanish-American
War. Treaty of Paris (1898) the treaty ending
the Spanish American War, in which Spain freed
Cuba, turned over the islands of Guam and Puerto
Rico to the United States, and sold the
Philippines to the United States for 20 million.
28
Objectives1. The learner will understand how
individuals and events moved the United States
into the role of a world power and to recognize
the effects of economic policies on U.S.
diplomacy.2. The learner will describe U.S.
involvement in Puerto Rico and in Cuba.3. The
learner will identify causes and effects of the
Philippine-American War.4. The learner will
summarize the views regarding U.S. imperialism.
  • State Standards
  • 7.9 Compare and contrast the philosophies of
    DuBois, Washington and Garvey.

29
SECTION 3 ACQUIRING NEW LANDS
  • The U.S had to decide how to rule the new lands
  • Puerto Rico wanted their independence but the
    U.S. had other plans
  • Luis Munoz Rivera was a newspaper editor and
    supporter of independence for Puerto Rico.
  • Puerto Rico was important to the U.S.
    strategically

30
Return to Civil Government
  • Puerto Rico strategic as post in Caribbean, for
    protection of future canal
  • 1900, Foraker Act sets up civil government
  • president appoints governor, upper house
  • Puerto Rico was directly affected by the Foraker
    Act.
  • The purpose of the Foraker Act was to end
    military rule and setup a civil government in
    Puerto Rico.
  • Puerto Rico residents became citizens of the
    United States in 1917 elect both houses.

31
Foraker Act legislation passed by Congress in
1900, in which the U.S. ended military rule in
Puerto Rico and set up a civil government.
32
CUBA AND THE UNITED STATES
  • The Treaty of Paris granted full independence to
    Cuba
  • The U.S signed an agreement with Cuba known as
    the Platt Amendment 1903
  • Key features of Platt included the right of the
    U.S. to maintain naval stations on the island and
    the right to intervene in Cuban affairs
  • Cuba had become a protectorate of the U.S.
  • The Platt Amendment made the U.S. a protectorate
    of Cuba.
  • The United States insisted that Cuba include The
    Platt Amendment in its constitution.
  • The United States would not withdraw its Army
    from Cuba until that country adopted the Platt
    Amendment.

Guantanamo Bay, Cuba
33
Foraker Act legislation passed by Congress in
1900, in which the U.S. ended military rule in
Puerto Rico and set up a civil government. Platt
Amendment a series of provisions that, in 1901,
the United States insisted Cuba add to its new
constitution, commanding Cuba to stay out of debt
and giving the United States the right to
intervene in the country and the right to buy or
lease Cuban land for naval and fueling
stations. Protectorate a country whose affairs
are partially controlled by a stronger power.
34
FILIPINOS REBEL
  • Filipinos reacted with rage to the American
    annexation
  • Rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo vowed to fight for
    freedom and in 1899 he led a rebellion
  • Emilio Aguinaldo fought for independence for the
    Philippines
  • The 3-year war claimed 20,000 Filipino rebels,
    4,000 American lives and 400,000,000 (20x the
    price the U.S. paid for the land)
  • The Philippines attempted to achieve its
    independence by going to war against the United
    States.
  • During the Philippine-American War the United
    States treated Filipinos in much the same way the
    Spanish had treated the Cubans.
  • The United States used the same sort of
    concentration camp practices that it had
    condemned Spain for using in Cuba against the
    Philippines.

U.S. troops fire on rebels
35
FOREIGN INFLUENCE IN CHINA
  • China was a vast potential market for American
    products
  • Weakened by war and foreign intervention, many
    European countries had colonized in China
  • In 1889, John Hay, U.S. Secretary of State,
    issued the Open Door Policy which outlined his
    plan for free trade among nations in China
  • China was the focus of John Hays Open Door
    Notes.
  • The Open Door Policy was designed as a way for
    the United States to further its trade interests
  • At the turn of the century, China could be
    described as an independent, though bullied,
    trading partner of the United States.

Foreign nations were opening the door to Chinas
trade
36
Foraker Act legislation passed by Congress in
1900, in which the U.S. ended military rule in
Puerto Rico and set up a civil government. Platt
Amendment a series of provisions that, in 1901,
the United States insisted Cuba add to its new
constitution, commanding Cuba to stay out of debt
and giving the United States the right to
intervene in the country and the right to buy or
lease Cuban land for naval and fueling
stations. Protectorate a country whose affairs
are partially controlled by a stronger
power. Open Door Notes messages sent by
Secretary of State John Hay in 1899 to Germany,
Russia, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan,
asking the countries not to interfere with U.S.
trading rights in China.
37
BOXER REBELLION
  • European nations dominated Chinas cities
  • Resentment arose in the form of secret societies
    determined to rid China of these foreign devils
  • The Boxers were a secret group that rioted in
    1900, killing and vandalizing all things foreign
  • Foreign Troops were called in to put down this
    Boxer Rebellion
  • The Boxer Rebellion took place China.
  • The Boxer Rebellion was an attempt by Chinese
    revolutionaries to remove foreign influence from
    China.

38
Foraker Act legislation passed by Congress in
1900, in which the U.S. ended military rule in
Puerto Rico and set up a civil government. Platt
Amendment a series of provisions that, in 1901,
the United States insisted Cuba add to its new
constitution, commanding Cuba to stay out of debt
and giving the United States the right to
intervene in the country and the right to buy or
lease Cuban land for naval and fueling
stations. Protectorate a country whose affairs
are partially controlled by a stronger
power. Open Door Notes messages sent by
Secretary of State John Hay in 1899 to Germany,
Russia, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan,
asking the countries not to interfere with U.S.
trading rights in China. Boxer Rebellion a 1900
rebellion in which members of a Chinese secret
society sought to free their country from Western
influence.
39
AMERICANS PROTECT RIGHTS IN ASIA
  • After the Boxer Rebellion, John Hay again issued
    a series of Open Door Policies
  • These policies reflected American beliefs in the
    importance of exports, the right of America to
    intervene to keep foreign markets open, and the
    belief that Americas survival depended on access
    to foreign markets

40
Foraker Act legislation passed by Congress in
1900, in which the U.S. ended military rule in
Puerto Rico and set up a civil government. Platt
Amendment a series of provisions that, in 1901,
the United States insisted Cuba add to its new
constitution, commanding Cuba to stay out of debt
and giving the United States the right to
intervene in the country and the right to buy or
lease Cuban land for naval and fueling
stations. Protectorate a country whose affairs
are partially controlled by a stronger
power. Open Door Notes messages sent by
Secretary of State John Hay in 1899 to Germany,
Russia, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan,
asking the countries not to interfere with U.S.
trading rights in China. Boxer Rebellion a 1900
rebellion in which members of a Chinese secret
society sought to free their country from Western
influence.
41
Objectives1. The learner will understand how
individuals and events moved the United States
into the role of a world power and to recognize
the effects of economic policies on U.S.
diplomacy.2. The learner will explain how
Theodore Roosevelts foreign policy promoted
American power around the world.3. The learner
will describe how Woodrow Wilsons missionary
diplomacy ensured U.S. dominance in Latin America.
  • State Standards
  • 7.4 Identify the causes of American involvement
    in World War I (i.e., security concerns, economic
    benefits, Wilsonian diplomacy, propaganda).
  • 7.7 Determine the possible factors that led to
    the economic collapse of 1929 (i.e., over
    production of agriculture and industry, expansion
    of credit, financial speculation, agricultural
    crop failures, tariff barriers, laissez- faire).
  • 7.10 Analyze the American isolationist position
    versus interventionist arguments.
  • 8.1 Identify the causes of World War II (i.e.,
    Treaty of Versailles, fascism, failure of the
    League of Nations, Japanese imperialism, economic
    worldwide difficulties).

42
SECTION 4 AMERICA AS A WORLD POWER
  • Roosevelt the Peacemaker
  • Roosevelt does not want Europeans to control
    world economy, politics
  • 1904, Japan, Russia dispute control of Korea
  • The Russo-Japanese war was the conflict the U.S.
    military had to get involved in.
  • Roosevelt negotiates Treaty of Portsmouth
  • Japan gets Manchuria, Korea
  • Theodore Roosevelt won the 1906 Nobel Peace Price
    for negotiating an end to war between Russia and
    Japan.
  • U.S., Japan continue diplomatic talks
  • pledge to respect each others possessions

The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded annually
43
THE PANAMA CANAL
  • U.S. wants canal to cut travel time of
    commercial, military ships
  • U.S. buys French companys route through Panama
  • The Panama Canal was built during Theodore
    Roosevelt Presidency.
  • Negotiates with Colombia to build Panama Canal
    talks break down
  • French company agent helps organize Panamanian
    rebellion
  • The United States gained control of the land it
    needed to build the Panama Canal by encouraging
    and supporting Panamanian independence.
  • U.S., Panama sign treaty U.S. pays 10 million
    for Canal Zone
  • The Panama Canal was built on land that had
    previously been controlled by Colombia.

The shortcut
44
Panama Canal an artificial waterway cut through
the Isthmus of Panama to provide a shortcut
between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, opened
in 1914.
45
BUILDING THE PANAMA CANAL 1904-1914
  • The French had already unsuccessfully attempted
    to build a canal through Panama
  • America first had to help Panama win their
    independence from Colombia which it did
  • The construction of the Panama Canal ranks as one
    of the worlds greatest engineering feats.

Cost- 380 million Workers Over
40,000 (5,600 died) Time Construction took 10
years
46
This view, provided by NASA, shows the thin blue
line (canal) cutting across the middle of Panama
47
Almost 1,000,000 ships have passed through the
canal, which became sole property of Panama in
the year 2000
48
The Roosevelt Corollary
  • Teddy Roosevelts approach to foreign policy
    reflected the proverb Speak softly and carry a
    big stick because his negotiations were always
    backed by the threat of military force.
  • Roosevelt fears European intervention if Latin
    America defaults
  • Reminds Europeans of Monroe Doctrine, demands
    they stay out
  • Roosevelt CorollaryU. S. to use force to protect
    economic interests
  • The Roosevelt Corollary was also known as big
    stick diplomacy, and was the official American
    policy stating that disorder in Latin America
    could force the United States to send its
    military into Latin American nations to protect
    American economic interests.
  • The Roosevelt Corollary built on the Monroe
    Doctrine.

49
Panama Canal an artificial waterway cut through
the Isthmus of Panama to provide a shortcut
between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, opened
in 1914. Roosevelt Corollary an extension of
the Monroe Doctrine, announced by President
Theodore Roosevelt in 1904, under which the
United States claimed the right to protect its
economic interests by means of military
intervention in the affairs of Western Hemisphere
nations.
50
Dollar Diplomacy
  • Early 1900s, U.S. exercises police power on
    several occasions
  • Dollar diplomacyU.S. guarantees foreign loans by
    U.S. business
  • Dollar Diplomacy refers to the policy of using
    the U.S. government to guarantee loans made to
    foreign countries by American business people.

51
Panama Canal an artificial waterway cut through
the Isthmus of Panama to provide a shortcut
between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, opened
in 1914. Roosevelt Corollary an extension of
the Monroe Doctrine, announced by President
Theodore Roosevelt in 1904, under which the
United States claimed the right to protect its
economic interests by means of military
intervention in the affairs of Western Hemisphere
nations. Dollar Diplomacy the U.S. policy of
using the nations economic power to exert
influence over other countries.
52
The Mexican Revolution
  • Missionary diplomacyU.S. has moral
    responsibility
  • will not recognize regimes that are oppressive,
    undemocratic
  • Missionary Diplomacy refers to the policy of
    denying recognition of Latin American governments
    that the United States viewed as oppressive,
    undemocratic, or hostile to U.S. interests.
  • Under dictator Porfirio Díaz, much U.S.
    investment in Mexico
  • 1911, peasants, workers led by Francisco Madero
    overthrow Díaz
  • General Victoriano Huerta takes over government
    Madero is murdered
  • Wilson refuses to recognize Huertas government

53
Intervention in Mexico
  • Huertas officers arrest U.S. sailors, quickly
    release them
  • Wilson orders Marines to occupy Veracruz
  • During Woodrow Wilson presidency, the United
    States and Mexico came close to war.
  • Argentina, Brazil, Chile mediate to avoid war
  • Huerta regime falls nationalist Venustiano
    Carranza new president

54
Rebellion in Mexico
  • Francisco Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata oppose
    Carranza
  • Zapata wants land reform
  • Villa a fierce nationalist
  • Wilson recognizes Carranzas government Villa
    threatens reprisals
  • Villas men kill Americans

55
Chasing Villa
  • Brig. Gen. John J. Pershing leads force to
    capture Villa
  • John J. Pershing led American forces into Mexico
    in pursuit of a Mexican revolutionary leader.
  • American troops were sent to Mexico to try to
    capture Francisco Pancho Villa a Mexican
    revolutionary leader.
  • Carranza demands withdrawal of U.S. troops
    Wilson at first refuses
  • General John J. Pershing led a force of fifteen
    thousand soldiers in an attempt to capture Pancho
    Villa.
  • U.S. faces war in Europe, wants peace on southern
    border
  • Wilson orders Pershing home
  • Mexico adopts new constitution
  • government controls oil, minerals
  • restricts foreign investors
  • 1920, Alvaro Obregón new president ends civil
    war, starts reforms

56
Panama Canal an artificial waterway cut through
the Isthmus of Panama to provide a shortcut
between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, opened
in 1914. Roosevelt Corollary an extension of
the Monroe Doctrine, announced by President
Theodore Roosevelt in 1904, under which the
United States claimed the right to protect its
economic interests by means of military
intervention in the affairs of Western Hemisphere
nations. Dollar Diplomacy the U.S. policy of
using the nations economic power to exert
influence over other countries.
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