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Title: WHI.04: India, China, and Persia


1
WHI.04 India, China, and Persia
2
Objectives
p. 043
  • WHI.4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of
    the civilizations of Persia, India, and China in
    terms of chronology, geography, social
    structures, government, economy, religion, and
    contributions to later civilizations by
  • describing Persia, with emphasis on the
    development of an imperial bureaucracy
  • describing India, with emphasis on the Aryan
    migrations and the caste system
  • describing the origins, beliefs, traditions,
    customs, and spread of Hinduism
  • describing the origins, beliefs, traditions,
    customs, and spread of Buddhism
  • describing China, with emphasis on the
    development of an empire and the construction of
    the Great Wall
  • describing the impact of Confucianism, Taoism,
    and Buddhism.

3
Essential Understandings
p. 044
  1. Classical Indian civilization began in the Indus
    River Valley and spread to the Ganges River
    Valley, then through the Indian subcontinent. It
    continued with little interruption because of its
    geographic location.
  2. The Indo-Aryan people migrated into the area,
    creating a structured society (caste system) and
    blended their beliefs with those of the
    indigenous people.
  3. During the Golden Age of classical Indian
    culture, Indian people made significant
    contributions to world civilization.
  4. Hinduism was an important contribution of
    classical India.
  5. Hinduism influenced Indian society and culture
    and is still practiced in India today.
  6. Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama in a
    part of India that is in present-day Nepal.
  7. Buddhism became a major faith when Asoka sent
    missionaries throughout Asia.
  8. Classical China was centered on the Huang He
    (Yellow River) and was geographically isolated.
    Invaders entered China from the North. The Great
    Wall was built for Chinas protection.
  9. Chinese culture began around 1500 B.C. (B.C.E).
    Of Chinese contributions to civilization,
    Confucianism and Taoism are among the most noted.
  10. Built on earlier Central Asian and Mesopotamian
    civilizations, Persia developed the largest
    empire in the world.

4
Essential Questions
p. 044
  1. Why were physical geography and location
    important to the development of Indian
    civilization?
  2. What impact did the Aryans have on India?
  3. Why was the caste system central to Indian
    culture?
  4. What were the accomplishments of the Mauryan and
    Gupta empires?
  5. What are the beliefs of the Hindu religion?
  6. How did Hinduism influence Indian society and
    culture?
  7. What are the beliefs of Buddhism?
  8. How did Buddhism spread?
  9. Why was the Great Wall of China built?
  10. What were contributions of classical China to
    world civilization?
  11. Why were Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism
    important in the formation of Chinese culture?
  12. How did Persia govern its empire?

5
Why Do I Need To Know This?
p. 044
  1. Almost one fifth of the worlds people today
    practice Hinduism and Buddhism.
  2. The diversity of peoples, cultures, beliefs, and
    languages in India continues to pose challenges
    to Indian unity today.
  3. The people, events, and ideas that shaped Chinas
    early history continue to influence Chinas role
    in todays world.
  4. The pattern of a strong central government has
    remained a permanent part of Chinese life.
  5. Tolerance and wise government are characteristics
    of the most successful methods of rule.

6
India
p. 45-49
7
Aryan Invaders Transform India
p. 045
1. the Aryans were tall light skinned
Indo-European warriors who invaded and
conquered India about 1500 B.C. a. invaded
India through the Khyber Pass in the Hindu Kush
mountains 2. had no writing system and counted
their worth in cows
8
India
9
Aryan Invasion
10
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11
Aryans
12
The Caste System
p. 045
1. Brahmins priests 2. Kshatriyas rulers
and warriors 3. Vaishyas peasants and
traders 4. Shudras laborers 5. Dalits the
untouchables actually lived outside the caste
system 6. people were born into their caste for
life (could not move between castes)
13
Aryan Caste System
14
Untouchables
15
Hinduism
p. 045
Origins/Writings 1. cannot be tracked down to
one founder with a single set of ideas 2. most
religious writings are collected in the Vedas and
Upanishads 3. Hindus see religion as a way of
liberating the soul from illusions,
disappointments, and mistakes of everyday
existence
16
Hinduism
p. 045
  • Basic Beliefs
  • Moksha a state of perfect understanding of all
    things ultimate liberation of the soul
  • Reincarnation rebirth of the soul or spirit
    over and over again) until moksha is achieved
  • Karma (good or bad deeds) follows from one
    reincarnation to another and determines specific
    life circumstances
  • Dharma the duties of your class
  • These ideas strengthened the idea of the caste
    system

17
Hinduism
p. 045
  • Deity/Deities
  • 1. The Brahman was sometimes seen as having
    three personalities
  • a. Brahma the creator
  • b. Vishnu the protector
  • c. Shiva the destroyer
  • Hindus are free to choose the deity they worship,
    or even none at all

18
Brahma
19
Vishnu
20
Shiva
21
Caste System Activity
Jordan Vermillion
  • Expectations and Duty
  • Please keep your hands to yourselves
    (especially male and female)
  • Keep voices limited to a whisper
  • No arguing over outcome (best two out of 3)
  • Not doing your duty means bad karma
  • Any unacceptable behavior will make you an
    untouchable.

22
Jainism
p. 047
1. believe that everything in the universe has a
soul and should not be harmed
23
Buddhism
p. 047
Origin 1. founded by Siddhartha
Gautama 2. achieved enlightenment after fasting
and meditating under a fig tree for 49
days 3. became known as the Buddha the
enlightened one
24
Buddhism
p. 047
  • Four Noble Truths
  • first everything in life is suffering and
    sorrow
  • second the cause of all suffering is peoples
    selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of
    this world
  • third the way to end all suffering is to end
    desires
  • fourth the way to overcome such desires and
    attain enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold
    Path
  • 1)Right View, 2) Right Intention,
  • 3) Right Speech, 4) Right Action,
  • 5) Right Livelihood, 6)Right Effort,
  • 7) Right Mindfulness, 8) Right Concentration

25
Buddhism
p. 047
Nirvana the Buddhas word for release from
selfishness and pain
26
Buddhism
p. 047
  • Buddhism compared to Hinduism
  • Accepted the Hindu ideas of reincarnation and
    karma
  • Rejected the many gods of Hinduism actually
    forbade people to worship a deity
  • Rejected the caste system
  • The final goals of moksha and nirvana are similar
  • 8. Buddhist missionaries went to Sri Lanka,
    Southeast Asia and China
  • 9. Buddhism never(p.66) gained a significant
    foothold in India

27
Buddhism
p. 047
  • Location
  • Buddhist missionaries went to Sri Lanka,
    Southeast Asia and China
  • Buddhism never gained a significant foothold in
    India

28
Buddhism
p. 047
Different Sects Mahayana this group began to
teach that Buddha was a god a. they made
Buddhism a religion that offered salvation to all
and allowed worship Theravada held to the
Buddhas stricter, original teachings a. a
religion that emphasized individual discipline
29
Mahayana Buddha
30
Theravada Buddhism
31
Theravada Buddhism
32
Mauryan Empire (321-185 BC)
p. 049
  • Founder Chandragupta Maurya
  • united north India for the first time
  • created a highly bureaucratic government to hold
    his vast empire together

33
Mauryan Empire (321-185 BC)
p. 049
  • Asoka Maurya (Ashoka)
  • brought the Mauryan Empire to its greatest
    heights
  • Was Buddhist, but urged religious toleration to
    Hindus
  • Spread Buddhism to China
  • 4. built extensive roads so he could visit the
    far corners of India
  • 5. also built free hospitals and veterinary
    clinics
  • 6. Asokas death brought the end of the Mauryan
    Empire and India fell into turmoil

34
Asoka Maurya
35
Gupta Empire (320-550 AD)
p. 049
  • Founder
  • Chandra Gupta I (not the same as Chandragupta
    Maurya)
  • majority of villagers were farmers

36
Gupta Empire (320-550 AD)
p. 049
  • Astronomy, Mathematics, and Medicine
  • expansion of trade caused an increase in the
    knowledge of astronomy
  • began to use a calendar based on the cycles of
    the moon, adopted a seven-day week, and divided
    the day into hours
  • proved the earth was round by observing a lunar
    eclipse
  • modern numbers, the zero, and the decimal(p. 178)
    system were invented in India
  • calculated the value of pi to four decimal places
    3.1415
  • compiled two important medical guides that
    classified more than 1,000 diseases and more than
    500 medical plants
  • learned how to perform surgery (including plastic
    surgery) and possibly gave inoculations

37
Pi
38
The Spread of Indian Trade Gupta Empire (320-550
AD)
p. 049
  1. valuable items of exchange (trade) spices,
    diamonds, sapphires, gold, and pearls
  2. caravan routes that crisscrossed central Asia
    were known as Silk Roads
  3. traders used coastal routes around the rim of the
    Arabian Sea and up the Persian Gulf to bring
    goods to Rome
  4. increased trade led to the rise of banking in
    India
  5. traders spread religions to regions

39
Silk Road
40
China
p. 51-55
41
Warring States Period (475-221 BC)
p. 051
1. Dynasties discussed so far a. Xia
(2100-1600 BC) b. Shang (1600-1046
BC) c. Zhou (1045-256 BC) 2. The warring
states period took place during the last two
centuries of the Zhou Dynasty a. a time
period when seven powerful states were fighting
for control of all of China
42
Warring States Period (475-221 BC)
43
Confucius (Warring States Period)
p. 051
Key to social harmony and good government 1. Chin
a if society was organized around five basic
relationships 1) ruler and subject, 2) father
and son, 3) husband and wife, 4) older brother
and younger brother, and 5) friend and friend
44
Confucius (Warring States Period)
p. 051
Filial piety respect for parents and
elders 1. his students collected his words in a
book called the Analects
Confucius on Respect Respect yourself and
others will respect you Honesty Virtue is
more to man than either water or fire. I have
seen men die from treading on water and fire, but
I have never seen a man die from treading the
course of virtue. Effort It does not matter
how slowly you go so long as you do not
stop History Study the past if you would
define the future
45
Confucius (Warring States Period)
p. 051
  • Government
  • bureaucracy a trained civil service, or those
    who run the government
  • stressed education as a way for career
    advancement in the bureaucracy

Less than 9th Grade 9th -12th grade High school completion Some College, no degree Associate's Degree Bacelor's Degree Master's Degree Doctorate
Men 27,964 33,435 43,165 50,359 54,861 82,197 99,516 129,773
Women 21,346 21,937 31,533 35,888 39,948 54,204 65,039 83,762
46
Daoism (Warring States Period)
p. 051
  • Founder Laozi
  • Key to social harmony
  • Natural order was more important than the social
    order
  • human beings should live simply and in harmony
    with nature

47
Legalism (Warring States Period)
p. 051
  • Founders Hanfeizi and Li Si
  • Keys to Social Harmony and Good Goverment
  • believed a highly efficient and powerful
    government is the key to social order
  • punishment over rewards
  • rulers should burn all writings that might
    encourage people to think critically about
    government

48
Yin and Yang (Warring States Period)
p. 051
  • 1. represent the natural rhythms of life the
    two opposing forces of nature
  • 2. yin cool, dark, female and submissive
  • yang warm, light, male and aggressive
  • Symbol is often used for Daoism

49
World History I
Mr. Newman Coach Curtis
  • Closing Activity
  • DIRECTIONS On page 59, in the third row, answer
    the following questions in complete sentences
  • According to Hinduism and Buddhism, what is the
    reality of suffering, and how can a person end
    suffering?
  • .

50
Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC)
p. 053
  • Government
  • the first ruler was Shi Huangdi, a Legalist (the
    first emperor of a united China)
  • autocracy a government in which the ruler has
    unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary
    manner
  • commanded all the noble families to live at the
    capital city
  • a. seized their land and carved China up into
    36 administrative districts
  • 4. murdered hundreds of Confucian scholars and
    ordered useless books burned

51
Warring States Period (475-221 BC)
52
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53
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54
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55
Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC)
p. 053
  • Accomplishments
  • build a highway network of over 4,000 miles
  • set uniform standards for Chinese writing
  • built/connected the Great Wall of China(p. 100)
    to defend against attacks by nomadic invaders
  • a. 1,400 miles long, built along the tops of
    hills and mountains

56
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57
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58
Great Wall from Space
59
Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD)
p. 053
  • Important Leaders
  • Wudi brought the Han Dynasty to its height in
    power
  • established a centralized government

60
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61
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62
Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD)
p. 053
  • Civil Service System
  • Series of exams to pass in order to work for the
    government
  • worked so well it continued in China until 191
  • highly valued all Confucian teachings

63
Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD)
p. 053
  • Accomplishments/Trade items
  • paper was invented in 105 AD
  • established the Silk Road which linked China to
    Rome, Europe and the Middle East
  • traded silk, paper and porcelain for gold,
    glassware and wool
  • to unify the empire, the Chinese government
    encouraged assimilation, or the process of making
    conquered peoples part of the Chinese culture

64
Silk Road
65
Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD) Song Dynasty(960-1279
AD)
An Era of Chinese Prosperity
p. 053
  • Science and Technology
  • Period of intense growth
  • with movable type, a printer could arrange blocks
    of individual characters in a frame to make up a
    page for printing
  • the development of gunpowder led to the creation
    of explosive weapons such as bombs, grenades,
    small rockets and cannons
  • other important inventions included porcelain,
    the mechanical clock, paper money, and the use of
    the magnetic compass

66
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67
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68
Movable Type
69
Gunpowder
70
Porcelain and Compass
71
Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD) Song Dynasty(960-1279
AD)
An Era of Chinese Prosperity
p. 055
Agriculture 1. in about the year 1000, China
imported a fast ripening rice that allowed
farmers to harvest two rice crops, rather than
one
72
Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD) Song Dynasty(960-1279
AD)
An Era of Chinese Prosperity
p. 055
  • Trade and Foreign Contacts
  • Tang imperial armies guarded the Silk Road
  • During the Song period, China developed into the
    greatest sea power in the world
  • one major cultural export was Buddhism (their
    religion)
  • the Chinese became avid tea drinkers and producers

73
Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD) Song Dynasty(960-1279
AD)
An Era of Chinese Prosperity
p. 055
  • The Golden Age of Art
  • the Tang produced great poetry
  • painting of this era shows a Daoist influence
  • artists did not use bright colors black ink was
    their favorite paint

74
Closing Activity
  • Closing Activity
  • DIRECTIONS On page 60, in the first row, answer
    the following question in complete sentences
  • Please describe some of the accomplishments, and
    innovations of the Gupta empire.

75
Civil Service System
p. 055
1. the most important avenue for social
advancement 2. a new larger upper class emerged,
made up scholar officials and their families
called the gentry 3. the exams were open to all
men, however only the wealthy could afford the
necessary education 4. created a remarkably
intelligent and capable governing class in China
76
Chinese Women
p. 055
1. women had always been subservient to men in
Chinese society 2. upper class womens status
especially declined during the Tang and Song
periods 3. foot binding was a custom for women
that began during this time (Song Dynasty) and
lasted into the 1900s women with bound feet
were crippled for life, but reflected the wealth
and prestige of her husband
77
Foot Binding
78
Persia
p. 57
79
Cyrus the Great
p. 057
Location of Cyruss Empire 1. Persians were
descendents of the Indo-Europeans 2. from 550 to
539 B.C., Cyrus conquered the entire Fertile
Crescent(p. 92) and most of Anatolia(p. 92)
80
Cyrus the Great
p. 057
  • Method of Governing
  • most known for this
  • he was kind towards conquered people
  • a. allowed the Jews(p. 92) to return to
    Jerusalem
  • Honored local customs and traditions - would
    kneel and pray at local temples instead of
    destroying them
  • Conquered peoples enjoyed remarkable freedoms

81
Darius the Great
p. 057
  • expanded the Persian empire to include everything
    from Egypt to India (2,500 miles wide)
  • his only failure was he could not conquer Greece
  • Dariuss greatest genius lay in administration
  • divided the empire into 20 provinces, each was
    governed by a satrap
  • two other tools that helped hold the empire
    together were
  • a. an excellent road system the Royal Road ran
    from Susa to Sardis (1,677 miles)
  • b. the use of standard money, which helped
    promote trade

82
Darius
83
Religion Zoroaster (Zoroastrianism)
p. 057
Basic Beliefs 1. the world was divided between
good (truth) and evil (darkness) 2. good was led
by Ahura Mazda and bad was led by
Ahriman a. followers of Ahura Mazda would be
lifted into paradise b. followers of Ahriman
would suffer forever in a fiery pit
84
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85
Religion Zoroaster (Zoroastrianism)
p. 057
Writings 1. the holy writings of Zoroastrianism
were collected in books called the
Avesta 2. developed the ideas about heaven, hell
and a final judgment a. similar concepts in
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
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