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Sustainability and Globalization

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Title: Sustainability and Globalization


1
Sustainabilityand Globalization
  • Global Warming

2
Global Warming
  • A global issue with regards to sustainability
  • A world-wide warming of the Earths lower
    atmosphere.

3
Definitions
  • Climate The long term average weather for an
    area Months, years, centuries.

4
Definitions
  • Climate The long term average weather for an
    area Months, years, centuries.
  • Weather the state of atmospheric conditions
    over a short period of time Hours or days.

5
Climate Control
  • Orbital factors - Milankovitch
  • Reflectivity of Earths surface (Albedo)
  • Solar radiation
  • Volcanic activity
  • Ocean currents
  • Atmospheric composition

6
Climate Control
  • Orbital factors - Milankovitch cycles

7
Milankovitch cycles
  • Amount of heat reaching earth from the sun
    varies due to
  • Eccentricity - 100,000 yrs

8
Fig. 18.39 a-c
Eccentricity
Tilt
  • W. W. Norton

Precession
9
Milankovitch cycles
  • Amount of heat reaching earth from the sun
    varies due to
  • Eccentricity - 100,000 yrs
  • Earths tilt - 41,000 yrs

10
Fig. 18.39 a-c
Eccentricity
Tilt
  • W. W. Norton

Precession
11
Milankovitch cycles
  • Amount of heat reaching earth from the sun
    varies due to
  • Eccentricity - 100,000 yrs
  • Earths tilt - 41,000 yrs
  • Precession - 23,000 yrs

12
Fig. 18.39 a-c
Eccentricity
Tilt
  • W. W. Norton

Precession
13
Milankovitch cycles
  • Amount of heat reaching earth from the sun
    varies due to
  • Eccentricity - 100,000 yrs
  • Earths tilt - 41,000 yrs
  • Precession - 23,000 yrs
  • Overall temperature effect /-4C

14
Fig. 18.39 d
  • W. W. Norton

15
Climate Control
  • Orbital factors - Milankovitch
  • Reflectivity of Earths surface (Albedo)

16
Reflectivity of Earths Surface (Abedo)
17
Reflectivity
  • Suns heat may be reflected back out -thus not
    absorbed by Earth.

18
Reflectivity
  • Suns heat may be reflected back out -thus not
    absorbed by Earth.
  • Albedo the degree of reflectivity

19
Reflectivity
  • Suns heat may be reflected back out -thus not
    absorbed by Earth.
  • Albedo the degree of reflectivity
  • Albedo increases with
  • Increased cloud cover
  • Increased snow cover
  • Increased aerosols in atmosphere

20
Climate Control
  • Orbital factors - Milankovitch
  • Reflectivity of Earths surface (Albedo)
  • Solar radiation

21
Solar radiation
  • Fluctuates with sunspot activity
  • Increases in sunspots increased energy
    production of sun.
  • Sunspot cycle is 9 to 11.5 years

22
Fig. 19.13 a
  • Courtesy of SOHO/MDI consortium. SOHO is a
    project of international cooperation between ESA
    and NASA

23
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24
Climate Control
  • Orbital factors - Milankovitch
  • Reflectivity of Earths surface (Albedo)
  • Solar radiation
  • Volcanic Activity

25
Volcanic Activity
  • Sulfur dioxide gas is ejected into the
    stratosphere,
  • Combines with water to form an aerosol (mist) of
    sulfuric acid
  • Blocks in coming solar radiation
  • Cools Earth

26
Climate Control
  • Orbital factors - Milankovitch
  • Reflectivity of Earths surface (Albedo)
  • Solar radiation
  • Volcanic Activity
  • Ocean currents

27
Ocean currents
  • Important system that moves cold and warm water.
  • Can redistribute heat on earths surface

28
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29
Climate Control
  • Milankovitz cycles
  • Reflectivity of Earths surface (Albedo)
  • Solar radiation
  • Volcanic activity
  • Ocean currents
  • Atmospheric composition

30
Atmospheric composition
  • Greenhouse gases
  • Carbon dioxide, methane, CFCs, water vapor

31
Atmospheric composition
  • Greenhouse gases
  • Carbon dioxide, methane, CFCs, water vapor
  • Earth has a natural Greenhouse Effect
  • Warmer than moon

32
Atmospheric composition
  • Greenhouse gases
  • Carbon dioxide, methane, CFCs, water vapor
  • Earth has a Greenhouse Effect
  • Warmer than moon
  • Past record shows correlation between composition
    and temperatures.

33
Why does CO2 Matter?
  • Greenhouse Effect
  • Naturally occurs
  • CO2 holds Earths heat in

34
The greenhouse effect
  • The Sun radiates UV energy towards Earth.
  • One third of that Ultraviolet energy is simply
    reflected away from the Earth.
  • But the rest is absorbed by the Earth.
  • In response, the Earth radiates IR energy.
  • This Infrared energy is also known as heat.

35
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36
The greenhouse effect
  • Gas molecules in the Earths atmosphere absorb
    the heat (IR energy) that the Earth radiates.
  • These gases are known as greenhouse gases.
  • The gases then re-emit the IR energy back down
    towards the Earth, warming the atmosphere.

37
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38
Why does CO2 Matter?
  • Greenhouse Effect
  • Naturally occurs
  • CO2 holds Earths heat in
  • Amount of CO2 in atmosphere has increased over
    past 150 years

39
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40
Where does CO2 come from?
  • Short term carbon cycling occurs between plants,
    animals and the atmosphere through respiration.
  • Long term cycling occurs when the plant or animal
    remains are buried with sediments in the crust
    and cannot decay.

41
Where does CO2 come from?
  • Long term cycling occurs when the plant or animal
    remains are buried with sediments in the crust
    and cannot decay.
  • Some of these remains become fossil fuels
  • Coal, oil, gas

42
Where does CO2 come from?
  • Burning carbon-based fuel (fossil fuels)
    produces Carbon Dioxide (CO2) fossil fuel
    O2 Heat energy H2O CO2

43
Carbon-based fuels (fossil fuels)
  • Provide gt 40 worlds energy needs
  • Provides 90 of worlds transportation needs.
  • Also used to make plastic, paint, nylon,
    synthetic rubber, fertilizer.

44
How do we know the CO2 comes from humans burning
fossils fuels?
  • Climate models
  • Scientists use what we know about the controls on
    climate to reproduce the record of past
    temperatures.
  • Then look at which controls influence it the most.

45

Record of past temperatures
46
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47

Results of Climate Models for last 1000 yrs
  • Solar and volcanic forcing have been responsible
    for some of the variations in Northern Hemisphere
    temperature over the past 1000 years.

48

Results of Climate Models for last 1000 yrs
  • Neither solar nor volcanic influence can explain
    the dramatic warming of the late 20th century.
  • Influences of solar or volcanic effects during
    the 20th century would actually have resulted in
    a small cooling since 1960.

49

Results of Climate Models for last 1000 yrs
  • Only by adding the human-caused increase in
    greenhouse gas concentrations are the models able
    to explain the unprecedented warmth of the late
    20th century.

50
IPCC Intergovern-mental Panel on
Climate Change
51

Results of Climate Models for last 1000 yrs
  • The rate of increase of CO2 into the atmosphere
    has been very fast, and the natural cycles have
    not kept up with it.

52
Climate Models
53
Which factor is causing current increase in
global temperature?
  • NOAA Paleoclimate group
  • http//www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/globalwarming/model
    ing.html
  • Climate Models
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